All species of animal life apply cognitive skills to survive and no adaptation should be considered better than the other. These articles focused on exploring a bottom up perspective regarding cognition with special comparison to the apes and humans. The authors cited impacts of cognition upon learning language through speech between apes and humans. Apes could not interpret language through a speech mechanism. However, when gestures were used they understood that language sequence (de Waal & Ferrari, 2010) (Savage-Rumbaugh, Rumbaugh and Boysen, 1980).