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History

SOUTHEAST ASIAN HISTORY

Southeast Asian countries, which largely include China and its neighboring countries, are greatly known for their being highly cultural and traditional. This basically imposes the idea that suggests that such countries depend much on how their ancestors tried to manage their communities through the utilization of religious principles alongside the oldest guidelines that are provided by their ‘elders’. Considering their background culture as a huge element towards the particular progress that they would want to incur, such regions give high regard to direction and proper guidelines that are provided to them through the history of their people. As noted, imperialist aggression shattered the fond dreams of the Chinese about learning from the West. It was very odd — why were the teachers always committing aggression against their pupil? The Chinese learned a good deal from the West, but they could not make it work and were never able

to realize their ideals (Mao Tse Tung, 3). This is the reason why the Chinese nation strongly depends on the aspects of communism and the principles by which it directs the society. In relation to this matter, this is practically the reason why the Chinese community [and all other nations noted to be related to their race] specifically follow the administration’s direction. They do believe that the constricts provided through the governance under a communist administration would provide them the chance to follow the path towards progress. Between the years 1945 towards 1947, this was evidently shown through the lifestyle of the people within the said region in Asia. Practically, this change has affected the overall economic condition of the country. People had the chance to seek the manner by which they were to actually take a role in relation to the path of progress that the country’s government wants to take as dictated by the administrators. Relatively though, while they were given the option to become excellent in what they are good in, they were not given the liberty to chose what they want to be excellent in. Nevertheless, this form of manipulation specifically boosted the economic status of the nations in the region.

            Children are categorized according to what they can do, lead to schools that help them perfect the said conditions of expertise. They are directed to become the perfect individuals who could make the society they are living in particularly ‘a better place to live in’. In a way, this approach of governance is considered as a restriction on the manner by which the rights of the people to freedom is recognized. Relatively though, for the administrators, this approach was one of the reasons why China and all its neighboring countries were able to withstand the different conditions that the years beyond 1947 offered them. Overall, it could be realized that even though the approach of the western countries towards progress was different, the path chosen by the Southeast Asians have become the best choice for their administration and their people as they embrace development towards a new and modern age.

References:

Mao Tse Tung. On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship: In commemoration of the twenty-eighth anniversary of the communist party of China. Selected Works of Mao Tse Tung.

1900: A Preview of the Twentieth Century.

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History

Őtzi: Uncovering the Iceman

In September of 1991 two hikers in the Őtzal Alps near South Tyrol, Italy came across the frozen body of a man. Although the hikers first suspected that it was the body of someone who had recently died, it turned out to be the corpse of a man who had been frozen in that spot for thousands of years. The frozen was given the nickname Őtzi because of the region where it was discovered, although he also became known as the Iceman. Researchers believe that Őtzi is over 5000 years old, and that he lived during the Neolithic period known as the Copper Age. Because his body was so well-preserved in the ice and snow, scientists have been able to learn many things about how he lived, and even about how he died.

            Although the elements eventually stripped away all of Őtzi’s hair, some of his hairs were found stuck in his clothing, and researchers have been able to determine that he had short, dark, curly hair that had been recently trimmed prior to his death (Conklin, 2005, p.137). Some of Őtzi’s clothes were damaged or destroyed during the process of removing him from the ice, but the remnants of what was destroyed as well as the articles of clothing that were preserved offered many clues about his life. Őtzi appeared to be well-prepared for traveling, as he was wearing soft leather shoes and a jacket made of leather or animal hide (Conklin, p.137). He had been carrying some sort of large backpack, though it had been damaged over the centuries, so it is not clear what was inside it, although it does offer evidence that Őtzi was traveling for some purpose (Conklin, p.137).

            Őtzi was wearing a small leather pouch that contained several items, such as pieces of flint, some unfinished arrowheads, grass string, and a hole punch or awl that may have been used for sewing leather (iceman.it, n.d.). In addition to the items in the pouch, Őtzi was carrying a large bow that had not been strung yet, a flint knife in a grass sheath, and a copper axe. Although the people who have studied Őtzi have used a number of different techniques to determine how old he is and to learn about his health and his way of life, the copper axe offers some clues. Őtzi was alive in the period known as the Copper Age, but in the typical settlement that people from that period often lived, it would not have been common for everyone to have copper axes or other tools (Conklin, p.135). Some researchers believe that this axe is evidence that Őtzi was an important person, and may have been a shaman, a medicine man, or some other significant figure among his people (Hales, 2000, p.86). Along with the items of clothing and tools that were found with Őtzi, researchers also found several different types of food, such as pieces of animal meat and pieces of plum or some other form of fruit. The presence of the fruit may indicate that Őtzi died in autumn, when the growing season had ended but fresh fruit was still available (Hales, p.86).

            There were a number of areas that had been settled in the region between what is now Switzerland and Italy, and the people of this period usually lived by farming and hunting. Agriculture would not have been particularly advanced, but archaeologists have found evidence that people raised sheep and goats, planted grains and other crops, and had carts with wheels and other basic farming tools. These people had the capacity to cook and to bake bread, and there was evidence that Őtzi ate a significant amount of grains in his life, as the grains had worn down his teeth (iceman.it, n.d.).

            Researchers used a number of scientific techniques to study Őtzi. Although the existence of his axe made it clear right away that he was at least several thousand years old, it was not until Carbon-14 dating techniques were used that it was possible to make a fairly accurate assessment of his age. The results of the test showed that Őtzi had lived sometime between 3350 and 3100 B.C., and had been trapped in that spot for over 5,000 years (iceman.it, n.d.). Other studies of his internal organs showed that he still had food in his system when he died, meaning that he had eaten recently, and that he showed signs of parasitic infections (Conklin, p.138). Some of the plants and food items Őtzi had with him may have been intended for use as medicine to fight symptoms of parasites.

            X-rays of Őtzi’s body showed a number of interesting things, including the fact that he had signs of arthritis in his hips, knees, and ankles. The most significant find uncovered by the X-rays, however, was the presence of a small flint spearhead or arrowhead embedded below his left shoulder (Gay and Whittington, 2002, p.20). The discovery of this spearhead has led researchers to believe that Őtzi may have been attacked while traveling, and that his death was a result of blood loss (Gay and Whittington, p.20). It is unlikely that it will ever be known for certain how Őtzi died, but this theory seems as plausible as any other possibility. Other tests and studies have determined that Őtzi was approximately 45 years old at the time of his death, which would have been a relatively old age for a man of his era.

            It is not known exactly which culture Őtzi lived in, though there were several different cultures scattered throughout the region that had developed the use of stone and metal tools and the ability to make ceramics. The museum exhibit featuring Őtzi’s body also makes information available about how he and people from his time lived. The cultures from this time and place are described as “cults of the dead,” and funeral ceremonies, burial rituals, and graves were all central parts of the culture (iceman.it, n.d.). Őtzi’s people buried important items with the dead, such as weapons and tools, so that the spirits of the dead would be prepared for the afterlife. Some people of this time buried bodies in mass graves, and others built stone crypts. The graves of the dead would be visited for prayers and rituals on a regular basis. Őtzi had a number of tattoos on his back and legs, which may have been put there as part of some sort of religious ceremony, or in the belief that they would help with the pain of the arthritis he had in those areas (Gay and Whittington, p.21).

            The settlements and communities of the Copper Age had other ceremonial sites besides graves, and religion was a central part of life for people from Őtzi’s time period. The people of this time would have worshipped the spirits of deceased ancestors and engaged in rituals to commune with the spirit world and to ask for acceptance in the afterlife (iceman.it, n.d.). Natural forces, such as the wind and rain, would be believed to be controlled by the gods. Because Őtzi was carrying the copper axe, it is possible that he was a religious figure among his people, and he may have been traveling on some important mission or quest. It is impossible to know everything about his life, but the remarkable condition of his preserved body has mean that Őtzi has been able to tell us many things about how people lived thousands of years ago.

Works Cited

Conklin, Wendy. Mysteries in History. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources, 2005. Print.

Gay, Kathlyn, and Christine Whittington. Body Marks: Tattooing, Piercing, and Scarification. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 2002. Print.

Hales, Sheila. Developing Literacy Skills: Pack Unit 1. Oxford, UK: Heinemann, 2000. Print. “Ötzi – the Iceman | Ötzi – South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology.” Home | Ötzi – South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology. N.p., 2013. Web. 15 June 2013.

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History

Geographic and environmental influences on developing civilizations

The geography and environment influenced the development of early civilizations in a great way; this was evidenced in the way the beliefs, the cultures and the practices were coined. Geography and environment influenced the internal characters and perceptions of man during the ancient periods. Elements such as political power, religious belief and economic sustainability during those days were mainly derived from the environmental facets and geographic elements. It is in the light of the above facts that this study highlights how geography and environment influenced human thoughts, societal settings, religious beliefs and politics. The study takes a comparative stance by looking at various regions such as Egypt, India, China, Greece, Western Asia and Rome (Heinrich von Treitschke, 225).

            Geography claims to own scientific thoughts that were cultivated by the ancient people in the above mentioned regions, take a case scenario of climatic difficulties in Egypt due to the desert where the scientific solution available to the Ancient Egyptians was the invention of water irrigations methods that saw them harness water from River Nile for agricultural and domestic purposes. The Egyptian case highlights the advent of hydraulic civilization which was mainly influenced by the environment and climatic conditions.

            In India geographic and climatic patterns affected the not only their settlements but also the rise of political kingdoms and emperors. Climatic elements such as monsoons winds and rainfall patterns around the Himalayan Mountains had a great impact on the peoples believes. The ancient Indians believed that little rainfall was due to their failure to obey their laws of their gods. The geographic vastness of the Indian region can also be attributed to the collapse of early political powers such as Harrapan civilizations which were founded in Mohenjo Dero, historians believe that the collapse of these civilizations was due to poor organization of political power due to the vastness of the region.

Geographical remoteness during the ancient periods calls for the question of geographical proximity, take the case scenario of Greek peninsula and the Greeks located in such regions. The conquest of peninsula by the Turkish influenced the culture of the Greeks who lived in those areas; this therefore explains sources of Greek culture in some Asiatic and Turkish settings. The element of political rivalry in the ancient times was vested on the natural environmental resources and geographical proximity. This is also manifested in the advancement of the Roman Empire into areas of central Europe. The Roman Empire had strong political powers that were consolidated by the rich natural resources and favorable climatic conditions. Heinrich von Treitschke, 225).

            The influence of geography and environment on the development of ancient civilizations was also evidence in the development of art and craft of the ancient periods, take the case scenario of ancient Greek where art was used to communicate the feelings of the people towards the rulers and the climatic changes. Egypt takes a lead in the development as regards to the issue of arts; Pyramids were built to honor the pharaohs where they kept after passing a way with a lot of food preservations(Geraham. Chisholm, 342).

            Hydraulic civilization is better placed to explain the advent and development of ancient China, for instance history shows that early settlements in China started in the along the Yellow River also known as Huang He. The people depended on the river for their livelihoods, natural features such as hills and mountains were believed to be the homes of the gods.

Works cited

Heinrich von Treitschke, Politik,. Leipzig,. This whole chapter on Land und Leute is suggestive.           Vol. 1, p. 225. 2009.

Geraham. Chisholm, The Relativity of Geographic Advantages, Scottish Geog. Mag., Vol. XIII,           No. 9, Sept. 2010.

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History

Fort Sumter and the Civil War

The Battle at Fort Sumter was the first battle of the Civil War. It was at this fort that the first shots of the American Civil War were fired- starting the battle between the Union and the Confederates. Fort Sumter is located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. Between April 11 and April 12, 1861, fights broke out when the Confederate forces attacked the Fort–a strategically important, as well as metaphorically important site, for many reasons.

            By 1861, the balance of power in Congress between free and slave states had reached its peak time of conflict. Acts such as the Missouri Compromise, as well as the newly annexed American properties like Texas and California, were used as temporary bargaining chips–the balance between free and slave states was truly only the binding agent for the Union.

            These two separate trains of thought were apparent from the onset of the United States as a country, and perhaps foreshadowing the entire Civil War–simply making the events at Fort Sumter the unavoidable catalyst, or proverbial “spark”. The original document outlining the structure of the US Government, The Articles of Confederation, placed way too much power in the hands of individual states, and not enough in the Federal government. Though the Constitution was eventually ratified, it still left a gray area between the State and Federal Governments, leading to Hamilton’s Federalist’s and Jefferson’s Democratic Republicans. The idea of states’ rights versus power of the federal government was imbedded from the beginning.

            The economy of the South for raw materials, and the North with its manufacturing centers, were codependent. Lincoln was not an abolitionist–in fact, he was a slave owner himself. The Emancipation Proclamation outlawed slavery only in the South–border states such as Maryland, Delaware, and even Southern New Jersey had slavery until the passage of the 13th Amendment, way after the Civil War. Lincoln made the War about slavery to protect the Union, and stunt a British-backed Confederacy.

            Though the Southern attack at Fort Sumter formally started the Civil War between the Union and the Confederacy, the seed was planted many years earlier, virtually at the onset of the United States as a nation, and its overall structure of government.

References

National Park Service, “Fort Sumter.” Last modified 08 06, 2013. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.nps.gov/fosu/index.htm

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History

Slavery in the South

In America, slavery was the main conflict between the North and South. However, it is little understood why the Southern states wanted to keep the institution of slavery in the era when human rights, equality were accepted in other parts of the society. After the enlightenment, nobody would have expected the South’s stubbornness to keep slaves. The below paper is going to examine the reasons behind the decision.

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History

Empowerment through Marginalization: The Trajectory Of Gay Identity and Rights in the U.S.

Introduction

Throughout history there have been several mandates and laws that have been passed on human rights including the U.S Constitution adoption of the Bill of Rights that gave laws to individuals and states protected within the Constitution,. The 14th amendment which prohibited slavery and put in the Equal Protection Clause, and the 19th amendment that prohibited and discrimination against women. From these amendments have bred movements in Civil Rights for African Americans and other minorities, rights for the disabled, rights for gender equality, and presently the rights of gay individuals. Since their passages they have each spawned movements in the 50’s-80’s that have rocked the nation and have changed the political, legal, and social landscape of the United States. The movement for equal human rights has not waned. The issue at hand that is currently being decided by Supreme Court is on the marriage rights of gay individuals. The gay rights movements have roots back in the early 50’s as they have fought alongside others for equal rights as well.

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History

Alfred Jodl: The Story behind the Alleged Wrong Decision of Court

Individuals who were assumed to have had their own share in the conditions that occurred during the bloodiest turns of events in human history have been given the chance to speak about what they know and defend themselves in court. Relatively, such chances allowed them to provide information that could likely imply that they did not know the relative results of their actions nor did they have any control of the situation, and that they were simply following orders during the time. Among the most controversial individuals who have undergone the said trial was that of Alfred Jodl who was assumed to have taken his position during the Nazi governance.

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History

How the American federalism has evolved overtime and how the balance of power has changed from the founding to how it is today

The United States was founded for the sole reason of the people being free of Kingman or rulers that took away their rights and liberties. As a solid democracy began to formed, many aristocrats that spoke for the elite and others that spoke for the common man were entangled in a weaponless war where the fight for the balance of power between a central (national) government, and their governments of the states. The balance of power is more than the weighing of interests, it is the balance of the state governments and the federal government that both have vested interests in the formation and direction of the United States. The struggle of power between the two entities has clearly lasted from the founding until the present day being argued in the Supreme Court. The result was the formation of the Constitution that represents the federal powers and the Bill of Rights that expresses individual rights. The Bill of Rights sought to protect the individual against abuses of the power of government, even if the government had the support of the majority.” (Volkomer 9)  This essay will provide a look at how powers of the federal and state governments are balanced under the Constitution, and how the American federalism has evolved overtime to describe how the balance of power has changed from the founding to how it is today.

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History

The Antifederalists

One problem with the argument that you are making is that Anti federalists were more about the power of the people than anything else. However, their concern was functionally in the Government not having as much say so in the powers and concerns of the state. During that time anti-federalists were more focused on expansion into Native American territory and other lands to extend the practice of slavery. The “people” that they were a concern about preserving the rights were for Anglo-Americans, not anyone else.

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History

The Development of Cities in the U.S. During the Early 19th Century

In the early 1800s, the United States saw a period of great growth due to the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a move towards a new manufacturing process in America and increased the average income of the citizens and as well as the population of the country as a whole. After the War of 1812, America gained a newfound sense of nationalism, and cities began to prosper based on the products and services the city could produce.

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History

Which side has best earned the right to say “I told you so,” the Federalists or the Anti-Federalists? Why?

Over the course of history, the Federalists have earned the right to say ‘I told you so.’ They succeeded in influencing the government to assume the state and national debts, create a central bank, and pass tax regulation laws that undoubtedly saved the democracy from going into poverty and dismantling during the establishment of the society and deciding on foreign policy. The Federalist beliefs have always remained that their diligent support of a strong central government control over the states would be better for America. The start of the much heated and talked about debate began during the ratification of the U.S Constitution. There were several speeches and articles written in the newspapers of the issue. Under the pseudonym “Publis”, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison wrote some of the most popular propaganda in influencing and interpreting the Constitution.

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History

The Conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Force in 1521

In the pages of the American history, it was the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec force that was considered a significant beginning of the process of the Spanish empire taking over the supposedly free people of America in the 1500s. During the time, Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was the area first captured by the Spanish armada. Through historical data, it was noted that somehow, religious ignorance on the part of the Aztecs is what made it easy for the Spanish force to enter the empire and completely conquer it later on. In the discussion that follows, some of the highlights of the Spanish campaign towards the capture of the Aztec empire shall be given light and attention to.

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History

Roosevelt’s New Deal

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt implemented a series of economic reforms between 1933 and 1936 that are collectively known as the New Deal. Some historians identify the New Deal as having two distinct stages with the first addressing major industry and the latter dealing with society as a whole. These changes were made in direct response to the hardships endured during the Great Depression and were developed to spearhead the recovery of the American people with various forms of financial relief. A limited welfare state was thus created in the United States with protective measures like work hour restrictions, child labor laws, and the promotion of worker unions. These and other aspects of the movement remain useful today as the problems encountered without such protective measures are easily observable in other countries like Bangladesh where even textile workers may risk their lives on a daily basis.

While the New Deal may not have produced immediate economic benefits, as is demonstrated by the immediate downturn in 1937-38, it did result in many important developments within the American political landscape. The Democratic Party rallied around Roosevelt’s liberal motivations while the Republicans focused on conservative perspectives that opposed such widespread government interference, setting the basis for party lines that is still apparent in virtually all political dealings within the country. The New Deal also acted as an inspiration for Johnson’s Great Society, which would address many important issues regarding equality. Roosevelt’s programs were accused of radicalism by conservatives, but could only be identified as being radical when contrasted with the equally extreme views that arose within Republican groups. The New Deal may have been an example of partisan politics, but it was not radical.

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History

The Mexican War of 1846-1848

Abstract

The Mexican-American War of 1846 until 1848 had profound effects on the future geographical and political make-up of both the United States of America and Mexico, with its reverberations still felt to this day. The war was provoked by President James Polk as a way of furthering his aims of American expansion in North America. Two important factors in the success of the US forces in the conflict were their advantage in artillery, and the way that they were able to utilise the US Navy to help General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City. This paper will analyse the impact on the war of those two particular advantages, as well as examine the results and consequences of the war.