The prevalence of discrimination against America’s gay and lesbian counterparts is majorly supported in the research literature of many disciplines (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 29). This research paper provides a specific analysis of this discrimination of gays and lesbians in America society and social justice concepts of equality and fairness (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 31).Homosexuals are found in every (race, religion, age group, country, state and social group). Discrimination towards homosexuals persecutes their choice of lifestyle. The concern in the military service is the legal rights for couples, and participation within society need to be revised. To help put an end to this discrimination, military services on a legislative plan to fight for the rights and inform them that homosexuals are just persons like any other individual(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 31).
There are many concerns concerning the topic of gay marriages ranging from total acceptance to total rejection, many of this reactions arise from the perceptions, scandals and stereotypes (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 33). Discrimination and social injustice faced by homosexuals in the United States is rampant, and the social movements to end such discriminatory practices have been considered by many modern theorists’ researchers (Kirsch, 2009).
From keen observation of how gays are treated in American society. It reveals that discrimination against gays is about eleven percent of the population, homosexuals existing and discriminated against(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 32)..
What are some of the problems faced by homosexuals?
Challenges faced by homosexuals on a daily basis comprise of, discrimination in the issue of employment more so, in the military, stiff opposition and rejection, discrimination on labor markets, housing markets and product markets in different countries. Discrimination against male as well as female homosexuals who applied for jobs in American society law firms is noted. It was found that lesbian females were subject to discrimination when they apply for jobs. Landlords/tenants have sexual prejudices against homosexual identity behavior or lifestyles. Landlords normally develop stereotypes that result in discriminatory behavior. Field experiment study conducted on discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 35).. The study conducted on the rental housing market using the internet where two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one homosexual they both apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet in Indiana state(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 35).. We scrutinize the incidence of discrimination by looking at the choice by landlords to e-mail back and invite applicants to further contacts and/or to a showing of housing units. The findings show lower call-back rates for the homosexual couples and limited positive responses and invitations to showings to the homosexual couples than to the heterosexual couples. Homo sexual males (gays) are discriminated against on American housing market, clearly drawn from the fewer call-backs and invitations to further contacts and showings than the heterosexual couples(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 3i).
Discrimination against gays and lesbians in American society
Discrimination, neglect and oppression faced by gays and lesbians in the United States are widespread and social movements to terminate such discriminatory practices are underway(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 38).While some section of American society may fail to identify with today gay rights movement, these issues are mixed with the elements of equality and fairness. There is extensive existence of discrimination, hate crimes, violence, and oppression(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 39).. Heterosexist hatred against homosexuals is majorly supported in the research literature (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 29). The gay civil rights movement has its concern, the exercise of practices and cultural norms that causes harm on homosexuals. There is realization of ongoing direct hatred crimes aimed at inflicting violence on homosexuals and giving names to of gay civil rights as important rights to undermine advances, or indirectly as in avoidance of taxation benefits afforded to married heterosexual couples through terming gay marriages illegal(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 28).
Following the works of most researchers and authors in their various studies, theory points out that the gay civil rights movement began in 1970. In the riots experienced the crowd fought back and the five days of rioting that followed forever changed the face of lesbian and gay life (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 28). The event was most important to the gay and lesbian culture because it was the turning point of the homosexuals (gay and lesbians) they were able to rise up against police oppression and became actively resistant to institutionalized anti-gay violence (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 37). The incidence of Stonewall is a case study used since it was a changing opportunity in gay and lesbian era that marked an important difference in the way homosexuals define themselves. Through the resistance that took place a sense of empowerment was born, gays and lesbians felt part of the society and not sense of isolation (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 30).
Who are majorly against homosexuals?
There exist individuals who showed negative attitude towards gay and lesbians parenting. They comprise of theistic, highly traditional men who had strong stand that homosexuality are a life-style choice (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 32).
Some individuals hold personal prejudices against gays and lesbians. The important part is to examine how these prejudices correlate to discriminatory practices within state and federal judiciary systems and public policy drafting (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 33). In the United States sexual acts between members of the same sex have been criminalized through sodomy statutes. The criminalized of these practices has had a deteriorating influence on gay parenting cases in the nation’s court system (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 34).
Discrimination is also seen in the regulations of some states in relation to adoption. For instance, adoption of children by either individuals (gay and lesbian) or gay and lesbian couples is illegal in the state of Carolina. In contrast, there are no restrictions to adoptions by heterosexual individuals or couples who qualify (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 35). Research clearly reveals presence of discriminatory practices and beliefs by social workers and child welfare specialists working in state where adoption by gays and lesbians is not illegal. There has been prove of open unfairness in the child welfare services and adoption attempt, empirical findings supported with prove of discrimination and inequalities in states and country’s restrictions that relate to ownership and parental rights, and regulation fail to recognize and factor in gay parents. This portrays unfairness and unequal treatment of homosexuals who opt to adopt. This is different in heterosexuals; they are acknowledged (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 38).
Irwin found prove in his research that harassment and oppressive treatment of gays and lesbians working in education facilities are largely experienced (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 30). In the research study carried that comprised of one thousand gay men, lesbians and transgender individuals working as teachers and educators (administrators), 60 percent of participants reported existence of discrimination in both current and previous work places this was collected after interaction with participants (Irwin,2009)
Psychological science is associated with etiology for hatred and homophobia concerning gays. Freuds psychoanalytic theory claimed that homosexuals were in arrested development, representing a fixation in the oedipal stage of psychosexual development (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 30). This has influenced people to believe that homosexual was pathological and was the result of inappropriate parent-child relationships. Due to this social construction of homosexuality as abnormal, it has blocked many gays and lesbians from disclosing their sexual orientation for fear of being seen as mentally ill(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 35).
From past findings, homosexuals have been the culprits of unjust discriminatory participations that excluded them in a uniquely fashion. Lesbians and gays have been labeled as threats to stability of the country. The UN-American Activities committee was involved in the deformation of homosexuals circulating rumors about congressional investigators threatening homosexuals that they will face dire consequences if they attempt to refuse to air out their previous ties to the communist party(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 30).. Lesbians and gays were discharged and prevented from serving by US military. They were terminated from military services and given undesirable discharges which prevented them from future military merits and marred their reputation totally damaging their efforts to acquire civilian employment (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 39). Homosexuals were despised and described as individuals who were comprised of three personality disorder that is; psychopaths, sexual perverts, and paranoid personalities suffering from homosexual panic and schizoid personalities.
Scriptures both Hebrew and Christian is majorly used to characterize homosexuals as moral transgressors, and as persons who stand outside the cloak of protection of human rights, this has given the accusers justification to bestow hate crimes against them (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 31). Looking at institution of marriage, which is a formal recognition that brings together the married couples following the federal laws. Marriage is one of the rights that are given to heterosexuals and heterosexual couples(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 33).. There is identification of sexual orientation especially those serving in US armed forces, adoption privileges and extension of health and life insurance benefits to same –sex partners in both federal employment positions, this are major areas where equality for homosexuals simply doesn’t exist. All in all currently in the United States, marriages between two men or two women man are not acceptable. It is regarded abominable, barbaric and immoral. Such act attracts attention and reactions of condemnation from the people within and all over the world, the victims may even be imprisoned. No one respect gays or lesbian.
Is discrimination of homosexuals a social justice perspective?
Social justice framework
Various authors and researchers have pronounced social justice and distributive justice theory towards the gay civil rights movement. They believe in foundational characteristics of the social justice principles of fairness and equality. There is need for governments which is regarded as institutions of practices in ensuring the principle of fairness is met. Gay rights calls addition laws that guard homosexuals against violent crimes by giving a chance the federal government to take part in cases where the local authority is unable or unwilling(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 34)..
It becomes difficult for some states to pass such legislation that promote justice and equality as a result of stiff opposition of some conservative policymakers. Despite this the human rights is built upon the fact that governments are responsible to come up with conditions under which human rights laws can be attained(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 37). This enhance in providing each individual with freedom from human rights violation by either parties(government and others)regardless of whether gays and lesbians are identified with a group that lacks the characteristics required to develop a moral personality they are still entitled (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 33). Guarantee of justice, the equality rights afforded to heterosexuals and heterosexual couples (Lim, 2008)
There are six proposed rights that should be afforded to lesbians and gays(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 36). This includes:
- The right to job vacancies (military services)
- Right to protection for instance, against violence
- The right to have consensual adult sexual relations without being considered to have broken the laws there should be no penalties (Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 37).
- The right to marriage
- The right to adopt children
- Homosexuals should not be discriminated against being given housing, employment and education.
The above six rights were proposed by Nussbaum. It is of significant since it examine her theory of human rights especially in terms of equality and fairness. Nussbaum explains equality, she points out that the moral equality of persons ensures they have a fair claim to some types of treatment at the participation of society and politics(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 40).. She proceeds to state that the involvement should maintain and facilitate respect and enhance liberty of choice, and respect and promote the equal worth of individuals as chooser(Blackwell, Ricks, & Dziegielewski, 38). Nussbaum facilitated the rights of homosexuals into this theory of human rights. She created an issue in support of homosexuals in relation to several of the major civil liberties, rights, and equalities gays and lesbians strive to achieve. Through her basic capabilities a foundation for consideration of the qualities that should be afforded to all persons not just gays and lesbians.
Homosexuals are found in every race religion, age group, country, state and social group. Discrimination towards homosexuals denies them to taste part of lifestyle they want. The issues of military employment, legal Rights for couples and acceptance within society need to be resolved. To put an end to this rampant discrimination against homosexuals, military services should be put on a legislative plan discouraging discrimination against them, and accept for couples to be legally married. People should know that homosexuals are just like them.
Blackwell, W. Christopher Ricks, L. Janice & Dziegielewski, Sophia F. Discrimination of Gays and Lesbians: A Social Justice Perspective. Journal of Health & Social Policy, Vol. 19(4), 2004.
Irwin, J. Discrimination against gay men, lesbians, and transgender peopleworking in education. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services (2), 65-77, 2009.
Kirsch, McQueen theory and social change. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Lim, V. Gender differences and attitudes towards homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality 43(1), 85-97, 2008.
The Gay Metropolis: The landmark history of gay life in America since World War II. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company.