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The Art of Negotiation

Negotiations of a contract to gain consensus between parties is ultimately the clarification and agreement on what is going to be provided regarding the requirements and what will be exchanged for meeting those requirements prior to the actual efforts taking place.  The process to arrive at the desired end state is a balance of the art of negotiation and science of managing psychological and behavioral activities to manage and control the negotiation and communication.  The art of negotiation involves understanding how to create the behavioral and psychological reactions and interactions of the parties involved and to establish the bond or relationship between the parties of the negotiation.  In regard to the science or tactical side of the negotiation, it is imperative to understand the tools available to the negotiator as well as the knowledge and understanding of what negotiations actually involve. 

There are two types of negotiations, the integrative and distributive.  The distributive negotiation sees negotiation as dividing a fixed amount of items and is by definition finite.  This is representative of haggling for the best price or the best offer.  This is a tug-of-war between the buyer and the seller in which only a certain amount of ground can be gained or lost.  The distributive negotiation is more about keeping key information secret and not allowing any leverage to the other negotiation party.  Integrative negotiations are based on cooperation collaboration for a mutually beneficial objective.  These types of negotiations provide a win-win scenario which is normally used in trouble-shooting, problem solving or finding a resolution to a complex issue with multiple facets.  Distributive negotiations would be used when buying a vehicle or purchasing a house whereas integrative negotiations would be used when selling land to a new corporation that will bring new business opportunities to a community.

Understanding the two sides of negotiation will allow the negotiator to focus on the interactions between themselves and the other parties.  It is important for the negotiator to fully understand the requirements of the negotiation as well as they process required to achieve the requirements.  By understanding the process and ensuring a level of preparedness prior to negotiation the negotiator can focus on those behaviors that can provide a benefit or advantage in the negotiation.  There are certain triggers and reactions that a negotiator can focus on to place the other party at ease and build a bond between each side.  The negotiator must build a relationship while also watching for the pitfalls or roadblocks that could obstruct the pursuit of the desired end state.  These roadblocks include but are not limited to situations such as unsolicited criticism, whether good or mal-intentioned, and potential diversification issues that could lead to barriers in communication, understanding or acceptance of the proposed negotiations.  The negotiator must understand with whom they are communicating with, how their communication is interpreted and if it is received as intended.  Communication is key to negotiations.

Understanding the two sides of negotiation will allow the negotiator to focus on the interactions between themselves and the other parties.  It is important for the negotiator to fully understand the requirements of the negotiation as well as they process required to achieve the requirements.  By understanding the process and ensuring a level of preparedness prior to negotiation the negotiator can focus on those behaviors that can provide a benefit or advantage in the negotiation.  There are certain triggers and reactions that a negotiator can focus on to place the other party at ease and build a bond between each side.  The negotiator must build a relationship while also watching for the pitfalls or roadblocks that could obstruct the pursuit of the desired end state.  These roadblocks include but are not limited to situations such as unsolicited criticism, whether good or mal-intentioned, and potential diversification issues that could lead to barriers in communication, understanding or acceptance of the proposed negotiations.  The negotiator must understand with whom they are communicating with, how their communication is interpreted and if it is received as intended.  Communication is key to negotiations.

The appropriate communication method is not only a vessel to provide key information but it is also a basis for tactical operations within the negotiation as well as the tool to effectively and efficiently close the negotiation with a beneficial outcome.  Each person receives and perceives communication in different ways.  A message could be misinterpreted through subtle changes in the way the message is received.  The message can be altered in multiple ways.  This includes both verbal and non-verbal cues.  These communicative aspects of the negotiation are tools that can promote the success of the negotiation or derail the intentions.  Tailoring messages to specific parties becomes easier with experience and increased involvement with the parties in the negotiation.  These interactions create the psychological and behavioral bonds needed to achieve an on-going and strategically mutual relationship.  Building the relationships between each party also provides the ability for the negotiation teams to bridge the gaps between distance and culture.  As more communication occurs, the better the teams begin to know and understand one another.  Through this collaboration the bond that is built also facilitates the negotiation (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).

OUTLINE

Thesis Statement:  Research shows successful negotiations are dependent upon the behavioral as well as psychological triggers of the negotiation process because an agreeable personality is crucial in communication, humans generally do not react well to criticism and cultural diversity will present challenges if not understood.

I.  Introduction to Successful Negotiations

a. Definition of the Negotiation (Templar, Herring, Thompson, & Fadem, 2012).

i. Negotiations of a contract to gain consensus between parties is ultimately the clarification and agreement on what is going to be provided regarding the requirements and what will be exchanged for meeting those requirements prior to the actual efforts taking place (Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (Eds.) 2012).

ii. Negotiations are a balance between hard and soft skills (Gallagher, R. S. 2009).

iii. It is imperative to understand the tools available to the negotiator (Gallagher, R. S. 2009).

iv. Knowledge and awareness are key tools to the negotiator (Barry, B., & Friedman, R. A. 1998). 

iii. There are two types of negotiations, the integrative and distributive (Barry, B., & Friedman, R. A. 1998).

a. The purpose of Negotiations (Templar, Herring, Thompson, & Fadem, 2012).

            i. The purpose is to create a situation in which a party gains what they need. (Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (Eds.) 2012).

            ii. The relationship can be win/lose, lose/lose or win/win           (Kochan & Lipsky, 2003).

II. The role of an agreeable personality (Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (Eds.) 2012).

a. Understanding each side of the negotiation is imperative and allows the negotiator to focus on the interactions between themselves and the other parties (Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (Eds.) 2012).

b. Understanding the process and ensuring a level of preparedness prior to negotiation the negotiator can focus on those behaviors that can provide a benefit or advantage in the negotiation (Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (Eds.) 2012).

c. The Negotiator must build a relationship while also watching for the pitfalls or roadblocks that could obstruct the pursuit of the desired end state (Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (Eds.) 2012).

d. Communication is critical to successful negotiations (Long, Fisher & McGinn, 2012).

i. Clarity is the key to communication (Patton, 2011).

            ii. Concise communication facilitates negotiations (Patton, 2011).

            iii. The communication must be understood by sender and receiver (Patton, 2011).

 e. Utilizing a straightforward tactic alleviates unnecessary communication and interference that could hinder the process and negate the potential successful conclusion of the negotiation(DeRue, Conlon, Moon, and Willaby, 2009).

f. Straightforwardness sets the tone for the negotiation and creates a slight competitive advantage for the first party by creating a feeling of superiority, credibility and steadfastness (DeRue, Conlon, Moon, and Willaby, 2009).

III. The role of criticism.

  1. Fully understand the requirements of the negotiation as well as they process required to achieve the requirements (Templar, Herring, Thompson, & Fadem, 2012).
  2. Preparedness leads to successful negotiations(Templar, Herring, Thompson, & Fadem, 2012).
  3. Criticism is both a positive and negative tool (Patton, 2011).

i. Unsolicited Criticism puts the other party on the defensive and risks the relationship (Patton, 2011).

ii. Constructive Feedback builds the relationship and moves a potential pitfall to a building experience (Patton, 2011).

  • There are multiple pitfalls in negotiations (Barry, B., & Friedman, R. A. 1998).

i. Unsolicited Criticism (Patton, 2011).

ii. Diversity issues (Gallagher, 2009).

iii. Language Barriers (Gallagher, 2009).

iv. Un-communicated needs (Gallagher, 2009).

v. Misunderstandings (Gallagher, 2009).

III. Cultural diversity.

  1. Key interactions create the psychological and behavioral bonds needed to achieve an on-going and strategically mutual relationship (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).
  2. There are many aspects of negotiation(Templar, Herring, Thompson, & Fadem, 2012).

i. Communication is important and the ability to create concise, clear and understandable communication is the keystone to the negotiation process (Patton, 2011).

  • Methods of Tactics.

i. The appropriate communication method is not only a vessel to provide key information but it is also a basis for tactical operations within the negotiation as well as the tool to effectively and efficiently close the negotiation with a beneficial outcome (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).

ii. Diversity between cultures can lead to natural barriers (Kochan & Lipsky, 2003).

iii. Collaborative efforts create the bond that facilitates the negotiation (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).

Negotiations expand beyond the requirements of one party and the acceptance of requirements by the other.  There is an underlying requirement to ensure the appropriate method of communication is used while also presenting that communication in a straightforward manner.  This straightforward method of communicating the requirements of what one needs enables a slight advantage in the negotiation.  The clear, concise and accurate description of the requirements establishes a level of credibility in the knowledge and understanding of the negotiating party and creates a scenario that is slightly in favor of the straightforward party.  This type of tactic utilizes the psychological and behavioral tendencies of negotiating parties to create an advantage and every advantage in a negotiation will help facilitate the ability to achieve the desired results.  Building relationships is also crucial in taking the negotiations to a higher level of expectations and results.  Understanding how people communicate and what cultural and diversity issues can strain interactions between parties will allow the ability to mitigate those risks and work on the core negotiations.  Eliminating the noise of communication and the barriers of poor delivery and receipt of that communication allows for a pure and focused negotiation on the key points of the requirements.  Understanding what negotiations include, maintaining a prepared and straightforward negotiation style while also maintaining clear and unobstructed communication will all play into the art of negotiation.

References

Barry, B., & Friedman, R. A. (1998). Bargainer characteristics in distributive and integrative negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 345. Retrieved from: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/psp/74/2/345/

DeRue, D. S., Conlon, D. E., Moon, H., & Willaby, H. W. (2009). When is straightforwardness a liability in negotiations? The role of integrative potential and structural power. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1032. Retrieved from: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/94/4/1032/

Gallagher, R. S. (2009). How to tell anyone anything: breakthrough techniques for handling difficult conversations at work. American Management Association, New York. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=aY6OR71CvIAC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Gallgher,+R.+S.+(2009).+How+to+tell+anyone+anything:+Breakthrough+techniques+for+handling+&ots=wo-QGSdsQJ&sig=aa6IcwyopTAXs5ngHDI_afZ7nTA#v=onepage&q=summary&f=false

 Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (Eds.). (2012). The Psychology of negotiations in the 21st century workplace: new challenges and new solutions. Routledge Academic. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Zz-h37LKklcC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=The+Psychology+of+Negotiations+in+the+21st+Century+Workplace:+New+Challenges+and+New+Solutions+&ots=jTyVPMfh9o&sig=D6WOkfyn9Vosg_3fv-1e6iPADkk 

Kochan, T. A., & Lipsky, D. B. (2003). Negotiations and change: from the workplace to society. Cornel University Press, New York. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jj2UzQLKfUcC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Negotiations+and+Change:+From+the+Workplace+to+Society+&ots=h28DsMzMGS&sig=JJ3eBQvrdyDl8dVaGKmDgzOdrbA 

Kulik, C. T., & Olekalns, M. (2012). Negotiating the gender divide lessons from the negotiation and organizational behavior literatures. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1387-1415. Retrieved from: http://jom.sagepub.com/content/38/4/1387.short

Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., & Minton, J. W. (1999). Negotiation: readings, exercises, and cases. Irwin/The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved from: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1998-07764-000 

Long, E. L., Fisher, C., & McGinn, K. L. (2012). Negotiation processes as sources of (and solutions to) inter-organizational conflict (No. 12-107). Harvard Business School Working Paper. Retrieved from: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6983.html 

Patton, B. (2011). Gaining ground in difficult negotiations: training advanced negotiation & difficult conversations (Vol. 1). Maklu Pub. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=xiZYUMw6j70C&oi=fnd&pg=PA6&dq=+Bargaining+for+Advantage:+Negotiation+Strategies+for+Reasonable+People+2nd+Edition+by+G.+Richard+Shell&ots=Tx4jWs2iKk&sig=aQveGPNVHIB0ht_-JIPUJzPwEdI#v=onepage&q=Bargaining%20for%20Advantage%3A%20Negotiation%20Strategies%20for%20Reasonable%20People%202nd%20Edition%20by%20G.%20Richard%20Shell&f=false 

Templar, R., Herring, J. J., Thompson, L., & Fadem, T. J. (2012). Negotiating to win: strategies and skills for every situation (collection). FT Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=tPBSj1WlQpIC&oi=fnd&pg=PT1&dq=The+Truth+About+Negotiations+by+Leigh+L.+Thompson&ots=CrLodMnsdL&sig=Lgik2nUr2f21s8wEI_9SsPtNk5w   Thompson, L. L., Wang, J., & Gunia, B. C. (2010). Negotiation. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 491-515. Retrieved from: http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100458?journalCode=psych

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Business

SWOT analysis for Walmart

Introduction
  Walmart is perhaps one of the most well-known corporations in the world.  Although it started from humble origins, the corporation quickly grew to become one of the most formidable retailers in the world.  Although some analysts see Walmart’s rise as meteoric, particularly in the United States, the retailer’s aggressive overseas expansion has raised concerns regarding Walmart’s business model and internal controls to survive worldwide.     Strengths In order to become one of the world’s largest retailers, Walmart possesses a myriad of strengths.  The first main strength is efficiency in operations, particularly in supply chain operations.  One may argue that the firm’s ability to establish “lean” supply chains and superior inventory are the key planks of the firm’s business model, a business model that has not been replicated by any other retailer.  These operational strengths “feed through” the system to establish another one of Walmart’s strengths: pricing (low prices). While many believe that retailers establish low prices through aggressive purchasing, one of the largest components in costs for retailers is overhead expenses.  By cutting overhead expenses, Walmart has become one of the most efficient operators in the retail space, leveraging its strengths to solidify its competitive position at home and abroad.      Weaknesses   Although Walmart boasts numerous strengths, recent performance has also revealed important weaknesses.  The most important weakness is the company’s internal control system, particularly in overseas operations.  Walmart has been tarred with numerous “corruption” scandals involving local managers paying bribes to governments in order to secure preferential treatment for store authorization permits and preferential tax treatment.  Indeed, although Walmart boasted of increased revenue and profits from overseas, apparently their system of efficiency and internal controls did not follow leading to a larger weakness of overexpansion and inability to replicate their model.  At the same time that Walmart is experiencing unprecedented challenges overseas, it is also experiencing reduced sales at home in the United States.  Although this slowdown is partially due to remaining economic problems and deleveraging of consumers, there are also questions regarding the ability of Walmart to compete amongst a growing cadre of low-cost retailers.  Opportunities Walmart still has several key opportunities to grow its business.  First, if the firm can better manage operations abroad, there are numerous emerging middle class consumers (particularly in Africa) where the firm can build its business.  There are also numerous locations in the United States, particularly urban ones, where Walmart could expand operations to increase revenue streams and profitability.  Another potential opportunity is different ways to sell items. As the sword of Damocles swings over brick-and-mortar retailers, Walmart is expanding online offerings. Threats Due to Walmart’s (previous) success, it has bred larger and more capable rivals. Firms such as Amazon and Costco have tried to replicate Walmart’s model; Amazon has arguably been the most successful replicating essentially all of the products Walmart offers in its store.  If other competitors emerge and are able to compress margins even more, Walmart could face an existential threat down the line.                                         References:  
Walmart.  Available at: http://www.walmart.com
Amazon.  Available at: http://www.amazon.com                      
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Business

The Telecommunication Revolution in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Introduction

The African continent has been rapidly investing into the telecommunications industry as its economy continues to grow. Despite the constant conflict in major countries in Africa, as well as poverty and crime remaining in society, the world’s fastest growing mobile phone market resides inside Africa, although the mobile phone market has only become popular in the last decade. In particular, the Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the largest importers of mobile phones in Africa, and according to recent statistics, mobile phone usage in the region has increased to double the global average. However, a reliable and consistent service provider has yet to be established in the Democratic Republic of Congo; therefore, the implications and benefits of such a service are discussed herein.

Congo Mobile Service Provider

The flawed mythology that treats Africa as a homogenous disaster area is being challenged by investors and economists1. Investors have continued to add to the growing economy in more ways than one. As the Democratic Republic of Congo continues to import mobile phones, the main source of income and growth for the country relies on the production of coltan, one of the materials used in the production of mobile phones. By working alongside the mobile manufacturers in the area, it is possible to get cheaper handsets and thus more affordable service, since the handsets are very easy to produce, and the coltan product used in the manufacturing stage is a readily available resource. Therefore, it is a two-fold strategy in which the manufacturer and the service provider can benefit in cost reductions via a corporate partnership.

Due to globalisation, the coltan material is extracted and exported to the Asian continents, where they are manufactured and packaged, then are sent to major mobile phone company’ headquarters for testing and certification. Once complete, the mobile phones are imported back into the Democratic Republic of Congo, where they are distributed and sold by mobile phone outlets. As mobile phones are part of the telecommunications industry, it relies heavily on satellite communication for reception and connectivity.

However, there remains the question of a valid service provider. Although corporate giants such as Nokia have office branches in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the service provided by the company is limited, as it is more cost effective to replace a mobile phone than troubleshoot the problem. As such, there is a great need to fill the gap between the supplier and the consumer, as millions of Africans rely on third-party networks for consistent service. As such, the need for establishing a support service that links providers directly to consumers, serving as the middle man, remains.

There are three main influences regarding the establishment of the Congo Mobile Service Provider (CMSP). Firstly, the network on which many of the mobile phones are relying upon needs to be increased. Currently, many of the mobile phones in the Democratic Republic of Congo rely on a roaming network, meaning that the reception and connectivity is inconsistent with the receiving and making of phone calls and text messages. Therefore, the network should be connected to relative countries in proximity, so that carriers can link to nearby networks and establish a consistent connection. This will be routed and provided by the CMSP.   

Secondly, the location of the service base will be an issue that remains to be solved. Although business is booming, the safety of civilians, as well as foreigners, continues to come under threat, even in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Therefore, a suitable location that is still relatively accessible to the public, but within the boundaries of safe premises, will constitute a location that will serve as the service base. It should also be in close proximity to other mobile phone providers, in the central business district, and within distance of the embassy or consulate.

Thirdly, the management of the CMSP should be carefully selected and maintained. Although it is suitable for Congo residents to be employed within the business, the first point of contact should remain as a foreign contact. This is mainly due to the fact that the Congo people value the service of foreigners, especially in such an industry as telecommunications. The Congo employees should be given the responsibility of ensuring that the business is profitable, by engaging in marketing, maintenance and operations of the business; whereas the foreigners should be charged with customer service, liaisons and other related responsibilities.

Successful Service

Labelling of a service as successful or unsuccessful in such a country as the Democratic Republic of Congo relies on the cultural and economic implications, as well as marketing initiatives by the CMSP. Emerging markets are radically different from traditional industrialised societies, and require rethinking of the core assumptions of marketing, such as market orientation, market segmentation and differential advantage2. These three purposes serve the purpose of labelling in the telecommunications industry.

Regarding market orientation, the organisational culture of the CMSP should be an organic one, mainly for the purposes of the company structure. As telecommunications continue to improve, the organisational culture of CMSP should be able to react and handle the changes in the industry effectively, as well as embracing the technology and implementing changes as necessary. This will assist in tapping into the market and increasing the differential advantage, as will be mentioned later.

In terms of market segmentation, the sub-set of consumers who have a need to be met, namely a reliable service provider, will be targeted and strategies surrounding their needs will be implemented to meet them. As there are millions of consumers who have mobile phones, but few have a reliable service provider, there is a consistent need for such a service that CMSP can provide, along with support and assistance when required. The support provides consists of mobile troubleshooting, handset servicing, sim card and battery replacement, Wi-Fi and network connectivity; as well as assistance with replacing or upgrading handsets, customer service, and improvements in mobile user-friendliness. 

Regarding differential advantage, as aforementioned, there are few companies in the Democratic Republic of Congo that provide a consistent service to mobile users. The few that do are not readily accessible to consumers, nor do they provide ongoing assistance; which is where CMSP comes in. The business will provide all three core services to consumers, filling the void between mobile phone providers and the customers themselves. This will become the differential advantage for CMSP.    

Brand Loyalty

As most Africans use mobile phones such as Nokia, CMSP will partner with such companies as their main service provider. By doing so, the brand loyalty that Africans have to Nokia and other such mobile phone manufacturers will assist in the establishment of the business. To enhance the users’ experience, mobile phone brands will be displayed prominently in marketing campaigns and joint business initiatives between Nokia and related companies, and CMSP.

By partnering with a well-known brand such as Nokia and other similar companies, the business will be able to grow and expand to serve a wide proportion of consumers in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Furthermore, by partnering with the major mobile phone manufacturers, the CMSP will be able to attract their customers and link them to the company’s service provider. This corporate partnership will be able to increase brand loyalty amongst the locals.

Offshore outsourcing has emerged as a popular competitive strategy, and emerging markets have become increasingly attractive location-wise3. Therefore, CMSP can take advantage of the outsourcing of mobile phone manufacturers by establishing a consistent service and linking customers of their companies to support and assistance when needed. As there is a great need in the Democratic Republic of Congo for such a service, Nokia and other mobile phone manufactures may be open to linking with another foreign company for service provision capabilities.

Product Life Cycle

Such a product as mobile phones is involved in all phases of the product life cycle, as it has many facets. However, the service provision of mobile phones fits into phase four, which is the utilisation stage. In such a stage, communication, management and collaboration are seen as the driving force.

For example, communication channels in the telecommunications industry for the Democratic Republic of Congo are not yet completely established. Therefore, CMSP has an advantage in this area, mainly since they are a new player and can improve on existing issues with communication problems by offering their service provision as a solution.

In addition, the management of CMSP will be completely run by foreigners, since this will ensure that autonomy is delegated to the local employees, while maintaining a high standard of efficiency and effectiveness when dealing with service provision. Customers will be provided with assistance and consistent support, whether they are new mobile phone users or experienced professionals. As research shows, mobile phone technology has been embraced by all income groups, not just low incomes households, in Africa4. Therefore, the population will rely on a service that meets its expectations, such as that provided by CMSP.

Lastly, collaborative ties with major mobile phone manufacturers such as Nokia and other similar companies will ensure that strength in numbers is the main advantage for CMSP. As one of the few, if not only, consistent and reliable service providers in the region, the company will provide local expertise coupled with foreign technology and implementation to provide an unparalleled service.

Pricing Objectives

Although there are relatively few competitors, as reliable service providers in the Democratic Republic of Congo are scarce, the main competitor remains as Vodacom. Since the company both produces mobile phones as well as provides service to customers, the business has an advantage in both size and profitability.

However, Vodacom only provides service to mobile phone users that have mobile phones linked to their specific network, or have mobile phones produced by their company. Therefore, the pricing of both mobile phones and the service provision is often bundled in and offered at a local rate. Those outside their market, or those who do not have mobile phones produced by Vodacom, are not part of their consumer base.

Since this is the situation, CMSP can use a pricing strategy such as target rate of return on sales. This pricing objective will utilise Nokia and other related companies’ customer base, linking them to the partnering service provision of CMSP, and using prices consistent with the major mobile phone manufacturers. Therefore, it will be a consistent rate of return, and sales will be aligned with mobile phone packages provided by corporate partners. With such a wide customer base, the target rate of return on sales will be maximised.

Distribution Chain and Strategy

When incorporating CMSP’s service into the distribution chain, the means of distribution itself is quite simple. One the mobile phones are sold to customers by the manufacturer or mobile phone outlet, the customer is then referred to CMSP, which relies on the mobile manufacturer and supplier for products and corporate partnership regarding service provision. This completes the distribution chain.  

In regards to the strategy, a selective distribution strategy should be used, since the producer or manufacturer relies on few intermediaries, or partners, to carry their product. CMSP will be linked to major mobile manufactures, suppliers and distributors, such as Nokia and related companies, for mobile phone production, customer relations, and links to the company’s service provision will be provided to all existing, current and new customers.

When implementing such a strategy in the distribution chain, it is important to add value in every step, from the sale made to the service provided. Therefore, the process will be streamlined so that customers’ issues are met on time and within the company’s mode of operation, so that the business continues to grow and expand.

Traditional Promotion

Although all five of the traditional promotional mix is quite useful in increasing company awareness and enlarging the customer base, there are three specific promotional tools that CMSP can utilise when promoting its exceptional service.

Firstly, advertising the company using mainly print, mobile and in-store advertisements will cover the broad media outlets that customers usually follow. By investing into this cost-effectively, CMSP will be able to capture the captive audience that uses such media, and introduce them to its service provision

Secondly, public relations is an important aspect of promotion, particularly on a corporate level, and can take the form of charitable contributions, issue advertising and even speeches by senior management at joint corporate launches with Nokia and CMSP, along with related companies. By engaging in open presentations of the quality of service the company provides, more customers will in turn be open to utilising such a service.

Thirdly, direct marketing using word-of-mouthinteractive consumer websites, promotional letters and outdoor advertising will enable the CMSP to reach those who are both technology literate and beginning novices. As much of the African population are good story-tellers, with the aid of a targeted marketing campaign, which will include local transportation advertisements, will be quite effective in spreading the word about the company and its quality services. It is argued that growth has been more closely linked to investment5. Therefore, one of the most effective ways to reach consumers and increase the customer base is to engage in such a direct form of marketing.

Conclusion

In summary, the establishment of the Congo Mobile Service Provider will provide consistent, reliable and exceptional service to mobile phone users, including ongoing support, assistance and technical troubleshooting for those in the Democratic Republic of Congo. As potentially one of the only type of service providers in the region, it will provide a unique service to the local Congo people, and will fill the void between mobile manufacturers and consumers, who have no current service provision on such a basis. Therefore, it will not only provide a service to the local population, but will also add value to the telecommunications market and reinvest into the economy of the country.

Works Cited

Robertson, Charles. The Fastest Billion: The Story Behind Africa’s Economic Revolution. Columbia: Renaissance Capital: 2012. Print.

Sheth, Jagdish. “Impact of Emerging Markets on Marketing: Rethinking Existing Perspectives and Practices.” Journal of Marketing 75.4 (2011): 166-182. Web. June 2013.

Javalgi, Rajshekhar., Dixit, Ashutosh., and Scherer, R. “Outsourcing to Emerging Markets: Theoretical Perspectives and Policy Implications.” Journal of International Management 15.2 (2009): 156-168. Web. June 2013.

Esselaar, Steve and Stork, Christoph. “Mobile Cellular Telephone: Fixed-Line Substitution in Sub-Saharan Africa.” The Southern African Journal of Information and Communication 7.6 (2012): 66-76. Web. June 2013.

Teal, Francis. “Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa: A Review of Channels and Interaction.” Journal of African Economies 20.3 (2011): 50-79. Web. June 2013.

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Business

Level of Organization Change

Chapter 6 explains the three different levels of organizational change: individual, group and larger systems based on the processes, responses and methods for introducing gradual and dramatic changes.

            Individual Level Change

The authors explain that the major changes in the organization result in training, change of position, development programs and coaching. The main focus when introducing change on the individual level should be on gaining commitment, developing the individual’s skills according to the new requirements and effective communication patterns that highlight the benefits of the change for the individual. Likewise, selection and recruitment models also have to be adjusted to the changes in the organization’s needs and priorities. Individuals usually respond to changes going through five different stages; all to be addressed by managers: shock and denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance.

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Business

QSO Final

Executive Summary

In today’s information environment, more people are turning to the internet for their forwarding and messaging. As emails grow, and the purpose of sending faxes through emails, it is a question if the United States Postal Services is going obsolete. The once profitable billion dollar a year company has been losing billions since the mid-2000. In an effort to save the postal service, they have been streamlining layoffs to compensate for their losses, closing down post offices, and Congress even passed that the Postal Services should cut Saturday deliveries.

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Business

What Have I learned From Our Business Responsibility and Sustainability Course?

Introduction

During the course, I have gained an understanding of the leadership’ responsibility in setting policies, guidelines, missions and visions related to corporate and social responsibility. While taking into account the company’s responsibility towards employees,  shareholders and other stakeholders has been discussed for many years in business publications, sustainability is a more recent development of business management. However, after completing the course, I am convinced that all of today’s organizations need to implement strategies that tackle these two issues in order to maintain the company’s outside image, preserve growth and create competitive advantages.

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Business

Management in a Foreign Country

Abstract

Managing a project requires focus and attention to three key areas including: schedule, cost and scope.  All three of the constraints play pivotal roles in the successful completion of the project (Dobson 2004).  While project management focuses on specific best practices to successfully meet the goals and objectives outlined by the project charter, it does not directly outline the best practices for managing variables such as cultural diversity, foreign laws, regulations or environmental factors impacting availability resources.  Doing business in a foreign country can provide multiple advantages including access to resources and financial incentives by the host country.  There are also disadvantages of using a foreign country for a business venture that can range from communication breakdowns to political, religious or cultural barriers that remove the benefits of the business through direct or indirect forces.  The core business drivers which would cause a company to take resources and allocate the effort to execute a project outside of the country of origin ranges from expanding the market of the good or service for future sales opportunities or searching for talent or natural resources that do not occur in the business’ home of record.  Although advantages and disadvantages exist regarding the conduction of business in other countries, there is also a decision on the method  to perform the project management activities and if the project is feasible based on the foreign country selected versus the home country of the business.

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Business

Several Technical Issues to be Encountered by Microsoft Company in Future Business Endeavors

Given that the operation of the industry to which the Microsoft Company is enjoined with continues to take a larger step every year, it could then be expected that the consideration of corporate function also increases each time the business tends to expand the ways by which it operates for the market. The global information system that governs the industry today specifically has made it possible for Microsoft Company to make their operations of existence more global that specifically concentrated on local considerations.

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Business

Trade Secrets at Morris Computer

Introduction

The situation detailed as per Carol’s involvement with Morris Computer Corporation is a typical example of business dilemmas that professionals face in the corporate world. Such cases and the decisions that have to be made are heavily influenced by the right ethical response to be made, the effect it has on key individuals, and the outcome of such a resolution, if any. A detailed analysis of Carol Curtin’s case, as well as discussion through the lens of an ethical framework, is discussed herein.

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Business

Organizational Observation

  1. Introduction

I currently work for Isolux Ingenieria USA’s Spanish division as a Buyer Planner. During my work I have gained insight into the organizational structure, processes and operations management within the company. Through my observation and training within the company I have gained knowledge about the organization itself, the policies, the global market and the structure of processes, hierarchy. The below observation report is designed to reflect on the company’s mission, policies, culture, priorities, structure and operations management principles and to recommend suitable improvement opportunities for the management. I believe that my experience within the buyer-procurement department and the knowledge of the pricing policies enables me to review the company and its T&D Division Energy Business Unit.

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Business

Elements of effective Marketing power

Marketing is one of the major elements that businesses mostly consider facilitating their growth. Marketing refers to the process of creating awareness about the existence of certain products or services in the market. It is also the process of convincing people that particular product or services are better and more beneficial than others.  Thus, marketing power refers to the amount of impact yielded by a particular marketing campaign. This impact can be measured in regards to the number of sales increase or the number of people drawn towards liking the products and services (Grosse 45).

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Business

End of Growth

Introduction

Business is often seen as a ‘for-profit’ marketplace in which those companies that are not financially driven will not last. However, in recent times, the focus has shifted from the bottom line to the triple bottom line, and in particular, the company’s responsibility to its stakeholders and its environment. In this course, the reinforcement of such a viewpoint is reinforced, and the attitudes, values and beliefs concerning this belief, as well as the discussions and assumptions explored, are reviewed herein.

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Business

Role of Multinationals in Innovation in Emerging Markets

Emerging markets such as India are the next frontier for multinational corporations. India is enjoying a booming middle class and the markets for a significant number of products and services such as cars and smart phones is still in infancy in India as opposed to developed economies where they have saturated or enjoying low growth rates only. Even though there is no lack of management literature that stresses upon the need to take into account cultural differences as well as local needs, it is not uncommon for some international companies with strong brands to overestimate the universal appeal of their products or services. As a result, they adopt the same marketing strategies that may have worked at home or in other markets and hope locals will embrace the products or services. There is a reason why Apple still doesn’t have a significant presence in India as opposed to Samsung and Nokia.

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Business

Innovation in and for Emerging Markets

In today’s society, innovation is critical to the long-term success of organizations across different industries. A case study involving Chotokool addresses the importance of achieving success in emerging markets where there are significant challenges related to creativity and innovation.  Innovation must be explored in a new and exciting manner so that there are sufficient opportunities in place to influence outcomes and to reflect upon the opportunities that innovation provides to organizations in this manner (Simanis and Hart 79). By using the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) concept, this demonstrates the potential impact of a product that is both cost effective and useful to the largest group of consumers for which marketing of a product is relatively unexplored (Simanis and Hart).