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Art

The Rebirth of Art: Renaissance and Baroque

Chapter Two of “The Annotated Mona Lisa” explores the historical periods known as the Renaissance and the Baroque. Artistic expression in the Middle Ages abandoned many of the traditions of the Classical period, and focused primarily on cathedrals and other architectural works that were intended to glorify God rather than the human form and the natural world. At the dawn of the Renaissance, the world “came back to life,” and artists once again began to focus on anatomical accuracy and capturing the human form and the natural world realistically and accurately. Many works of art from these historical periods reflected the rebirth of humanity’s interest in knowledge, learning and exploration.

            Leonardo Da Vinci, of Florence, Italy is one of the most well-known and respected artists of the Renaissance era. Only a small number of Da Vinci’s paintings still survive, and one of those surviving paintings is one of the most famous works of art in history: The Mona Lisa. This portrait of a young woman was painted with oil on canvas, and was “one of the first easel paintings intended to be framed and hung on a wall” (Strickland and Boswell, 2007, p.34). Da Vinci’s work on the Mona Lisa incorporated several of the new techniques seen in Renaissance-era paintings, such as the use of light and dark known as chiaroscuro and the use of linear perspective that drew all the lines on the painting to a distant point hidden by the young woman’s head. These techniques made her image appear much more lifelike than earlier, more two-dimensional techniques, were capable of doing.

            Another famous work of Michelangelo’s, and one that was done on a very different scale, is “The Last Supper,” a fresco that portrays the last meal Jesus shared with his disciples. The wall-sized mural, painted in Milan, uses perspective and chiaroscuro techniques and a pyramidal structure to place Jesus at the center of the image as all the lines converge at his head. The other figures in the image are captured in various poses that make them appear very lifelike, revealing “the fundamental character and psychological state of each apostle” (Strickland and Boswell, p.35).

            Along with these well-known works from Da Vinci the chapter covers other artists and works from the Renaissance and Baroque periods, and demonstrates that many of the contemporary elements of art as they are known today were developed in these eras. I would define many of the works of art produced during these periods as exciting new forms of artistic expression that set the standard for what it mean to be an artist, and formed the foundation of the contemporary world of art.

Works Cited

Strickland, Carol, and John Boswell. The Annotated Mona Lisa: A Crash Course in Art History, from Prehistoric to Post-Modern. Kansas City, Mo: Andrews McMeel, 2007. Print.

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Art

The Birth of Art and the Birth of Humanity

For tens of thousands of years humans have expressed themselves through works of art. Human predecessors such as the Neanderthals developed the capacity to make and use tools, but this capacity was limited to practical purposes, such as hunting. As Neanderthals were supplanted by Cro-Magnons, and later by Homo sapiens, the capacity for making and using tools was developed beyond simple practicality. These early humans and their Cro-Magnon predecessors used their tool-making capability to create paintings, sculptures, and architectural works. I see all three of these as forms of artistic expression. With the development of artistry, humans were able to express ideas and emotions that transcended the immediate physical world. Whether the form is sculpture, painting, architecture, or other more contemporary forms, art provides a means for expressing the ideas and emotions that define what it means to be human.

            Whether the form of artistic expression is a small and simple carving or a grand and elaborate architectural creation, each work captures the intention of the artists or artists, and signals to those who view it or who make use of it messages about both the individuals and the culture that produced it. One of the earliest known sculptural works that still exists today is a small carved figurine representing a stylized female form known as the Venus of Willendorf. This carving is believed to be more than 20,000 years old, and clearly shows that artists of the era were able to represent the human form in a realistic manner. This figure of a large-breasted and full-figure female is believed to represent fertility (Strickland and Boswell, 2007. p.4); my impression of this figure is that it may not only represent literal fertility associated with pregnancy and child-birth, but it may represent fertility as associated with health, vitality, and abundance. The female form is well-rounded, but she does not necessarily appear to be pregnant; she may just appear to be well-fed. In time when the challenges of life would have made it difficult for hunter-gatherers to always maintain a steady food supply, it may have been unlikely that many actual women would develop such proportions. In that sense, then, this figure might have represented an ideal, rather than serving as a realistic depiction of the human form.

            From the palm-sized fertility idol the Roman Colosseum, works of art have assumed countless forms, shapes, and sizes. The Colosseum was built for the practical purposes of hosting gladiatorial combat and other events, but it was not designed solely with such practical purposes in mind. While the Colosseum’s design was remarkably efficient, and allowed tens of thousands of people to quickly enter and exit the building (Strickland and Boswell, 2007, p.18), it was also crafted with aesthetic beauty. The Romans developed the capacity to build arches and other architectural features for a variety of uses, and I am just as impressed by the beauty and symmetry of these designs as I am by their functionality and practicality. The Colosseum uses a variety of arches in its design, serving to highlight the significance of the arch to the Romans. The Romans saw the arch as a powerful symbol, infused with “magic” (Strickland and Handy, 2001, n.p.); conquering generals returning from battle would pass through one of these magical arches to “purge themselves of hostility” (Strickland and Handy, 2001, n.p.) as they prepared to leave their military lives behind them. I cannot help but see a connection between the practical, physical strength of the Roman arches and the manner in which they resonated on an emotional level for the Romans, as if their ability to support things in the physical world was mirrored by the manner in which they supported the spiritual and magical components of the Roman culture and imagination.

            Strickland and Handy (2001, p.x) state that “the story of architecture is also the story of human history,” an assertion which only reinforces my sense that art forms such as painting and sculpture are not separate from architecture; rather, all three are simply different forms of art. If architecture is the “story of human history,” so too is the ability to carve fertility idols or paint scenes of hunting expeditions on cave walls. In each of these various forms of art, human beings have expressed their capacity to transcend the moment, and to connect with something larger than themselves. It is this capacity for transcendence that makes us, in fact, human.

Works Cited

Strickland, Carol, and John Boswell. The Annotated Mona Lisa: A Crash Course in Art History, from Prehistoric to Post-Modern. Kansas City, Mo: Andrews McMeel, 2007. Print.

Strickland, Carol, and Amy Handy. The Annotated Arch: A Crash Course in the History of Architecture. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Pub, 2001. Print.

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Art

Portraitures in the 15th Century

A portrait is typically defined as a representation of a specific individual. A portrait does not merely record the features of a person, but it also says something about who the person is, offering a true sense of the person’s presence. Portraits in the 15th century were not paintings in their own right, but instead, important symbols of Christian subjects. European portraiture in the 15th century and throughout the Renaissance took on a much more realistic nature than the paintings for the 13th and 14th century.

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Art

Discussion Post on Giotto’s Arena Chapel

Giotto, a Florentine artist from the early 14th century, is famous for his painting of various biblical scenes on the walls and ceilings of the Arena Chapel in Venito, Italy. Giotto had a new approach to realism and naturalism in painting and transformed the tiny, barrel-vaulted chamber into a theater in which the individual scenes, lit from the west and viewed from the center, appear to take place in real space. Giotto’s work was much more realistic and three dimensional, using the gestures and positions of the figures to add to the realism of the work. This was a new shift for paintings of the time and was much more representational and realistic than works painted previously- the Arena Chapel is Giotto’s most famous work for good reason.

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Art

MMA Art Gallery

A Dutch painter, Hendrick Sorgh painted A Kitchen circa 1643 or more than three centuries ago. This painting is only available for view online (Sorgh) and not in the museum’s art gallery featuring European artists. The medium is oil on wood. The painting depicts two women working in the kitchen who may be mother and a daughter. The only hint that the mother and daughter duo is in a kitchen is the fact that they are making preparations for making a meal.

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Art

Mobile/Viral Video Production Company

Background:

            The industry of mobile creation has reached its peak status in relation to the manner by which the gadget industry has surged during these years. It could be understood that somehow, it is because of this trend in the market that companies like Mobile/Viral make a great impact on how the development of the trend takes a sense of advancement through time depending on how the market responds to the said change of culture in utilizing videos. For this particular presentation, a suggestion on how the company could boost their way of marketing the videos they create shall be given particular attention to.

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Art

ANDY WARHOL: AN ARTISTIC LIFE

According to Arthur C. Danto, the American artistic revolution that occurred in the early to middle years of the 1960’s would not have been possible without Andy Warhol who through his artistic output achieved historical importance as a true American artistic icon. This iconic status was mostly based on the content, themes, and motifs of Warhol’s art which “drew directly from. . . the forms of life lived by Americans” in relation to food, music, the movies, and mass culture. 1

In this respect, Andy Warhol was responsible for creating a new sub-genre of American art, most often referred to as “Pop Art,” such as shown through his numerous paintings, drawings, and prints of common, ordinary objects and famous and infamous persons that most Americans can recognize almost immediately. But what most Americans and foreign art critics remember best about Andy Warhol is his odd lifestyle which in many ways symbolized the true American non-conformist genius.

Since the life and times of Andy Warhol is so complex and exhaustive, we will only focus on those aspects of his biography that pertain to his art, his artistic approaches, and his paintings and prints that best illustrate his remarkable career. As noted by the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Andrew Warhola, born on August 6, 1928 in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, remains today as “one of the most influential figures in contemporary art and culture,” and although his life came to a rather tragic end in 1987, his life and work continues to inspire “creative thinkers worldwide, thanks to his

enduring imagery, his artfully cultivated celebrity, and the ongoing research of dedicated

____________________

  1. Andy Warhol (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009), x.

 

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scholars.” 2

Perhaps for most Americans, Warhol is best remembered for a pithy saying that turned out to be quite accurate–“Everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes,” 3 a

reference to the mass media which during Warhol’s latter years as an artist was just beginning to infiltrate every aspect of American culture and which today has made it possible for “everyone” to be famous via the Internet and especially YouTube. But as an artist, Warhol’s “omnivorous curiosity resulted in an enormous body of work that spanned every available medium” and which helped to lower the wall between “high art” and its opposite, namely, commercialized and popular “low art.” 4

                  Not surprisingly, Warhol came from a very humble background as the youngest of three sons. His parents, Andrej and Julia Warhola, were immigrants from Czechoslovakia and like so many of their European contemporaries that passed through Ellis Island in the early 1920’s were desperately poor. As Joanne Mattern relates, the Warhola family resided in a tiny house that lacked indoor plumbing; Mr. Warhola worked as a miner in the coal fields of Pennsylvania, while Mrs. Warhola “cleaned houses and made metal flowers out of tin cans” for extra household money. She also spent considerable time with young Andy drawing pictures which might have influenced him as an artist and his penchant for non-masculine artistic themes and images. 5

____________________

  1. “The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.” 2013. May 6, 2013. www.warholfoundation.org.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Andy Warhol (Edina, MN: ABDO Publishing Company, 2005), 8.

 

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Warhol’s first encounter with the world of art occurred in 1945 when he attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology where he majored in pictorial design or the graphic arts. After graduating, he relocated to New York City and quickly found “steady work as a commercial artist working as an illustrator for several magazines” like Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, and the prestigious New Yorker. Warhol also was involved in advertising and created “window displays for retail stores such as Bonwit Teller and I. Miller. 6

By the early 1950’s, Warhol had been recognized for his artistic inclinations which resulted in his first solo art exhibition in 1952 at the Hugo Gallery with “Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote.” At about the same time, he began to incorporate photo-based techniques in his paintings which then led to a showing of his art at the Museum of Modern Art in 1956. 7

By the late 1950’s, Warhol had established himself as a gifted artist and decided to make New York City his permanent home and as the location for his studio. As Danto points out, this period in Warhol’s artistic career has been called by many as the “Birth of Andy Warhol,” meaning that it represented “a set of changes in Warhol’s identity” and as the “breakthrough” by which he became an icon.” 8 These changes in Warhol’s identity as an artist and as a human being were timed perfectly, for he was now ready to enter an artistic period unlike any other before or since–the 1960’s which truly “ignited an ____________________

  1. Andy Warhol: Paintings, Biography, Chronology, Quotes. 2013. May 6, 2013.

www.andywarhol.net.

  1. “The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.”
  2. Danto, 1.

 

 

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impressive and wildly prolific time in Warhol’s life.” 9

For anyone who is familiar with Warhol as an artist during the 1960’s, this period “saw the production of many of his most iconic works” and served as the proverbial door for the creation of “Pop Art” through which Warhol utilized “everyday consumer objects as subjects” for his paintings. Perhaps the most famous is the iconic Campbell’s soup cans which Warhol once remarked was done because he “wanted to paint nothing. I was looking for something that was the essence of nothing, and that was it.” Soon after, other iconic images that are now part of the Warhol staple of artistic renditions came along, such as his montages of the doomed Hollywood actress Marilyn Monroe, American dollar signs (a metaphor for American capitalism and consumerism), and the Coca Cola bottles which exemplified mass consumerism and the American corporate world. 10

In the early to mid 1960’s, Warhol exploded as an American artist and non-conformist icon of the “Pop Art” world. Some of his most memorable and recognized artistic creations of this time included “box sculptures” of the traditional Brillo Pads and Heinz Ketchup boxes; he also commenced to work in completely divergent areas, such as record producing with the rock band the Velvet Underground, headed by guitarist and poet Lou Reed, magazine publishing, and avant garde filmmaking with titles like Chelsea Girls, Blow Job, and Empire which today are seen as classics of the avant garde movement. However, in 1968, Warhol’s life took a turn for the worse when Valerie Solanis, “a periodic Warhol Factory visitor and sole member of SCUM (Society for

____________________

  1. “The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.”
  2. Ibid.

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Cutting Up Men) walked into the Factory and shot Warhol.” Fortunately, Warhol survived this attempt on his life which may have played a major role in his physical health which continued to deteriorate for the next twenty years. 11

Despite being shot and almost dying, Andy Warhol remained active as an artist and American iconoclast. Ironically, the almost fatal attempt on his life at the age of forty served as a springboard for his “cunning ability to seamlessly infiltrate the worlds of fashion, music, media, and celebrity.” 12 In effect, Warhol became the American symbol for popular culture by utilizing his vast powers as an artist to express himself in a wide range of genres and styles.

Along with serving as the editor-in-chief and publisher of Interview Magazine, Warhol appeared on some popular American TV programs like Love Boat and in the mid 1970’s was one of the first artists to incorporate computers into his artistic creations. He was also commissioned to do album covers for the rock band the Rolling Stones and other popular bands of the 1970’s. Truly, Warhol’s expansive imagination and influence in pop culture knew no bounds, for he also co-produced several short films for the ever-popular TV show Saturday Night Live and produced Andy Warhol’s Fifteen Minutes and Andy Warhol’s TV which appeared on MTV. At this time, some of Warhol’s most popular artistic works included a series of drawings and silk screens known Skulls, Guns, Camouflage, Mao, and The Last Supper. 13 One of these works, a screenprint on white

____________________

  1. Andy Warhol: Paintings, Biography, Chronology, Quotes.
  2. “The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.”
  3. Ibid.

 

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paper, was simply called Flowers which harkens back to the days when young Andy drew pictures of flowers with his mother in Pittsburgh while skipping school for almost two years.

In 1987 at the age of fifty-nine, Andy Warhol died as a result of gall bladder surgery at New York Hospital. Although it has never been confirmed, Warhol’s death was certainly linked to the attempt on his life in 1968 which left him unable to work as an artist for several years. Also, Warhol was by his nature a frail and delicate person, much like the flowers he drew on so many occasions for his friends and admirers. As of today, the city of Pittsburgh, the place of his birth in 1928, has established the Andy Warhol Museum, and as the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts notes, “through the ongoing efforts of (this) institution, Andy Warhol remains not only a fascinating cultural icon, but an inspiration to new generations of artists” on a global scale and stands today as perhaps the quintessential symbol of American ingenuity and non-conformity. 14

                  Recall that pithy saying about everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes? Andy Warhol had much to say about being famous, not only as an artist but also as a human being. In The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: A to B and Back Again, Warhol makes the following observation–“Being famous isn’t all that important. If I weren’t famous, I wouldn’t have been shot for being Andy Warhol. A good reason to be famous though is so you can read all the big magazines and know everybody in the stories.” 15 Thus, even

____________________

  1. Ibid.
  2. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Inc., 1975), 78.

 

 

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though Andy Warhol did not think much of being famous, he nonetheless is today and shall remain so for many decades to come.

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Art

Work of Art

Pablo Picasso.

Three Musicians

Cubisim

The work of art was observed at the New York Museum of Modern Art. The surroundings around the artwork are perfect compliments to the piece of art in that they are painted in colors that complement those used in the artwork. The colors are a soft shadow of blue and brown colors, which almost match those in the painting. The walls next to the one this art work is hung are filled with musical works thus setting the musical mood such that once an individual gets to this particular piece he is swayed by it hence easier understanding of its presentation.

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Art

Art History Response

2.Important historical events and/or cultural developments are often cited as the impetus for artistic change (style, subject matter, etc.) Discuss this statement for four historical periods, using specific examples to support your argument.

Art, often called as the mirror of the human soul, has long been used by artists to define the community that they are living in reference to how they actually interpret the matters that occur around them during specific eras in history. It is assumed then that the turn of events in history has relatively become a source of inspiration as artists strive to make a name in the field that recognizes their talent as well as the means of their self-expression. This fact could be seen as each form of art makes a mark on how a stylistic approach to a particular piece of art could be identified by the different elements existing in the community’s environment during the time when such approaches to artistic art have been formed.

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Realism 1848-1860

Realism, in the history of art, represents a revolution, not only in terms of subject matter, but in terms of style. Here, both form and content are radically transformed by the inclination towards portraying reality as it is. Obviously, the cynic here could interject and suggest: how does someone know what is real, what point of view about reality is the artist talking about when he or she portrays a work in a “realistic” sense? The answer, especially in terms of nineteenth century realism, and more specifically the period from 1848-1860, is that realism looks to the everyday surrounding world for its subject matter and its inspiration in style and technique: the artist must dedicate him or herself to the quotidian and the mundane, taking motivation from everyday people that one encounters and everyday landscapes that one inhabits.

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Art

The Life and Works of Antoni Gaudi

Antoni Gaudi was born in Catalonia in June of 1952. The exact area where he was born is not exactly known for sure, because Gaudi himself sometimes gave different answers to the question. Some of his papers, like the records of his baptism in the Catholic Church, say that Gaudi was born in the town of Reus, but he also sometimes said he had been born in Riudoms, where his father had a workshop. Two of Gaudi’s siblings died before reaching adulthood, and he had a brother and a sister that survived. Gaudi came from a long line of craftsmen and artisans, and it was no surprise that he followed in his father’s footsteps and showed that he was interested in woodwork, carpentry, and many other crafts at a young age. Gaudi would grow up to be a well-known architect with a reputation for taking an unusual approach to his work. His religious faith was an important part of his life, and many of Gaudi’s works show the significant influence of his Roman Catholic background.

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Art

Futurism Movement in 1909-1914

Introduction

The early twentieth century art movement known as The Futurism Art Movement is considered an Italian Art movement. The development of the types of art in this era was the direct response to other artistic movements. This movement celebrated technology, speed, violence, modernity, and youth. In many ways, it glorified war and supported Fascism. The Futurism movement covered many areas like, paintings, architecture, literature, textiles, ceramics, theatre, film, and industrial design. Futurism is viewed as a direct contrast to Romanticism. Futurists love machines, noise, speed, pollution, and city life. They embraced the new unknown world of technological advances in the twentieth century. The most influential personality of the Futuristic Art Movement was Flippo Tommaso Marinetti. He is credited with launching the movement when he published an article that expressed his passion about some ideals that many people were not embracing at the time. In addition to their manifestos, Futurists also organized meetings, performed absurdities, many of which ended in riots. Early Futurists had hoped that this movement would lead to an international revolution, but the move only thrived in Italy until the late 1940s. The futurists had hoped that this movement would influence social thinking in culmination to the arts. Nonetheless, its influence was only prominent in Russia, Germany, and Great Britain. The Futuristic Art Movement had a great impact on literature, music, visual arts, design, cinema, and theatre and can still be observed today.

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Art

Michelangelo

Michelangelo

Often considered to be one of the greatest artists who ever lived, Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simon was proficient in sculpture, architecture and painting.  he also composed poetry and worked on logistics and engineering projects. Due to his many talents Michelangelo is generally considered to be one of the most significant and influential contributors to the  Italian Renaissance which took place in the 16th century in Italy. The facts that are known about Michelangelo’s life emerge from the fact that he not only participated in vast array of business activities, but wrote extensive letters.  The letters, even more so than the official documents and inventories that have survived through the centuries allow historians to gauge the great artist’s character as well as note the vents of his life.

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Art

Art: Its Development and Its Connection to the Society

Reading Response and Analysis

Through the years of human history, art has been understood as a form of human expression. Nevertheless, art has become more than just a sense of expression of self; it has slowly become a specific mirror to the society. Artists have been given the chance to present how they understand the society through art. Relatively, this has actually brought about the sense of using art as an analysis of the society through the years. In the writing Stephen Eisenman entitled Manet and the Impressionists, he tries to focus on Manet and the art work he has created. In his writing he points out that somehow the expressions of Manet have been receiving criticisms from impressionists as they think that somehow, the capacity of the artists to define the society has actually come over board and should likely have some limitations. Dealing with this particular argument between art and social development, the questions that are presented in this discussion shall be responded to in accordance with how art is likely to define the society and how it has been used through time by artists like Manet.