There are two different kinds of episiotomy that are used in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. Each has their own benefits and risks, and can be conducted at varying degrees. The first type of episiotomy is known as the midline episiotomy. This type of incision begins at the opening of the vagina and extends in a straight line to the anus. The midline is easy to repair, has a faster healing time, causes less pain and blood loss. The disadvantages of the procedure include, rectum incontinence and can lead to additional tearing.
The second type of episiotomy is known as a medio lateral. This incision also begins at the opening of the vagina, but is angled toward the buttock at a 45 degree angle. The advantages of this incision include less chances of tearing, however has more disadvantages than the midline incision. Disadvantages include more blood loss, pain and are more difficult for the physician to repair.
There are also varying degrees of episiotomies based on the level or depth of the incision. A first degree is only the cutting of the perineum, while the second decree cuts the perineum and the underlying tissue. The third and fourth degree cut the perineum, underlying tissue and the muscle that surrounds the anus. The fourth degree also involves the cutting of the lining of the rectum.
There are commonly three types of medication used to induce labor. Oxytocin is the most common and is a hormone that stimulates contractions of the uterus and smooth muscles. The contractions are what causes labor to begin. Women can experience headaches, confusion, irregular heartbeat and chest pain with the use of this medication. Dinoprostone is sometimes used and works to thin and widen the cervix, thereby inducing labor. There are more side effects associated with Dinoporostone that include nausea, headache, chills, fever and constipation. The third medication is Misoprostol and is a somewhat controversial drug, because it is used as an abortion drug. The medication causes the uterus to contract, however can lead to a serious allergic reaction that leads to throat and face swelling. Other less serious side effects are headache, irregular menstruation and constipation.