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Courbet’s Social Looking-Glass: An Art in Rebellion

Literary critics often say that writing reveals as much- or even more- about the author than it does about the story—the same could be said of artists and their works. The majority of Corbet’s works focused on the morbidity of life and death or nude women often accompanied by some small and adorable animal. Although Gustave Courbet painted artwork during the early Realism period, even the presentation of a human subject in various natural reactions permanently captures candid images laced with the author’s subtle humor. His unconventional approach immortalized him as a father of an entire artistic movement which replaced romantic heroes and long-haired maidens in distress with dirty subjects in the city, beautiful nudes relaxing in the privacy of their grounds and waters, and planter’s pots brimming over with leaf and flower. The art tells us more about Courbet than his history; it explains his past, the evolution of the time period in which he lived, and the modern direction to which the world quickly gravitated.

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Edgar Degas and his different view of Impressionism

Art has always been a reflection of one’s idea throughout our history. It is expressed in many different forms, such as paintings, sculptures, drawings, illustrations, photographs, architecture and etc. It has transitioned from style to style and developed into distinct perceptions of art at different periods of time. Artists throughout history has influenced and moved us forward from time to time with their new techniques, methods, and materials as they produced art in their own way. In such, Art movements and their artists has been the fundamental support of the following generation of artists. Edgar Degas was one of the most influential impressionist back in the 19TH century, at a time when impressionism wasn’t recognized as real art by academic art at the time. Degas’ view of impressionism was different from other impressionists. He had a preference of human condition rather than nature in his works and resulted in what was seen as alternative impressionism.

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Paintings

      Eisenman’s Impressionism

In chapter 11, “Manet and the Impressionists,” Eisenman examines the historical and political contexts of the Impressionist movement particularly as they pertain to the work of Edouard Manet. One of the key aspects of the examination is the way in which the historical circumstances of life in nineteenth century France influenced the aesthetic of Impressionism. According to Eisenman, the process of Haussmannization which took place under Napoleon, created the groundwork for Impressionism. This is due to the fact that the modernization of Paris that took place in Paris during the Haussmannization brought with it a corresponding sense of alienation and anxiety in regard to individualism.

Eisenman cites this sense of alienation as being one of the chief components of the eventual rise of Impressionism. He writes that in trying to “carve out an identity in an environment increasingly bereft of social markers … the painter Manet adopted the subcultural stance of the flaneur” (Eisenman 239). One of the most significant underpinnings of this orientation was that it valued individualism above materialism. As such, Eisenman develops the argument that the materialistic preoccupations of the Napoleonic age during the Second empire inspired a rebuttal in artistic expression and that part of this rebuttal is expressed in the genre of

 

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Impressionism. Therefore the historical basis of Impressionism is actually one of politics and economics rather than merely abstract aesthetics and principles of composition.

This means that Impressionism must be regarded as a modernist movement. Two of Manet’s works The Balcony and Music in the Tuileries express modern sensibilities. In the case of The Balcony Manet was able to scandalize viewers by showing two women with their servant on a balcony without adhering to traditional poses, expressions, or conveyed social manners. As Eisenman writes in regard to the painting, manet meant to disturb the usual conceptiion of painterly subjects as wella s the usual expectations in regard to gender. Eisenman writes “Manet would accpet no such circumscribed role for his women chracters or for himself” (Eisenman 240). Instead, Manet used painting to celebrate individuality. This is a modernist idea for two reasons: one, because it breaks with the traditional idea of how paintings were supposed to serve society, and two, because it shows that the individual can sometimes stand in opposition to, or outright conflict with social mores.

In the painting Music in the Tuileries manet breaks with convention by depicting artists rather than nobility as the cream of society. According to some critics this painting should be considered the first truly modern painting. this is, in part, due to the fact that it challenges the conventional social ideals of its time, but it is also because it is a painting which shows the capacity for self-mythologization that exists in painting. The modern aesthetic is one that allows for the idealism of art itself to be celebrated outside of its connection to religious or political leaders. This was obviously a very new idea in Manet’s time. Taken together with The Balcony,

 

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the two painting indicate some of the moree essential qualities of modern painting that would develop over the next decades. One of the key points in regard to the modernist perspective is that it values individuality and imagination above social rank or materialism. This is very important to keep in mind as the technique of Impressionism is studie a bit closer in relation to its connection with issues of class-struggle and the commodity culture.

One way that the Impressionist genre emerged as an act against the commodity culture was to challenge notions of academic painting. the reason that it was important for the Impressionists such as Manet to challenge notions of academic painting was because those ideas had long kept art combined with social class and elitism. The Impressionists, in short, wanted to move painting out of the academy and into the real world where it interacted with people of all social classes and backgrounds. This means that a painting like Manet’s Olympia not only shows the qualities of impressionism noted above, but also an overt deviation from academic painting. In fact, Eisenman considers this oainting by manet to be the very embodiment of anti-academic painting. He writes that the painting is “a refusal of modeling and subtle chairascuro” and that Manet’s work stands as “very different from teh disingenuous entreaties of Academic and Official art” (Eisenman 242). this work was not only a statement against the academic principles mentioned by Eisenman, but at the idea of placing limitations on art at all.

Because the painting featured a nude women, it caused controversy among the moralizing public as well as among traditional art academics. Manet intended his paintings to create controversy and particularly intended to challenge ideas of gender and race. Olympia portrays a black woman and a white woman. the painting was left deliberately “rough” and unpolished. This along with its depiction of a “courtesan” and a “negress” according to critics of the day caused the painting to be looked down on as a scandalous failure. Eisenman’s conclusion regarding the painting is much different. According to him, the paiting represented prolitarianism and was in actuality was “more modern than it was avant garde” (Eisenman 244). his view of the painting indicates very much his inference that Impressionism, above all other things, existed as a rejection of materialistic sosciety.

This is the real point of Chapter 11, which shows that the open-air utilitarianism of the Impressionistic style was connected to ideas of alienation and the commodity culture. impressionism was, in fact,a rejection of these ideas and a corresponding celebration of individuality and the gratification of the emoitions and taste rather than sensual materialism. the very techniqque of impressionism was menat to emphasize the imaginative compponent of art and excite the eyes. The statement of the genre as a whole is therefore anti-materialistic. it is a style of painting the intrisically refutes the commodity culture of its time as well as the acdemic painterly principle that preceded it.

Manet’s work, as described by Eisenman is a meditation on the subversice nature of vision. in other words, the way in whihc the eye the imagination interact for Manet is an act of rebellion against the materialistic and commodity-driven society of his time. The way in whihc the eye and imagination fucntion are not only acts against the machine-state and the alienation of materialsm, but they are redemptive caocities that help to preserve individuality in the dehumanization of the modern age. As such, impressionism must be considered as much a political and social phenomenon as an artistic style. the elements of the aesthetic sketched out above corresonp to very definite Marxist ideas, mentioned in the reading material. in sort, impressionism is a rejection of classicism and a celebration of iumagination and individuality.

Work Cited

Eisenman. “Chapter 11 Manet and the Impressionists” 239-254

 

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Paintings

Renaissance Perspectives: The Individual in Context Readings: Giorgio Vasari, “Preface to Part Three”, Lives of the Artists (1550; 1568)

Art is a form of human expression presented through visual, audio or verbal mediums. Relatively, it is most often than not created according to the notion of the creator with regards the most appealing element that he might realize to have an impact on his being and his development as a person. It also provides a distinction on how he sees the society around him thus reflecting the issues that the people during a specific span of time are most likely interested in. The development of art has been accounted to be specifically dependent on how humans defined the society as it changes its face each year or from one era to another. Understandably, this is the reason why it was said that developmental arts does not only show the development of art itself but the advancement of the society as well.

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Paintings

Erwin Panofsky on Renaissance Art

In his work on the study of the Medieval and Renaissance art, Erwin Panofsky explicated the fundamental difference between the subject matter (or meaning) and form. By analyzing the simple case of a greeting with a man in the street accompanied by hat lifting, Panofsky illustrated that each object, action, or phenomenon has three strata of meaning: the primary (or natural) meaning, the secondary (or conventional) meaning, and the intrinsic meaning or content (Panofsky 26-28). According to the author, the same strata of meaning can be transferred on any artwork: the primary or natural subject matter (conceived through apprehension of pure forms), secondary or conventional subject matter (understood through connecting artistic motifs with themes and concepts), and the intrinsic meaning or content (comprehended by uncovering the underlying principles of a nation’s, class’s, period’s attitudes revealed and condensed in the work) (Panofsky 28-30).

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Paintings

Vivien Green Fryd’s “Georgia O’Keefe’s Radiator Building: Gender, Sexuality, Modernism, and Urban Imagery” Article Critique

In Vivien Green Fryd’s text “Georgia O’Keefe’s Radiator Building: Gender, Sexuality, Modernism, and Urban Imagery” the author attempts to tie together, on the one hand, a biographical approach to the work of art, in question, whereby Fryd attempts to uncover the complex personal aetiology that led to the work’s production, with a theoretical approach, largely defined by Freudian psychoanalysis. However, one of the founding tensions of the article is precisely the sense in which an artist creates a work of art in relation to, not only a particular theory, but also in relation to particular interpretations of the work of art produced. Namely, Fryd’s article is most interesting in so far as it suggests that the creation of a work of art is not the spontaneous act of the creator, but rather involves a dialogue between the artist and the critics the artist knows will eventually provide commentary on his or her work.

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Exploring Wolfflin’s Understanding of Art History

The capacity of humans to express themselves through different forms of art has been considered as one of the most important aspects of human history. Not only does art provide an idea on how the artistic aesthetics of design define human development, it also gives a brief indication on how the humans of ancient times lived through the different aspects of changes that they had to deal with. In Wolfflin’s writing, he imposes that such aspect of art should not be set aside. Instead, it should be used as the basis of most analysis that are dedicated to the process by which artistic forms are being examined at present. Basing from the idea of development, Wolfflin imposes that art also defines the society where it was produced, Not only do the people who created them become mirrored in each piece, but instead it is the whole community that is presented in each particular piece.

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Catalogue Entry #3. Wing of a diptych or triptych, inv, no.339

The Art collection in Campbell, Sheila D. 1987. The Malcove Collection: a catalogue of the objects in the Lillian Malcove Collection of the University of Toronto. Toronto [u.a.]: Univ. of Toronto Press. Entry 339 discusses a painting titled the Wing of a diptych or triptych on Virgin and Child work collection. This is one ofthe several series of works done by Campbell in her extensive work collections the Lillian Malcove Collection in 258 AD in St Lawrence martyred in Rome[1].

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Paintings

Impressionist artists

Gustave Caillebotte

He is known to be great painter and a generous impressionist movement leader. Most of his work in particular the “the floor scrapers” were highly appreciated. Caillebotte did his painting in a more realistic way as compared to other impressionist. His work is seen in views of Paris streets (high balconies), scenes of working life, natural landscapes of gardens and parks. Caillebotte brings originality to his city scene through the careful exaggeration of angles, changing of figures by addition of some parts and elimination of some parts.

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Art Analysis Paper Based on Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne

What makes an art as valuable as it is? One is that of the name of the artist who made it, another is that of the culture it represents, and lastly is the reason behind its making. The painting of Bacchus and Ariadne is a classic representation of Titian’s work of art. Relatively, its meaning and the basis of its message come from a very classical origin which includes the consideration over the popularity of the Greek mythology during the 1500’s. Released in 1520 by Titian himself, this art work was made under the request of the Duke of Ferrara. The duke placed the said work in the Camerino D’Alabstro which was a special room in his mansion dedicated to painted work of arts regarding the classical novels that he was fond of. To better provide an analysis of the said art, three theories should be used as basis for this discussion. One is the formal theory, another is the socio-cultural theory and the third is the expressive theory.

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Paintings

Audrey Flack: Marilyn Monroe

Audrey Flack: Marilyn Monroe

Art Analysis and Definition

The artistic representation of Marilyn Monroe and her legacy in the work of Audrey Flack is often noted as the actual definition on how the artist herself sees another artist from another industry of entertainment. Relatively, Audrey’s recollection of different elements relating to Marilyn Monroe shows so much about the appreciation she has over the process by which the said artist lived her life and how such a life has impacted the life of those who lived around her as well as the public that saw through the years of her existence. The sudden death of an artist in the caliber of Marilyn Monroe affected the society so much alongside the consideration and attention they have regarding the facts about being an artist and the specific condition of living that they are subjected to.

Utilizing her most famous photos and some of her memorabilia in the presentation, Audrey shows how much she knows the artist including the most important elements that make up her being. The fruits she liked and ate the most specifically showed how much Audrey reads about the deepest and most condescending reports about Marilyn Monroe. Roses, paintings and makeup represents the love and attention that Monroe has over beauty and the appearance that she represents herself with in front of the public. Deep appreciation of the subject on the part of the artist is a constant distinction that this art shows. The candle set beside the presentation aims to create a notion of light that comes about in providing the artist’s being a sense of direction especially in line with how she is recognized by the public and in the industry she used to exist in. At this point, it is the desire of the public to see through the being of the artist that pushed Audrey to become more attentive and detailed in presenting Marilyn Monroe and the being that marked her existence not only in the industry but among the people living around her.

References:

Audrey Flack encourages our inner beauty. http://inadvertentlyart.blogspot.com/2009/12/audrey-flack-encourages-our-inner.html. (Retrieved on February 16, 2012)

Audrey Flack: Archetype For Change. http://jenniferlorraine.tumblr.com/post/20111999880. (Retrieved on February 16, 2012)

Thompson, Graham. (2007).  American Culture in the 1980s (Twentieth Century American Culture), Edinburgh University Press.

Morgan, Robert C. (November 2010). “Audrey Flack and the Revolution of Still Life Painting”. The Brooklyn Rail.

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Neoclassical vs. Romantic Images of Death: David’s Death of Manat and Delacroix’s Death of Sardanapalus

            Death as an artistic subject matter clearly speaks to a universal theme, easily understood on the most basic existential levels. Yet the portrayal of death can, of course, radically vary. Painting may bring out different conceptions of death, much like any other form of art; in the case of David’s Death of Marat (1793) as compared to Delacroix’s Death of Sardanaplaus (1827) the viewer is presented of two aesthetic representations of death, which differ, primarily along the lines of the periods to which they belong, neoclassicism in regards to David, and romanticism in regards to Delacroix. These two artists give us what may be termed two different relationships to death, consummated in the type of death portrayed as well as the artistic style used to make the nothingness of death appear on a canvas. For David, style and subject matter come together to present an almost realistic portrayal of death, shown from a certain rationalist perspective consistent with neoclassical roots to Ancient Greece and philosophical discourse. For Delacroix, in contrast, his expression of death is one of an elemental chaos, a fury that is unleashed upon the canvas. In short, through the styles of neoclassicism and romanticism it could be suggested that the painters represent two views of death from the perspective of logos in the case of the former and mythos in the case of the latter.

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Organizer for Compare and Contrast Research Paper

Name & OL#:

Why are you drawn to write about these works of art? Why are they important?

Angelika Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting her children, the Gracchi as her treasures (1785) is assumed herein as a sample of the baroque art painting and is considered to have the basic conditions of the said time of artistic formation. On the other end, La Moulin de Galette by Auguste Renoir in 1876 is a classic representation of the renaissance movement of artistic creations. These works have been chosen for comparison as they were both created by young artists of their time and it does show how they appreciate the current art movement that they have been brought up into. Both art pieces show the culture and the interpretation the artists have on the society that they were specifically introduced to.

Angelika Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting her children, the Gracchi as her treasures (1785)

Baroqye Art

Stylistic Characteristics:

List 3 stylistic characteristics that relate to this artwork

  1. Dramatic lighting
  2. Theatrical
  3. Highly Decorative Details

 

Cultural Context:

List 3 cultural characteristics that relate to this artwork

  1. Culture of familial ties
  2. Culture of giving respect to family members
  3. Instantiating importance to the worth of children to their mothers
La Moulin de Galette by Auguste Renoir in 1876

Renaissance art

Stylistic Characteristics:

List 3 stylistic characteristics that relate to this artwork

  1. Geometrical arrangement of figures
  2. Light and shadowing effects
  3. Emphasis on individualism

Cultural Context:

List 3 cultural characteristics that relate to this artwork

  1. Socialization
  2. Modern establishment of human relationships
  3. Giving attention to social status and elitism

 

 

Outside Research Sources for this essay:

 

1. Kitson, Michael. 1966. The Age of Baroque. Landmarks of the World’s Art. London: Hamlyn; New York: McGraw-Hill.

 

2. Lambert, Gregg, 2004. Return of the Baroque in Modern Culture. Continuum.

 

3. Wölfflin, Heinrich. 1964. Renaissance and Baroque (Reprinted 1984; originally published in German, 1888) The classic study.

 

 

Thematic Connection:

What significant connection(s) between the two works of art can you make?

Ø  While the art work of Kauffmann deals with familial pride, the work of Renoir is focused more on social recognition which is one of the most important aspects of social development in the 1800’s.

Ø  When it comes to artistic value, the said works of art are both consistent in presenting the personal interpretation of their creators in relation to social development and cultural assessment of human relationships and their values to human individuals during their own times.

 

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Albrecht Dürer’s Fall of Man (Adam and Eve)

Dürer lived from 1471–1528, making him a Renaissance artist, but that is a very broad category. The term Renaissance makes one think of the Italian city-states and their own cultures and geniuses. Instead, we can use the term German Renaissance, itself a part of the Northern Renaissance, to classify Dürer, who was born in Imperial Free City of Nuremberg (Dürer, Albrecht). But although Dürer was Germanic, he was still influenced by the Italian Renaissance, and visited Italy twice (Albrech Dürer). He also may have corresponded with Leonardo da Vinci.