Opiate Addiction Annotated Bibliography
Lincoln T, Johnson BD, Mccarthy P, Alexander E. Extended-release naltrexone for opioid use
disorder started during or following incarceration. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2017.04.002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28479011
The article studies the outcomes of a possible procedure for people incarcerated due to addiction to opioids. In the article, the authors used an experiment whereby 67 jail releases with opioid dependence took part. Out of the 67 participants, 47 received XR-NTX before their release while the other 20 received it after their release. The study outcomes were to be used to assist the people incarcerated due to opioid addictions to lead opioid-free lives. According to the study results, the group initiated to extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) before release from incarceration centers displayed a higher treatment retention rate than the group that began treatment after release. The study results proofed the assumption that starting treatment before release from incarceration centers benefits opioid addicts. The study also recorded negative and positive benefits including the deaths that occurred during the study period. The aim was to identify the reality of the treatment method and its reliability in treating opioid addicts.
In my discussion, I noted that nothing was done to address the deaths due to opioid addictions and their possibilities despite their continued occurrence. However, the study experiment, if implemented could decrease opioid overdose deaths. The research study changed my opinion about opioid addictions. For instance, I was unaware that the many deaths resulting from opioid addictions and overdoses could be stopped by using the XR-NTX treatment method before jail releases. I maintain that the study was conducted appropriately and its outcomes seem reliable from the recordings in figure 4.8 and 28 weeks after the release of participants. I believe the study could have been improved only if the researchers used a bigger study population to record outcomes. The information gathered from this study could be useful to my audience, practitioners, because the treatment may be successful outside of jails in the case of high patient supervision.
Sordo L, Barrio G, Bravo MJ, et al. Mortality risk during and after opioid substitution treatment:
systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Bmj. 2017. doi:10.1136/bmj.j1550. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28446428
The authors conducted this study “to compare the risk and cause of overdose mortality in people with opioid dependence during and after substitution treatment with methadone or buprenorphine.” The study also aimed to identify the trends in the risk of mortality after the beginning and the end of a treatment period. For this study, two reviewers extracted and assessed data. Mortality rates during and after methadone or buprenorphine treatment were combined using a meta-analysis. Results from the induction phase of methadone treatment reported that from the time after leaving treatment with methadone and buprenorphine and starting the substituted treatment method, mortality risks increased. As a result, the authors concluded that the findings could play an important role in the treatment process. They, however, pointed that further research studies could account for potential confounding and selection bias comparisons of mortality risks between opioid substitutions and the start and the end of each treatment period. The article suggests treatment of addiction to opioids using methadone and buprenorphine may not succeed as some healthcare providers originally thought. The data put together and assessed in a meta-analysis proved that there existed periods of very high mortality rates that public health and clinical strategies must address. The source provided a new perspective for using methadone and buprenorphine as a treatment option. It also proved that the support and advice needed throughout and after treatment were wrongly placed, leading to many preventable deaths. The data supported the conclusion I made in my essay about the need for more support strategies for this treatment option and the significance of educating healthcare providers.