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Biology

Genes to Cure Disease

These days we are seeing more and more things that often seem unreal to us. There is genetic technology, our own genes, which not only prevent us from developing certain diseases, but can also help cure us from these diseases. Our genes tell us and doctors a lot about who we are and what types of diseases we are susceptible to; however, it is the proteins in our bodies that make the largest difference. The article entitled “Blood Work” (2013) by Bill Saporito is an interesting article that explains how these proteins and genes work in order to give us all an idea of the diseases we could develop as well as how we can cure these diseases.

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Biology

Genetically Modified Plants

The presence of genetically modified crops in our society has raised many concerns and legal issues. Overall, genetically modified organisms are thought to be unhealthy and many people believe that they have right to know the origins of the food they eat. This is extremely problematic with genetically modified crops because genetically modified wheat, corn, and syrups are found in many packaged grocery products without any indication of their use. Therefore, it is essential to inform the public about how genetically modified crops are made, the situations where they are helpful, and the situations where they should be avoided.

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Biology

Baseline Characteristics of European and Non-European

Summary

The article discusses the impact of Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. In this article, the authors analyze the diagnosis of ADHD in adults, focusing on characteristics of this disease in Non-European  and Europeans adults. The primary focus is the baseline characteristics of European and non-European adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), while participating in a placebo-controlled, randomized treatment study.  This study found that there is no significant difference between European or Non-European with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and they have similar characteristics and demographics. The study changes the perception about (ADHD), which most people are afraid of what they do not understand.  The study presented the common perception that a hyperactive child in the mall or a disruptive child in school is associated with ADHD. However, the study concluded ADHD is just as prevalent in adults.  The study indicated that in the European and Non-European adults spend most of the adulthood impaired because they have gone underdiagnosed in many European countries.  However, the primary contribution is the similarities in characteristics between the ADHD adults both European and Non-European. The article explained that European adults that are left untreated for ADHD often are perceived as troublemakers unable to cope with society or lazy. However, the article raised the awareness level that ADHD is a disease that impairs the individual’s neurological system. In many the European countries, professionals working in the adult mental health field may not know that ADHD frequently persists well into adulthood. The article discusses the impairments of ADHD adults that are misunderstood by the European public. The article indicated that adults with ADHD in Europe often go untreated for ADHD, causing the adult to experience lower educational and occupational achievements. The European adults will also have problems in their daily relationships with families and close friends.

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Biology

Weight Loss (PPT)

Weight Loss

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Biology

The Silent Scream of MicroRNA

Genetic disposition can affect conditions–

they can turn visions to reality,

and even turn the key

with regards to life, strife, or physical might

weight, height, colors in sight–

genetic disposition affects perception.

Genetic silencers take aim and fire,

but only on sequences that aren’t required.

If you are looking for an influence,

micro RNA makes the difference.

These micro RNA’s run the streets

leaving behind ribosome’s

as I am making this beat–

when it comes to gene regulation,

other strains of protein better just take a seat.

These back-channel messengers are super-efficient,

completely eliminating a need for rendition.

Genetic silencers take aim and fire,

but only on sequences that aren’t required.

If you are looking for an influence,

micro RNA makes the difference.

Categories
Biology

Genetics

  1. Compare and contrast binary fission, mitosis, and meiosis. Please include a discussion of their prevalence within their domains of life and the advantages/disadvantages for each approach of cell division.

Cells can divide. In unicellular organisms, this makes more organisms. In multicellular organisms this is used for growth, development, and repair.

Binary fission is the asexual reproduction of a cell which only takes place in prokaryotes. Before this can occur, a cell must replicate its chromosome. This starts when a replication bubble opens within the DNA. There is normally only a single origin of replication, unlike that of Eukaryotes. As the bubble increases in size, the DNA strands become longer. DNA polymerase converts each of these strands into double strands and two circular chromosomes are produced. They then affix to the cell membrane, move apart, and pass into each of the daughter cells.

Categories
Biology

Research proposal article: Therapeutic microRNA Delivery Suppresses Tumorigenesis in a Murine Liver Cancer Model

Unanswered questions in this research article pertain towards underscoring the protumorigenic effects of miRNA loss-of-function; why cells were expressed at approximately equivalent levels in normal liver and tumors; reasons why miR-34a was strongly upregulated in liver tumors; what influences antitumorigenic properties and potential therapeutic utility for liver cancer in vitro and in vivo (Kota et.al, 2009)

Categories
Biology

News and Views Breakthrough in Dementia treatment-microRNA-34c

 

           Dementia has plagued the human race for centuries. According to World Health Organization reports some 36.6 million people were affected by dementia in 2010. Further, reports are that the prevalence has increased greatly with age. 5% of people over age 65 are likely to develop the abnormality; 20-40% of people between the ages of 64-85 are most likely to experience this memory dysfunction. Rates are slightly higher in women over 65 year old than men (Sadock et.al, 2006).

Dementia is characteristic of a number of other disorders affecting cognition. These include Alzheimer’s disease, vascular, frontotemporal, semantic and Lewy bodies’ dementia each type emerging from the specific part of brain function affected. Typical symptoms are memory dysfunction; attention disruptions; language expression and problem solving difficulties. Just 10% of cases are classified reversible. Therefore, treatment is limited to addressing further loss of memory and helping patients and family members function with the dysfunction (Sadock et.al, 2006).

RNA interference (RNAi) is usually referred to as post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS).The biological process encompasses RNA molecules inhibiting gene expression by destroying certain types of mRNA molecules. When encoded by eukaryotic nuclear DNA, miRNAs translate adapting a base-pairing mechanism complementing sequences within mRNA molecules. Gene silencing occurs initiated by translational repression or target degradation (Chen & Rajewsky, 2007). Researchers, Zovoilis (2011) and counterparts have made a startling breakthrough in associating microRNA-34c with dementia treatment.

Experiment: miRNAs enrichment in the hippocampus of mice

Zovoilis (2011) and his team used massive parallel sequencing in a detailed exploration of unprecedented levels to complete and absolute digitized mouse hippocampal miRNAome. Prior to their experiment they realized that MicroRNAs were key regulators of transcriptome plasticity subsequently implicated in pathogenesis of brain diseases. By utilizing integrative genetics, researchers identified miR-34c as a negative constraint of memory consolidation. Further they revealed through experiments that miR-34c levels are elevated in the hippocampus of AD patients, which corresponded with mouse models experimented upon (Zovoilis et.al, 2011)

Coinciding with these realities researchers then experimented with targeting miR-34 seed rescues learning ability in these mouse models. Data retrieved from experiments was highly suggestive that’ miR-34c could be a marker for the onset of cognitive disturbances linked to AD and indicate that targeting miR-34c could be a suitable therapy’ (Zovoilis et.al, 2011, pp 4299).    There after the aim was to reveal miRNAs enriched in mouse hippocampus. Unto the time of their experiment this phenomenon was unidentified (Zovoilis et.al, 2011).

They believed that by exploring alternative technologies which were significant to hippocampal age related memory function and pathogenesis, a discovery could be made. This could be beneficial to the science. In the process they realized that miR-34c is implicated with the pathogenesis of cognitive decline. This was observed though combining molecular and behavioural experimental approaches. These alternative experimental techniques revealed that miR-34c is essentials for efficient memory function. Precisely, researchers concluded that this data was enough in indicating by targeting miR-34c memory impairment in people affected with dementia is useful (Zovoilis et.al, 2011).

Actual results show where ‘massive parallel sequencing of small RNA libraries reveals the hippocampal miRNAome. (A) Contribution (in percent) of miRNAs to the total number of small non-coding RNAs in the range of 18–26 nt detected by sequencing. (B) Proportion of detected mature miRNAs, regarding the total number of known genes and miRNAs in miRBase. (C) Right panel: Distribution of miRNAs to different classes based to their sequence counts and contribution of each of these miRNA classes to the total miRNA sequence count. Left panel: Proportion of sequence counts per miRNA with respect to the total number of counts attributed to miRNAs in hippocampus. (D) Sequence counts of top ranking hippocampal miRNAs relative to the respective counts in whole brain (Zovoilis et.al, 2011, pp 4300).

The Truth Clarified: High miR-34c levels are linked to pathogenesis of learning impairment.

Zovoilis (2011) and his team later investigated whether miR-34c influences memory impairment. As such, they measured miR-34c levels in the hippocampus of 24-month-old mice. This was compared to a model for age-associated memory impairment, in APPPS1-21 mice. Hippocampal miR-34c showed significant upregulatation in hippocampal in two mouse models. A correlation was further established with memory function. Also among confirmed targets of the miR-34 family is Sirt1 mRNA which binds miR-34c sites (Zovoilis et.al, 2011).

It was further discovered that targeting of Sirt1 mRNA by miR-34c applied to neuronal cells as well. The relationship between hippocampal SIRT1 and memory function in mice ignited the reasoning that by measuring SIRT1 levels would be a suitable read out of miR-34c in vivo activity. When applying a fear conditioning mechanism learning-induced changes in SIRT1 protein levels revealed inverted correlation with the regulation of miR-34c 3.

In assessing a model of amyloid pathology connected to AD, researchers asked the question ‘whether inhibition of miR-34c seed would affect memory function in a mouse model for neurodegeneration’ (Zovoilis et.al, 2011, pp 4301). It was observed that hippocampal miR-34c demonstrated significant upregulatation between the two mouse models. Interestingly, this correlated with impaired memory function (Zovoilis et.al, 2011).

The Breakthrough: Targeting miR-34c seed rescues learning impairment

Three experiments embracing three control groups led to this breakthrough announced by scientists. The purpose was testing therapeutic potential of targeting mir-34c signaling. Complete and absolute digitized quantification of the mouse hippocampal miRNAome was evaluated. miR-34c was found to be upregulated in AD patients after qPCR analysis measured miR-34c levels in post-mortem tissue samples with age-matched controls. (A) miR-34c levels (qPCR) were elevated in the hippocampus (*P¼0.05) of human AD patients (n¼6; 4females, 2 males) when compared with age-matched controls (n¼8, 2 females, 6 males). Braack & Braack stage VI was diagnosed in 5 cases and one stage V. There was no significant age difference observed in (B) or post-mortem delay in (C) (Zovoilis et.al, 2011).

The second experiment focused on memory testing applying integrative genomics among the three groups A, B and C. High levels of miR-34c were implicated with memory impairment. Group (A) showed in ther left panel administration of miR-34c mimic and the respective scramble miR; right panel revealed elevated hippocampal miR-34c levels after miR-34c mimic administration. Control (B) impaired learning in 3-month-old wild-type mice with high level of miR-34c after treatment with the miRNA mimic in the upper panel while control (C) Hippocampal SIRT1 levels correlate with miR-34c expression (Zovoilis et.al, 2011, pp 4303).

Thirdly, researchers focused on binding influences of miR-34c to SIRT1 30UTR. It was discovered that when applied to (A) protectors prevent miR34c mimic from binding to the Sirt1 mRNA. In control (B) reveled where co-injection with the miR-34c-Sirt1 protector rescued learning impairment (n¼8, 8; *P¼0.04). (C) showed where target protector negative control emerged in SIRT1 protein (left) and mRNA levels (right) treated mice (Zovoilis et.al, 2011, pp 4304).

Implications based on what was known previously

Scientists have struggled for centuries finding treatment much more cures for dementia. The etiology of dementia is diverse and could influence effective response to treatment. While microRNA-34c is highlighted as a novel target to treat dementias; in this study an obvious limitation is that different types of dementias were not classified in application of the treatment. We still do not know which type of dementia microRNA-34c can successfully resolve. Hence, immediate application of these findings from this study must be further evaluated for its efficacy across types of dementia existent in the science (Raina et.al, 2008). Hence, further intense research is mandatory.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works cited

Raina P, Santaguida P, Ismaila A. Effectiveness of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for

treating dementia: evidence review for a clinical practice guideline. Annals of Internal

       Medicine vol 148, 5; pp 379–97 2008. Print

Sadock, Benjamin, Sadock, James., Alcott Virginia. Kaplan & Sadock’s. Concise textbook of

clinical psychiatry. 2008. Print.

Zovoilis, A. Agbemenyah, H. Agis-Balboa, R. Stilling, R. Edbauer, D. Rao, P. Farinelli,L.

Delalle, Schmitt, Falkai, P. Bahari-Javan, S. Burkhardt, S. Sananbenesi, F., & Fischer, A.

microRNA-34c is a novel target to treat dementias. The EMBO Journal vol, 30, 4299–4308.

2011.Print

Chen, Kevin; Rajewsky, Nikolaus. The evolution of gene regulation by transcription factors and

microRNAs. Nature Reviews Genetics Vol 8, No 2; pp 93–103. 2007. Print

Categories
Biology

Examples of species specific to Florida with their characteristics

 

 

 
  1. Scientific name: Aurelia aurita
    Common name: moon jelly, moon jellyfish, common jellyfish,
    Habitat: The species is found extensively around coast of Florida near estuaries, harbours where the temperatures range in between 6 degree Celsius and 31 degree Celsius with optimum range of 9-19 degree Celsius.
    Interesting fact: The moon jelly fish is called floating sac which has mouth and arms and moves only by floating even though it can swim
  2. Scientific name: Liguus virgineus
    Common name: Hispaniola
    Habitat: they are found on smooth barked trees like false tamarind and black ironwood
    Interesting fact: there are more than fifty two varieties of snails which include white and black.
  3. Scientific name: Argopecten irradians
    Common name: bay scallops
    Habitat: Throughout the coast of Florida, especially the west coast
    Interesting fact: The bay scallops are able to produce both female and male sex organs.
  4. Scientific name: Octopus bimaculoides
    Common name: specific 2 spot octopuses
    Habitat: They are found in abundance in the interidal and benthic zone in the low tide to sub tidal depth. They grown in rock caves and debris on sandy surfaces
    Interesting fact: they are capable of tolerating extreme wide range of temperatures from 60-80°F
  5. Scientific Name: Sabellastarte magnifica
    Common name: Magnificent feather duster
    Habitat: they are found on the coral reefs of the shallow waters in areas of Caribbean, Florida and Bahamas.
    Interesting fact: The visible part of them is feathery tentacles and the body is nearly invisible tugged in to the tentacles.
  6. Scientific name : Hirudo madicinalis
    Common name: leeches
    Habitats: found in estuaries, rivers and areas where river join sea. In Florida, there are more number of fresh water leeches found in swarms.
    Interesting fact:  most of the leeches  suck blood of turtles
  7. Common name: Florida stone crab,
    Scientific name:  Menippe mercenaria
    Habitat: they are extensively found in western region of Florida, North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico. The hybrids occur on the east coast of Florida in coastal waters and estuaries. Interesting fact: along with usual sexual dimorphism, the females possess large carapace when compared to males and males usually have large chelae compared to that of females.
  8. Scientific name: Hemisphaerota  cyanea
    Common Names: Florida Tortoise Beetle, Palmetto Tortoise Beetle
    Habitat: They are found extensively on foliage of anacua and planets like sweet potato and others.
    Interesting fact: Both the larvae and the adults live on same plant which acts like host.

    Common name: Common Starfish or Common Sea Star
    Scientific name : Asterias rubens
    Habitat: found commonly on rocky and substances with gravelly texture
    Interesting fact: the common number of arms are considered to be 5 but the number of arms could be till 40.

    10. Common name: Purple sea urchin
    Scientific name: Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Habitat: found along the coast of Florida in the places experiencing huge wave action and near rocky surfaces.
    Interesting fact: The appearances of urchins resemble hedge hog and hence called as hedgehog of sea.

  9. Scientific name: Alligator mississippiensis

Common Names: American Alligator, Alligator, Gator, Florida Alligator, Mississippi Alligator, Louisiana Alligator, Pike-headed Alligator.

Habitat: They are abundantly found in streams, swamps, lakes and ponds. They prefer fresh water but also found in brackish waters. They copulate in banks or tree clumps

Interesting fact: Alligators possess strong bite but have weak muscles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Attygalle, A.B., D.J. Aneshansley, J. Meinwald, and T. Eisner. Defense by foot adhesion in a    

     chrysomelid beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea): Characterization of the adhesive oil. Zoology

(Jena). 103:1-6, 2000. Print

Gottfried M. D., Fordyce R. E. An associated specimen of Carcharodon angustidens

     (Chondrichthyes, Lamnidae) from the Late Oligocene of New Zealand, with comments on

     Carcharodon interrelationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2001. Print

Stevenson, H. M. Vertebrates of Florida, identification and distribution (Fifth ed. ed.).

Gainesville, Florida: University Presses of Florida, 1976. Print

Whitaker, J. O.; W. J. Hamilton. Mammals of the Eastern United States (Third ed. ed.). Ithaca,

New York: Cornell University Press, 1998.Print

 

Categories
Biology Creative Writing

Chagas Disease

Chagas disease is an infectious, inflammatory ailment that is caused by a parasite found in the triatomine bug’s feces. This disease is not commonly known because it has been primarily found in Mexico, Central America, and South America. This is the primary home for the triatomine bug. However, there have been some cased that have been reported in the southern part of the United States. It is important to know the facts about this disease in order to know the cause, how people get it, and the potential dangers and cures. Considering Chagas is a rare disease, knowing the facts will help in recognizing the signs early on.

Chagas disease is called trypanosomiasis in America. This disease can infect any age but is most commonly found in children. Without proper medical treatment, this disease can lead to serious digestive and heart problems. Ideally, treatment of Chagas would be focused on killing the parasite. Any other treatment would be based on the symptoms that have surfaced. The big concern with this disease is that the symptoms do not typically surface until it has reached the chronic stage.

It could take weeks maybe months of being symptom-free during the acute phase of Chagas disease. If symptoms or signs occur at this stage they are mild. The symptoms could be swelling at the infection site, body aches, rash, fever, and fatigue. Other potential signs are enlargement of the liver or spleen, headaches, loss of appetite, swollen glands, nausea, and diarrhea or vomiting. The symptoms and signs during this stage typically go away so it is not always seen as a big concern. In the event that some of the persistent signs do not go away on their own, if they are left untreated the infection will persist and potentially lead to a chronic phase.

The chronic phase of this disease is when it can be potentially the most dangerous. This disease is not like all the others, signs and symptoms by not even occur till 10 to 20 years after the initial infection. They may never have any of the symptoms. In severe cases there are specific symptoms and signs that may surface. The more severe are irregular heartbeat and inflamed enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy). Also there is a potential for congestive heart failure, and sudden cardiac arrest. Symptoms have surface where the individual experiences difficulty swallowing due to enlarged esophagus. They also have an enlarged colon which causes abdominal pain or constipation.

If you have symptoms and signs of the condition it is necessary to see a doctor if you travel to or live in areas that may be at a higher risk of Chagas disease. These indicators include fever, fatigue, swelling at the infection site, body aches, nausea, and rash. It is definitely a disease that can do some damage and be life threatening in the event that it is left untreated. That is why involving a doctor in the event of potential exposure is necessary.

The Trypanosoma cruzi parasite is what causes Chagas disease. The triatomine bug transmitted to humans from a bite. The blood of animals that are already infected with the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite can infect the transmitting bug. The adobe, mud, or thatch, or huts in Mexico, South America, and Central America typically hide the Triatomine bugs. Theses bugs sleep during the day by hiding in the walls or roof crevices, and feed on humans at night while they sleep.

 

Triatomine Bug (Moorhouse)

The Trypanosoma cruzi parasite is left on the skin when the infected bug bites that person. The parasite will find a way to get into the body. They will travel through the mouth, eyes, cuts or scratches, and even the bug bite wound. When the bite site is rubbed or scratched it aids the parasite in entering the body. The parasite will spread and multiply once in the body. There are other ways for the parasite to infect the body. Eating uncooked food that has feces from the Trypanosoma cruzi -infected bugs is another common way to be exposed to this disease. Children who are born to a women who is infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and using infected blood for a transfusion is another way this disease is spread. Along the same lines is having an organ transplant that has been infected with the parasite as well. Accidental exposure to the parasite can also infect an individual, this can happen in a laboratory while working, and being exposed to wild animals which are infected. These animals can include a infected pet, a raccoon or even a opossum.

(Moorhouse)

 

Knowing about the disease and causes is important, but it is also important to understand the potential factors that can increase an individual from getting the Chagas disease. These factors are living in impoverished rural areas of Central America, South America and Mexico, living in a residence that contains triatomine bugs, and receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant from a person who carries the infection.

It is not a normal occurrence for individuals who travel to the at-risk areas of Mexico, South America, and Central America to contract the Chagas disease. However, if an individual is infected it can progress to a chronic phase that can include digestive complication and serious heart issues. The most common chronic phases are heart failure, enlargement of the esophagus, and enlargement of the colon. Heart failure is when it becomes so stiff or weak that it cans no longer pumping blood to satisfy the body’s needs. The enlargement of the esophagus is not common but is caused from the widening of the esophagus which causes difficulties with digestion and even swallowing. Lastly, enlargement of the colon which is when the colon is abnormally dilated which causes the abdominal pain, sever constipation, and distension.

References:

Moorhouse, Anna. “The Fight for Recognition: Chagas’ Disease Meets Controversy”. Journal of        Young Investigators, 2005.

 

 

Categories
Biology

Reproductive Barriers: Antelopes and Bassett Hounds

Prezygotic reproductive barriers are important as they do not waste gametes and also the energy for gestation is not wasted and the subsequent development of the offspring. There are certain barriers which interfere with the fertilization. Prezygotic barriers interfere with the fertilization before the union of gametes and postzygotic barriers act after the unification of the gametes. The prezygotic barriers include the reproductive isolating mechanisms where in the fertilization between members of the different species is prevented. Temporal isolation and habitat isolation are the prezygotic barriers. In temporal isolation two species reproduce at different times of the day, season or year. Habitat isolation involves two potential species living in two different habitats whose ranges overlap and so they do not encounter each other. Behavioral isolation, mechanical isolation and gamete isolation are also considered as prezygotic barriers. Behavioral isolation involves differentiation with the characteristic courtship behaviors. Mechanical isolation occurs when the genital organs are incompatible in different species. Gametic isolation prevents fertilization as the egg and sperm of different species are incompatible (Eldra Solomon, Linda Berg, Diana W. Martin, 2002).

Categories
Biology

Department of Biomedical Engineering Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Lab Report Spring 2013

2. Introduction

 

 Introduction

This laboratory experiment seeks to find out the measurement of a pig cornea optimal transmission. In the experiment, the following questions will be addressed with specific answers to the questions provided.

  1. How the beam of a laser is aligned.
  2. How an optimal design of a beam expander is set up
  3. How the power of a laser beam is measured. This is done using a power meter
  4. How the transmission of the sample is calculated. This is done using measurements from transmitted power and from the incident.

 Objective

 

In order to give answers to the above questions, a diluted Indian ink solution commonly known as (Nigrosin) will be used. This solution has different tissue samples and placed in plastic cuvettes. These concentrations will be used to model or come up with tissue samples that are different. The will be also repeated measurements of pig cornea that are similar to this. These measurements will be treated with different compounds in order to demonstrated and find out how absorption in tissues can be modified. This is modification is possible through the use of photoinitiators that are added to them. A lens holder will be used to hold the corneas while a beam that is low-powered but visible is used as a source of light. The incident is then measured using a power meter with a transmitted power which has been passed through the sample. These measurements will be treated with different compounds in order to demonstrated and find out how absorption in tissues can be modified (Beuthan et al, 1998).

 

3. Theory

 

To determine the absorptive quality of a transmission measurement process of a tissue that is specific. Some typical set-up has to be taken during this laboratory session. A spectrophotometric cell is used in the process of which involve biological tissue and fluid. This cell is rectangular in shape or a container in the form of quartz. This principle of transmission measurement in samples of fluids is highly dependent on measurements. The mostly commonly used instrument of measurement is oxymeter (Beuthan et al, 1998).

The container should have high precision and a thickness that is calibrated. The container should also be homogenous and highly parallel with output windows. The light path for every typical range is from 0.01 mm to several centimeters. The efficiency of transmission is the calculated.

Based on the theoretical principle, when light passes through tissues, fluids like skin or blood its intensity decreases progressively. This is also the case in tissues and fluids. There is also is energy transformation into either thermal or chemical energy. For instance the absorption of ultraviolet radiations by the skin produces chemical reaction (Basic, 1962).

There is also calculation of many kinds in biology which can relate well with this experiment which include absorption of blood, oxygen concentration in the c\se of measure of oxygen level of patients who are bed written. This principle of transmission measurement in samples of fluids is highly dependent on measurements. The mostly commonly used instrument of measurement is oxymeter (Beuthan et al   (1998).

Corneal transplant in this case is a visual rehabilitation and the most used technique is is ultraviolet (UVA) light with the help of riboflavin which is vitamin B2 used to increase the uptake of UVA light by normal cornea which under normal state does not take in ultraviolet radiation (Basic, 1962).

 

References

 

Beuthan, Jürgen, Olaf Minet, and Gerhard J. Müller. Selected Papers on Optical Tomography: Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine. Bellingham, Wash: SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1998. Print.

B.a.s.i.c. Philadelphia: BioSciences Information Service of Biological Abstracts [etc., 1962. Print.

Categories
Biology

Use of human embryonic stem cells to model pediatric gliomas with H3.3K27M histone mutation (pptx)

Pediatric glicoma

Categories
Biology

News and Views

Biological research is unique and challenging, even for the most experienced researchers. It is important to identify specific research questions in order to accomplish the necessary objectives and to narrow down the topic as best as possible. Three different articles will be addressed and their findings will be summarized in the following discussion. The research questions to be considered in the discussion are as follows: 1) Which factors are responsible for initiating RNA interference in the eukaryotic cells of mammals? 2) How does double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) play a role in this process? 3) How does this process occur in plant species? 4) What is the impact of RNA interference on cell development and genetic frameworks? Each of these questions will be addressed by using three separate research studies which address RNA interference using different test subjects and active experiments to achieve the desired research results in order to promote a greater understanding of genetic material and RNA interference in the process of gene regulation.