What exactly, is David Bell’s definition of “Total War”? How did “total war” result from the French Revolution, and influence its course? Would you argue that “total war” expanded the slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue? Or do you think that what happened in the Caribbean was independent of Bell’s thesis about the revolutionary wars? In addition to Bell, use at least two primary sources from Slave Revolution in the Caribbean in your answer.
- Describe the nature of the government of Sudan’s persecution of its own citizens – the Dinka, the Nuer – the Nuba – and the Darfurians.
The persecution of the people of Sudan by its government is because of the religious diversity. The civil wars that have been experienced in Sudan since its independence in 1956 can be categorized as religious war. The Northerners, who are predominantly Muslims and formed the government, always persecuted the Southerners, who are predominantly Christians. Therefore, the persecutions can be viewed as religious persecutions against Christians. The government used its armed forces, to persecute its own citizens, mainly the Nuer, the Nuba, and the Darfurians.
The people were bombed, hence displaced since their settlements were destroyed by being burnt up. The government, in collaboration with other groups aligned to it, predominantly Muslim groups, committed extrajudicial and other unlawful killings amongst the Sudanese. The people were tortured, beaten, treated inhumanely and the women raped by the Sudan security forces. This persecution made the people to seek shelter and refuge in ravines, forests, and caves. Others ran into nearby refugee camps, where they could be safe. The civilians were unarmed, yet they were being killed by the air force. Most of the survivors in the village were starved to death. This is because the relief aid and the human rights fighters were blocked from accessing these interior regions. Many people succumbed to death because there were no food supplies into the different regions. This was because no farming was going on since the farms had been destroyed by fire. Trading in the market places had also stopped due to insecurity.
Such inhumane treatment was unwarranted but the government justified it courtesy of the Sharia laws. Mass killings of anyone, who contradicted these laws, were seen as a way of worshipping Allah, the Islamic god. Therefore, this persecution targeted the non-Muslim people who did not necessarily abide by the Sharia laws. These were mainly Christians. The war against Christians became more evident when Southern Sudan became a state recognized by the international laws. The Christians Southerners who resided in Khartoum were flogged and chased from the north, and their churches burnt up. These atrocities were a great injustice by the government to the innocent people of Sudan, who had the right of protection by the government.
- Eventually how was the abuse resolved in the first two areas in the South and Central parts of Sudan?
The abuse in the first two areas in the South and Central parts of Sudan was resolved through peace talks and intervention by the United Nation Security Council peacekeeping forces. The leaders of the various warring groups were engaged in peace talks for resolution of the civil wars. This bore fruit when the Southerners got a new republic of Southern Sudan. Nevertheless, the conflict over oil fields continued. However, this has been resolved through the signing of a peace agreement between the two countries.
- Describe the current state of affairs in Darfur and neighboring Chad?
The state of affairs in Darfur and Chad has improved drastically since the visit made by the Chadian President Idriss Deby, to Khartoum in 2010. The visit resulted to peace deal between Chad and Sudan, which made Chad to chase out Darfur rebels who had their hideouts in the country. Both Chad and Sudan committed themselves to engage in joint patrols by the military at the border to ensure peace (Hanson).
- How can this be prevented in the future?
The compromise of peace between the borders of Chad and Sudan can be prevented in future when neither government seems to support the rebel groups, which seem to be against the running government. The conflict between Sudan and Chad had resulted when the governments of the two countries suspected each other of supporting the respective rebels in the two nations. There was war in Darfur alongside the civil conflicts in Chad. The peace between the two states can be sustained through keeping of the peace agreements signed and good diplomatic relations.
Civil wars in Sudan can be prevented in future when any aggrieved parties will choose the way of dialogue, instead of fighting. When dialogue does not seem to work, the aggrieved parties should seek the intervention of world or African diplomatic organizations like the United Nations or the African Union. Through such interventions, a solution to the prevailing circumstance that may compromise the peace of the entire nation will be found.
Hanson, Stephanie. Sudan, Chad, and the Central African Republic. 2 January 2007. 22 March 2013 <http://www.cfr.org/sudan/sudan-chad-central-african-republic/p12309>.
“Persecution of Christians in Sudan.” 24 January 2013. Sudan Advocacy Action Forum. 22 March 2013 <http://www.sudanadvocacy.com/>.
“Sudan, Chad agree to end proxy wars.” Mail & Guardian (2010): 1-9.