Beyond Contradiction: Exploring the work of secondary science teachers as they embed environmental education in curricula


It was made clear in the definition of the study that this study investigates the work of secondary science teachers as they embed environmental education in curricula in Northern Ontario, Canada. However, the title of the study is not completely clear. It does not clearly give the purpose of authoring and using e-learning designs for teachers. Furthermore, it does not mention the use of these designs, though in achieving the objectives of this study the use of the designs in teaching is given an equal importance as authoring.


As seen in this study, learning was perceived from a constructivist perspective. Learning is a social process of making sense of experience, constructing new representations of reality and further negotiating meaning through social activity, discourse and debate.


The prospective teachers involved in the study are fourteen prospective primary teacher participants who had completed several one-month teaching practicum in primary schools and had also completed science method subjects and seven prospective secondary teacher participants who had completed one teaching practicum and were in the process of completing their science method subjects.

Approximately one half of the 21 participants indicated they had limited experience with computers. The variables mentioned above were not taken in consideration in the study. Therefore, the findings of the study were generalized on elementary plus secondary prospective teachers and were generalized on prospective teachers who have less experience on computers plus those who have more experience.

Moreover, the study focused on science prospective teachers. Therefore it cannot be simply generalized for other domains. Prospective teachers of other domains need separate studies. The sample used in this study, 21 prospective teachers is relatively small which negatively affects reliability.

Discussion and Interpretation

The researcher used an appropriate method and study design to find answers for the problems of the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, focus group interviews, observation and collected documents and artifacts. Different ways of collecting data gave a good chance for the researcher to get valid data from the study. Through comparing the findings of different tools he was able to justify true results and reduce the interference of chance.

The researcher aims at developing trainee teachers pedagogical and science content knowledge with ICT teacher competences through involving those trainee teachers in authoring online learning designs and through using these designs during their teaching practice with small groups of school students.