Categories
Nursing

Health and Culture

As the United States population becomes more diversified, nursing occupations have heightened responsibility to be aware of other people’s world views. “Nurses must consistently make the effort to educate themselves about other countries and societies existing in the U. S. and seek to comprehend their particular needs” ((Ayaz, et. Al, 2010). For many individuals, much pleasure is derived from discovering about other countries, other cultures, and other belief systems. As human beings learns about other ethnicities and other belief systems, fear of the unknown tends to subside, thereby leaving more opportunity for feeling and admiration towards diversity. This paper will identify culture, belief considers, about the competition and competition, being a parent, lower income, sex-related personal preference as what is recognized and what is not recognized with sex-related personal preference, medical considers,

Hispanic culture

For cultural integration to occur, knowledge of the habits, beliefs, patterns of behavior, and values of that culture is critically important. Indeed, understanding its expectations is as essential as knowing its language. The sense of ownership of your personal place varies from one modern society to another. Within the Hispanic culture the area around a person is relatively small, leading to a comfortable physical nearness, which is especially noticeable between individuals as they converse? So it is, that even though unconscious, an interesting exchange of distance adjustments take place during a discussion between two individuals who come from distinct cultures or who have differing levels of personal space comfort. The concept of time is intrinsic to a culture, both affecting the society’s behavioral patterns and being shaped by those same factors. In some cultures, time is viewed as a set structure that measured in exact quantities, taking on the characteristics of money that is a personal possession needing to be used correctly, and that is saved, spent, or wasted.

It is this latter concept of time that is reflected in the living and working patterns within most Hispanic communities. Here the individual receives more respect than the schedule. More important than the rational to this culture is the emotional; feelings over logic. Integral to the cultural reality is the heart, integrating all communication and fact. Touch and warm positive feelings are easily expressed and embraces and hugs among friends are common. Within the same gender, physical contact is culturally accepted. Women often walk arm in arm, especially a mother and daughter, or good friends. A kiss is also an expression of the heart. For a man and a woman to greet each other with a kiss on the cheek is a symbol of friendship and does not suggest romantic intention. On the other hand, a kiss on the lips is reserved for lovers, so even within the family setting; children and parents never kiss on the lips. “Latino youths  balance conflicting messages from two cultures regarding their sexuality. While the dominant culture appears to promote high levels of  non-marital  sexual activities, Latino youths, particularly females, must also deal with the more conservative Latino cultural norms towards sexuality and the “cult of virginity”” (Bednarz, et. Al., 2010).

Muslim culture

Muslim culture Muslim and non-Muslim Arabic culture is deeply influenced by the heritage and history of Islam, from its beginning in the seventh century to the revival period in the nineteenth and twentieth century’s. Counselors or any other person who work with Muslims clients should bear in mind that Islam prohibits renunciation of the Islamic faith. Therefore avoid any confrontation with Islam and try to help their clients find new answers and ways to change within Islamic teachings. Fortunately, as a result of the long history of Islamic debate, one can find within this heritage many Qur’an verses.

Counselors who work with clients having an Arab/Muslim or any other collective cultural background are encouraged to give special attention to understanding the relationships within the family (conflict, coalitions, and force balances) and the status of the client in the family. Basic teachings of Islam are finding legal ways to satisfy human instincts and needs. Unlike Christianity, which tends to ignore or deny human sexuality, Islam specifically deals with sexual issues and suggests legal ways to sexual control of women (e.g. veiling) and provides sexual vents for men (e.g. polygamy). Western doctors/nurses should be aware of their own counter transference toward Arab/Muslim clients and families. They need to be open to listening and learning about clients and their families and must strip themselves of any stereotypic notions and prejudices that they may have absorbed from the western media. They may need to make a great conscious effort to avoid judging the clients’ and their families’ behavior and attitudes according to the Western norms and values.

Anglo-American

In Anglo American culture,  however,  ‘direct confrontation’ is avoided in the  interests  of social harmony between independent individuals.  In view of the emphasis on individualism and on everyone’s personal autonomy, “closeness’ is cherished in this culture less than ‘harmony’. In saying this, I am contradicting the view of many Japanese scholars, who see Japanese culture as a culture of ‘harmony’ and Anglo- American culture as one which positively encourages direct contention and confrontation. Anglo- American tradition encourages people to say ‘I don’t think so’ rather than ‘you are wrong’. There is evidence that Anglo-American  men tend to be highly competitive in social interaction and task performance,  the micro cultures of Mexican  Americans, African Americans, and  Chinese  Americans favor a more cooperative approach.  Anglo-American emphasis on individual rights and needs as a possible rationalization for abusive behavior.

Importance of diversity for nursing occupation

The American Nurses Foundation and its associate, the American Nurses association, encourage nursing problems of cultural competency and ethnic diversity. In a 1991 position statement, the ANA recognized the critical requirement for nurses to be conscious of cultural variations of clients. “Three concepts are important: Facts of cultural diversity is fundamental at all degrees of nursing practice, approaches to nursing practice that do not incorporate cultural sensitivity are ineffective, knowledge regarding cultures and their influence on interactions with healthcare is vital for nurses” (Lowe, et. Al., 2009). As we all know from our experiences that cultural diversity became very important part in our world. If nurses care for patients from their own culture then they will understand their language and their culture. On the other hand if they are unfamiliar with the culture then there would be problem understanding and communication. “To work effectively the nurse should put aside cultural differences and obstacles and approach every client with patience and would be able to deliver care” (Bednarz, et. Al., 2010).

References

Bednarz, H., Schim, S., & Doorenbos, A. (2010). Cultural diversity in nursing education: perils,

pitfalls, and pearls. Journal Of Nursing Education49(5), 253-260. doi:10.3928/01484834-20100115-02

Ayaz, S., Bilgili, N., & Akın, B. (2010). The transcultural nursing concept: a study of nursing

students in Turkey. International Nursing Review57(4), 449-453. doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2010.00817.x

Sanner, S., Baldwin, D., Cannella, K., Charles, J., & Parker, L. (2010). The impact of cultural

diversity forum on students’ openness to diversity. Journal Of Cultural Diversity17(2), 56-61.

Lowe, J., & Archibald, C. (2009). Cultural diversity: the intention of nursing. Nursing

Forum44(1), 11-18. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6198.2009.00122.x

 

For cultural integration to occur, knowledge of the habits, beliefs, patterns of behavior, and values of that culture is critically important. Indeed, understanding its expectations is as essential as knowing its language. The sense of ownership of an individual’s personal space differs from one society to another. Within the Hispanic culture the area around one’s person is relatively small, resulting in a comfortable physical nearness, which is especially noticeable between individuals as they converse? So it is, that even though unconscious, an interesting exchange of distance adjustments take place during a conversation between two individuals who come from distinct cultures or who have differing levels of personal space comfort. The concept of time is intrinsic to a culture, both affecting the society’s behavioral patterns and being shaped by those same factors. In some cultures, time is viewed as a set structure that measured in exact quantities, taking on the characteristics of money that is a personal possession needing to be used correctly, and that is saved, spent, or wasted. It is this latter concept of time that is reflected in the living and working patterns within most Hispanic communities. Here the individual receives more respect than the schedule. More important than the rational to this culture is the emotional; feelings over logic. Integral to the cultural reality is the heart, integrating all communication and fact. Touch and warm positive feelings are easily expressed and embraces and hugs among friends are common. Within the same gender, physical contact is culturally accepted. Women often walk arm in arm, especially a mother and daughter, or good friends. A kiss is also an expression of the heart. For a man and a woman to greet each other with a kiss on the cheek is a symbol of friendship and does not suggest romantic intention. On the other hand, a kiss on the lips is reserved for lovers, so even within the family setting; children and parents never kiss on the lips. Latino youths  balance conflicting messages from two cultures regarding their sexuality. While the dominant culture appears to promote high levels of  non-marital  sexual activities, Latino youths, particularly females, must also deal with the more conservative Latino cultural norms towards sexuality and the “cult of virginity”