The most surprising thing that I learnt was about hackers in a network system. Majority of activities of hacking have now been directed to the applications at the point of application layer. This has grave consequences since the attacker can access all the permissions associated with the application and the permissions are usually the super-user. It was also surprising to learn that, majority of the applications usually run through root privileges of the super-user. Consequently, hackers manipulate this aspect of taking the control of the host by taking over the root. The root is usually a special account of the user in most of the operating systems of a computer that are used by the system administrators. It was also surprising to learn about the “Buffer Overflow Attacks” which implied to temporary regions of data storage where information is stored temporarily by the programs in form of allocated bytes in RAM.
The most difficult aspects were the hardening applications. It was revealed that some actions are responsible for hardening applications. The understanding of the role associated with the server as well as the threat environment is one of the actions. The basic were also important, such as the physical security, hardening Oss, and the frequent back-ups that have some pitches coupled with configuration settings of high security. Creation of program configuration for secure applications and minimizing applications were equally important actions in this regard. Installation of patches in the entire applications as well as minimizing the applications permissions also featured in this case. Addition of layer authentication to the application, auditing and authorization in addition to implementation of cryptographic systems also facilitated in hardening applications.