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Nutrition

BMI Paper

Body mass index is a formula that factors in a person’s height, weight and age in order to determine a numeric value that can categorize a person as underweight, overweight, obese or within a healthy weight range. Although the BMI scale doesn’t take into account muscle mass, it is an effective way to measure whether or not a majority of people are within a healthy weight range for their height, gender and age.

  To calculate a BMI, one must take their weight in pounds and multiply it by 703, then divide that total by the height of the person in inches squared. Since I weigh 145 pounds, multiply that by 703 and get 101935. At 5 feet 8, I am 68 inches tall, and 68 squared is 4624. That would mean that my BMI is 22.04. That falls within the healthy weight range for my height and age. However, I would not mind to be more physically fit, and to form more muscle mass, so I want to implement a higher protein diet in my daily life, combined with a high intensity workout.

After calculating my BMI, I have decided to change my diet from a carbohydrate based diet to a protein based diet and to start working out at least five days a week. I want all of my three main meals to contain at least 28 grams of protein, with sides of complex carbs and vegetables to help give me energy and maintain muscle growth. I also want to rotate my workout schedule between cardio and weightlifting. Since my goal is to increase my muscle mass, I want to aim for three days of high intensity weight lifting, separated by two cardio days and two days for rest.

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Nutrition

Water: An Overlooked Nutrient

As requested, I have analyzed the nutrient benefits of Powerade, Gatorade and water and after comparing the data, it seems that water is the most efficient and cost effective way for people to stay hydrated. Although Powerade and Gatorade are packed with electrolytes which aid in hydration, the sugar in the drinks counteracts the positive benefits of the supposed “health drinks.” When it comes to hydrating, water does just as good of a job as Powerade and Gatorade to help the body restore itself from heat or exercise.

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Nutrition

Fast Food Menu Analysis

The healthy meal option I have created is from the popular fast food restaurant Wendy’s. The meal is comprised of a mandarin fruit cup, a grilled chicken sandwich (the Ultimate Chicken Grill), a side salad (Wendy’s side salad with fat free french dressing, and a bottle of water. The mandarin fruit cup has 80 calories, no fat, 19 grams of carbohydrates, 17 grams of sugars and 1 gram of protein. The Ultimate Chicken Grill sandwich has 400 calories, 10 grams of fat, 3.5 grams of saturated fat, 43 grams of carbohydrates, 10 grams of sugar and 34 grams of protein. The side salad only has 35 calories, no fat, 8 grams of carbohydrates, 4 grams of fiber and 1 gram of protein. The dressing contains 80 calories, 19 grams of carbohydrates, 16 grams of sugar and no fat. The total calorie content for the meal is 595, with 10 grams of fat and 36 grams of protein. This meal covers all of the food groups while maintaining a low total caloric value, no saturated fats, and a high amount of protein. This is a healthy meal for anyone and a good choice when eating at fast food restaurants.

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Nutrition

Splenda

The product Splenda is an artificial sweetener, of which the main component is sucralose. Splenda is owned byTate & Lyle, a British company and Johnson & Johnson, an American company. Sucralose is a substance that was first discovered in 1976 by scientists working for Tate & Lyle. The researchers were initially studying sucrose and analyzing its uses and its other artificial derivatives. One of the researchers was asked to test a compound of sugar that was chlorinated.  The researcher thought he was asked to taste it, which he did and from there, found the substance to be remarkably sweet (Gratzer, 2002). The substance has since been patented by Tate and Lyle in the same year and is now used as an artificial sweetening agent.

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Nutrition

Digestive Tract Assignment

http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Digestive+System+parts&sa=X&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=1525&bih=628&tbm=isch&tbnid=pBdApjB3BsvTDM:&imgrefurl=http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/digestive/&docid=0s9AgJoCkXqYNM&imgurl=http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/digestive/color.GIF&w=395&h=367&ei=H3KMUeuFIIK8igKZu4CoCw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=365&page=1&tbnh=142&tbnw=153&start=0&ndsp=30&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:165&tx=70&ty=76

Part 2. The digestive track begins at the mouth and further enters the, which esophagus extends down in the center of the body to the stomach. The liver is located on the right side of the body, partially extending into the left side of the body and covering part of the stomach. The gallbladder is found underneath the liver on the right side of the liver. The stomach, is found in the left mid portion of the digestive tract and sits on top of the spleen, and next to the liver . The stomach leads to the small intestines, which include the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum is found on the right side of the body and is the first part of the intestine. The jejunum is the midsection of the intestine, which connects the duodenum to the ileum. The ileum is toward the lower mid-section of the bottom at the base of the small intestines. The large intestine has three parts and starts in the right iliac region of the pelvis, just around the right side of the waist. The large intestine is joined at the bottom end by the small intestine. The cecum is found next to the end of the small intestine, then leads to the rectum and anal canal in the lower center portion of the body.

This information will be retained by memorizing the both the diagram and order of digestive tract functions.

Part 3. Labeled in Yellow in Figure 1.

Part 4.

Propulsion is the movement of food through the digestive system. It consists of swallowing and peristalsis. Peristalsis is the type of propulsion that occurs in the digestive system in order to move food from one organ to the next organ.

Absorption is the movement of material extracted from the food, such as vitamins, water and minerals from the digestive system to the blood. The movement of material consists of active and passive transport. The major organ of absorption is the small intestines.

Chemical Digestion is the breakdown of food by chemical processes. The food is broken down via enzymes, which are secreted from glands into the digestive system track. Chemical digestion begins in the mouth, when food enters the saliva and ends in the small intestine.

Mechanical Digestion is the technique in which the body uses to phyisically breakdown food. This consists of chewing food, churing the food in the stomach, and mixing food in the intestines.

 

 

 

 

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Nutrition

Gluten Free Diet

Gluten free diets are diets that exclude the protein gluten. Gluten can be found in many common foods such as bread, cereal, pasta and even beer (Kam, 2011). Gluten free diets can treat celiac disease, digestion issues, and help those with gluten intolerances. People who do not need to go on gluten free diets should not try to go gluten free- it is not an easy diet to follow and if a person’s body does not have problems processing gluten, research has yet to show any reason why a body would benefit from eliminating gluten from it’s diet.

Celiac disease, the most common reason for a person to need a gluten free diet, “is a digestive condition triggered by consumption of the protein gluten” (Mayo Clinic, 2011). If people with celiac disease accidently ingest gluten their body has a terrible reaction to it and damages the inner surface of the small intestine. This is why it is so crucial for patients with celiac disease to follow a gluten free diet.

Gluten-free diets can include beans, eggs, meat, and fresh produce, as well as non-processed wheats that have not been mixed with gluten during the manufacturing process. This includes buckwheat, flax, quinoa, rice, soy and more. Prohibited foods include barley, rye and wheat. Other wheat products to avoid if attempting a gluten-free diet include bulgar, furina, spelt, and many beers, breads, cereals and pastas. Patients following gluten free diets should look carefully for gluten free labels on their groceries before purchasing them if they are unsure about the ingredients.

Resources:

Staff, Mayo Clinic. “Gluten-free Diet: What’s Allowed, What’s Not.” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 20 Dec. 2011. Web. 06 May 2013.

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gluten-free-diet/my01140

Kam, Katherine. “Gluten Intolerance, Sensitivity, & Gluten-Free Diets.” WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 06 May 2013.

http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/celiac-disease/features/gluten-intolerance-against-grain

Staff, Mayo Clinic. “Celiac Disease.” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 13 Sept. 2011. Web. 06 May 2013.

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/celiac-disease/DS00319

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Nutrition

The Master Cleanse

The Master Cleanse diet is a fad diet that started in the 1940s and is a liquid based diet that has been scientifically proven to shed weight fast and detox the body of impurities (Olaski, 2008). Invented by Stanley Burroughs, this detox diet is based around a lemonade drink mixed with maple syrup, lemon juice, and cayenne pepper (Ferland, 2010). The idea of the Master Cleanse is for the dieter to drink the concoction whenever he or she is hungry- the combination of the ingredients are said to help speed up the metabolism, increase energy, decrease hunger and detox the body of impurities.

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Nutrition

Lipid Panels Case Study

LDL: Low-density lipoprotein is considered as the water-based bloodstream where transport of different fat molecules is hosted. The higher levels of LDL could usually result to health problems including cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why LDL is often called as the bad cholesterol.

HDL: High-Density Lipoprotein is often considered as the healthy amount of cholesterol passed on through the bloodstream. Often recognized as the good cholesterol, HDL rates that are lower than usually is considered to possibly cause particular health problems relating to cardiovascular issues.

Triglyceride: This particular substance is noted as a blood lipid that helps in enabling the transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver. Unsaturated compounds of triglyceride are often considered harmless, whereas the highly saturated ones become a source of health problems as defined under the condition by which they affect the fat content of the blood.

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Nutrition

Childhood Obesity

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the prevalence of obesity as defined by body mass index equal to or greater than 30, is on the rise in the United States. For example, studies reveal that in the year 2011, no state in America showed an obesity prevalence rate of less than 20%, and twelve U.S. states showed rates of 30% or more (Overweight and Obesity, 2012). What is interesting to note is these figures are just for adults. The CDC reports that approximately 12.5 million, or 17%, of children, adolescents and teenagers in the U.S, between the ages of 2 and 19, are obese (Overweight and Obesity, 2013). Additionally, approximately 18% to 31% of children in the U.S. are obese by the time they are 4-years-old, as adjusted by demographic factors (Wojcicki & Heyman, 2012).

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Nutrition

Animal Research

Medical research, particularly biomedical research is made possible through the use of animal testing and modelling. The practice of animal research and testing is used for experimentation for first testing medical procedures, medicines, and various medical outcomes related to diseases and conditions, before using them on human patients. Drug testing is a primary aim of animal research as it is how pharmaceutical companies ensure medicines and cosmetics are safe to administer to the public (Hajar, 2011). At times, the animals are given specific diseases or conditions for testing purposes, and then they are given experimental medicines or treatments so that medical researchers and scientists can learn about specific diseases and conditions, as well as the efficacy of certain medications (Hepworth, 2010).

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Nutrition

Menu for 20 People

In preparing a menu for a larger group of people, it is important to consider if there are any dietary restrictions or other requirements for the event in question. For a picnic, it is important to recognize the need to utilize methods of food transport that will be effective in preserving the freshness and integrity of the food items. Therefore, the proposed menu will include a variety of foods that are ideal for outdoor picnics that are easy to transport and to pack up when the picnic is over.

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Nutrition

Interview about eating habits

A female friend named CJ offered information regarding her regular eating habits. She addressed the importance of variety in her diet and that she was trying to become healthier and wanted to learn about nutritional food choices. Currently, she believes that she drinks too much soda and eats too many sweets and not enough fruits and vegetables. She rarely eats red meat but does consume chicken, pork, and fish. She stated that she would like to lose around 25 pounds to reach her ideal goal weight and become more active on a regular basis. She currently walks 2 miles per day 2-3 days per week. In order to accomplish these objectives, she must consume foods with lower calories and fat and greater nutritional value on a daily basis and expand her exercise routine.

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Nutrition

Diet Analysis

The South Beach Diet is a diet program and plan that emphasizes quick weight loss and the reduction of cravings in the first phase, goal weight optimization in the second phase, and maintenance of weight loss goals in the third phase (South Beach Diet). This diet has a number of strengths, including the ability to lose weight quickly in the first phase, followed by a comprehensive maintenance plan that includes recipes and other suggestions for food consumption. At the same time, this diet only allows minimal carbohydrates during the first phase, which may lead to blood sugar imbalances after a period of time. A diet that promotes no or very limited carbohydrates is challenging because after this phase is over and carbohydrates are returned to the diet, it becomes very difficult to maintain the same level of weight loss, and during the maintenance phase (Phase 3), weight gain may occur when regular foods are eaten, even in healthier versions.

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Nutrition

Food Storage Techniques

In order to preserve food products for as long as possible, it is important to follow a number of basic techniques that will enable food to be used in its freshest form to optimize its nutrients and flavor. For example, the following techniques are recommended to preserve food in its original form for as long as possible: 1) canning some fruits and vegetables using the proper techniques to preserve flavor and remove enzymes and the potential for bacterial growth (NCHFP); 2) maintain fish and poultry in very cold temperatures (Earth911); 3) keep fruits and vegetables separate (Earth911); 4) Do not put all vegetables in the refrigerator (Earth911); 5)  Rinse berries with a small amount of vinegar prior to refrigeration (Huffington Post); 6) Do not keep fruits and vegetables in airtight containers for too long (Huffington Post); 7) Keep fruits and vegetables fresh with the proper amount of humidity (Huffington Post); 8) Put soggy veggies in ice water to refresh their crunch (Huffington Post); 9) Keep potatoes outside of the refrigerator (Huffington Post); and 10) freeze herbs in Ziploc bags (Huffington Post). Each of these techniques is likely to keep foods fresher for longer and are a cost-effective means of improving the nutritional value for these food products.