The Romanesque Architecture

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the innovative and decorative architectural
monuments constructed by the Normans from Normandy, who invaded France in the 10th
century and settled down to stay in the 11th. The paper is based on the information from the
textbooks which highlights the immaculate designs, solid geometric coordination in the designs
and developments of the Durham Cathedral, Abbey Church of Cluny II and III, which represents
the vertical expression of high Romanesque architecture, which totally differs from the previous
Architecture in the European culture. The content is based on various designs and its finely
constructed building features which provide an insight to the revolution to the old and traditional
European buildings.


Architecture Personal Statement

I have always enjoyed travelling because it doesn’t only expand your thinking horizon through exposure to other cultures but also enhances your creative potential. Whenever I visit other countries, I often take notes of the exterior and interior architecture. Over the years, I have observed that while exterior architecture usually attracts more attention, interior architecture is usually more challenging because of greater possibilities as well as variations in individual tastes. This is why I have decided to pursue my Masters in Architecture because it will provide me with greater creative room in both exterior and interior architecture.


Early-Age Smoking

The problem I have chosen to identify is that of early-age smoking, specifically the smoking of tobacco cigarettes. My thesis is that young smokers are more affected psychologically by smoking than adult smokers are.[*]

The idea of smoking at all is, at first thought, so obviously a bad one that most people wouldn’t do it even if tobacco were free. That one must also pay well for the stuff makes the practice seem all the more an affront to common sense, especially since the physical effects of smoking are so well known scientifically and so widely publicized. We need not be physicians to know that inhaling smoke into one’s mouth, throat, esophagus, and lungs just cannot be a good idea, not even once. But to do it regularly would seem to be deliberate suicide. When confronting the practice for the first time as children, we ask ourselves: will I or won’t I? Why then does anybody say I will? The reason must be that they think they see some kind of benefit.


Seeing, Understanding, and Architecture: An Armenian Example

Table of Contents

Seeing, Understanding, and Architecture: An Armenian Example. 1

Etymological Development of the Concepts. 3

Seeing as an Architectural Concept 3

Understanding as an Architectural Concept 4

Defining Architecture. 5

Etymological Summary. 6

Discussion. 7

Seeing as a Form of Communication. 7

Understanding as a Form of Communication. 9

Architecture as a Form of Communication. 10

Defining Architecture in the Context of Seeing & Understanding. 12

Example of Armenian Architecture: The Etchmiadzin Cathedral 13

Seeing & Understanding the Etchmiadzin Cathedral 16

Conclusions: 21

Builders Impression of the concepts seeing, understanding and architecture. 21

Lessons from the Etchmiadzin Cathedral 22

Notes. 23

Bibliography. 1


Paper Recycling


In recycling systems, three chasing arrows are used, and these symbols reflect on the elements associated to the system, which encompass buying, collection and processing recycled content products (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2009, p.24). Recycling paper is an important exercise carried out in San Diego because people understand the importance of recycling. Recycling leads to the making of the new paper and is a common practice undertaken by the United States of America. There are some papers that cannot be recycled, for example, waxed corrugated cardboard food containers, therefore; they are shredded for use as building installation, compost and animal bedding. In this persuasive essay, the aim is to bring out the importance of recycling paper and show how the University of San Diego has contributed. From the report, it is important to give an overview of how San Diego started and why; the views and opinions of other authors; the methods implemented in achieving successful recycling; and the conclusion.


Contextual studies (literature review)

In architectural design, symbols and ornamentation are key elements that are used to demonstrate the ideas of wealth or power. For many years, these elements have created a true definition of what a culture sees as important (Crouch & Johnson, 2001). However, in the last century, these two elements have vastly divided architects in ways they design buildings. Some of the architects cited them as obsolete and insignificant elements impeding cultural development. In contrast, other practitioners describe symbol and ornamentation to be necessary for communicating societal ideas. Several studies have been written over the course of the last century regarding the relevance and irrelevance of the two elements in the context of architectural design. For example, in 1977, Charles Jencks wrote a book titled The Language of Post-Modern Architecture during the period in which architectural ideas were being massively challenged (Jencks et al., 1977). In most part of his book, Jencks indicate that postmodernism architecture has alienated the architects their ideas to develop better designs (Jencks, 2002). He argues that using less decorative elements such as symbols as well as architectural aesthetic makes a design lose its meaning and create confusion of what it is communicating (Broadbent, Bunt and Jencks, 1980). He uses Mies Van Der Rohe to support his argument that use of modern elements “fetishized the impoverished use of I-Beams and plate glass’ (pg.15) meaning they are completely overlooked; hence, raising the question of decorum and appropriateness. Although he is not a supporter of postmodernism, Jencks argues that modern architecture needs to be diverse in regards to its use of styles in different locations and situations.