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Philosophy

Arguments on Representing Las Vegas

What constitutes the real viable description of any city is the process by which all angles of life that thrives in it is being represented one way or another. Relatively, based on this argument, it could be noted that CSI Nevada represents Las Vegas in a more distinct way compared to how Las Vegas [the TV series] tries to represent the life and the being of the people residing in the city. Relatively, Las Vegas [TV Series] focuses on casinos and the administration that works behind their existence. While it is true that Las Vegas [the city] is known for gambling and huge casinos, it is not justifiable that the city be stereotyped as some placed only focused on such matter. CSI Nevada on the other hand, although it is more focused on the areas of Nevada alone [which is merely a part of Las Vegas city], it defines the people and the life they live in a more distinct way that makes it easier for the viewers to see what Las Vegas really is about. It tries to expand in defining the people, their characteristics and the issues that they have to deal with in relation to the culture of the society in the city through the occurrence of each criminal case they intend to investigate upon.

Categories
Philosophy

Kant, Mill, & Moore

The meta-ethics of Kant, Mill and Moore directly address the question of what can goodness possibly mean. They therefore seek out, in this sense, from taking up the approach of meta-ethics to essentially argue whether this notion of goodness that makes any ethics possible is defined in itself, or rather, if such goodness is merely a consequence of our own ways living. To phrase it differently: do our conceptions of goodness mean that we determine what is good, or is there some type of objective goodness which does not vary according to our determinations? The first part of the question can be further more divided into two sub-categories. If our conceptions of goodness mean that we determine what is good, either such goodness varies across particular normativities of what it means to be good – this implies that human beings have varying conceptions of the good – or that there is a sense in which all our normativities, in so far as they are good, are necessarily good, meaning that we have an innate understanding of what goodness means. This differentiates from the second part of the question above, because such an idea of good now becomes either an innate part of the human being, in the first case, or, in the second case, something to which the human being must emulate because it is something that they cannot wholly understand, but nevertheless follow. The philosophers, Kant, Mill and Moore seem to follow this schema. Moore argues for the point that goodness essentially is dependent upon our normativities: what we consider to be normal is good.  Mill, in contrast, suggests that our actions are innately good, because he is a utilitarianist, and therefore all our actions are inherently directed towards the good. Kant, however, argues that what is good is essentially not understandable by us, and therefore, there is simply a “categorical imperative” to follow this good that is the foundation of ethics. In the following paper, I will argue in favor of Kant’s position, based on the weaknesses of an ethical relativity that appears incisive for Moore’s position, and a failed understanding of the good in the case of utilitarianism and Mill. Kant, in contrast, gives us a transcendent, almost God-like good, which is beyond either relativity or the ethical desire for the good lying in the “means” of man.

Categories
Philosophy

Compararive Religions

1, Description of Field observation

According to the global hostilities that we witness everyday between the Islamic world and the Western world, I decided to choose as subject the Islamic religion. I centered my field observations upon two distinct events in the Islamic calendar. One was an observance of the Islamic Ashura festival, in December of 2011. The second field observation was centered on a normal Friday “day of assembly” at the Mosque, which delineates a time for shared prayer in the Islamic community, otherwise known as Jama Masjid. Hence, the two particular events denote, in the case of the former, a holiday and thus a special day in the Islamic calendar, while the latter is essentially a bedrock of normal life within the Islamic community, dictating the tempo of belief and worship. The two thus provide an excellent juxtaposition to compare the religious norm and the religious holiday exception in which faith takes on a more pronounced status that resembles that of an event: such a juxtaposition aids in the understanding of two extremes of the given tradition, so as to better understand it from a the standpoint of religious worldviews and how individual members of religion experience their respective faiths in all its diversity..

2,  Field Notes

Categories
Philosophy

Advertising and behavior control

In the text “Advertising and Behavior Control” Arrington presents an ethical tension at the heart of marketing. On the one hand it is said that advertisers manipulate the desires of consumers, forcing them to purchase products they do not want. On the other hand, advertising perhaps offers an “information” service, communicating to the consumer what is available on the market. Arrington sides with the latter argument: while advertising may be accused of playing with consumer behavior, there nothing in the essence of advertising itself which suggests that advertising is necessarily manipulative. Thus, the ethical responsibility comes down to the consumer. To put Arrington’s position somewhat coarsely: advertisers are not putting a gun to consumers’ heads, forcing them to buy things.

Categories
Philosophy

Work of Art

Introduction

Responsibility is an important aspect of anyone’s life, especially in light of those who are followers of Christ. In “The Responsible Self”, Richard Niebuhr presents an interesting theory on this topic, and how we are to approach it. The extent of its effectiveness, its useful application in daily life, and whether its adoption is to be valued are discussed herein.

The Responsibility Theory

The four elements of responsibility raised by Niebuhr are quite significant and worthy of consideration.

Firstly, the Idea of Response is the way in which we react to something done to us, and the way in which we interpret the actions done to us; known as moral action. We often instantly react to something or someone by instinct, and the way in which we determine our action is based on this first element.

Secondly, Responsive Action is a result of how we react to actions or circumstances that we come across. Often, responsibility comes when we make ourselves part of something around and about us; it is these same situations or circumstances that determine whether we use a moral action.

Categories
Philosophy

Reflection Paper: Michael Sandel “Justice: A Citizen’s Guide to the 21st Century”

In “Justice: A Citizen’s Guide to the 21st Century”, philosopher of law Michael Sandel approaches contemporary legal issues from the perspective of the philosophy of law, thus employing various dominant theories and positions within this tradition, such as Bentham’s utilitarianism, the Aristotelian theory of justice and Kantian deontologistics. Arguably what makes this documentary is compelling is not only that it elaborates relevant legal problems that exist in the first decades of this century, but also in the fact that by applying these existing theories to these issues, one can ascertain the continued relevance or shortcomings of these same theories. Hence, the documentary essentially functions as a metaphorical “double-edge” sword: practical concerns regarding issues such as torture are examined, whereas at the same time theoretical premises are tested in this same fire.

Categories
Philosophy

Response: “Development Disagreements and Water Privatization: Bridging the Divide”

This article describes how the liberalization and conservation of water was an important issue in earlier times.  However, more recently, the transfer of water has been a widely debated issue.  The paper describes and explains the different aspects of argument and disagreements revolving water.  The disagreements on water are ascribed to a combination of reasons.  Water wars and specific examples of such are detailed within the article, to provide better understanding and explanation of the topic.

Categories
Philosophy

My Philosophy of Life

In all honesty, the subject here causes me some problems, at least at first.  In simple terms,  I am not at all sure that I want any type of philosophy of life.  In my mind this would somehow translate to a kind of limitation, or an “outlook” that might prevent me from taking in new experience and actually learning more about what life truly means.  I have known people who strongly believe in a positive viewpoint, for instance.  Their life philosophies are based on seeking the good in the world around them, and I am certainly not about to argue with such beliefs.  At the same time, I feel that such a way of thinking creates borders.  It is a philosophy as a focus, and I do not believe that life may be so confined, or neatly fit into any such approach.  In all fairness, I have the same opinion regarding those who practice philosophies of extreme caution, or who believe that life is an arena in which they are entitled to take as much as possible.  Put another way, whenever I have actually heard or read of a life philosophy, my first thought is invariably that life may not nicely accommodate it.  Life, as I see it, has ideas all its own and is not concerned with how anyone chooses to view it.

Categories
Philosophy

Compelling Foundation: Clifford as Inspiring Thoughts on Atheism

As I consider it, two reasons went to my deciding to write on atheism based on Clifford’s “The Ethics of Belief.”  The first relies on the decision process itself, in that reading Clifford’s careful breakdowns of the layers of belief actually motivated me to apply the same reasoning to spirituality.  My paper reflects that Clifford himself is no proponent of atheism; he is thorough in exploring the fallacies behind beliefs of all kinds, but he is as well committed to ethics, and clearly in ways linked to faith.  In a sense, then, I chose to take the author’s thinking farther than he himself intended, and employ it to at least question the subject he does not precisely challenge.  In my writing, in fact, it occurred to me that Clifford would likely object to the course I was taking, but I also felt that he had “only himself to blame”; his rationales are simply too strong to not be used in an examination of faith itself.

Categories
Philosophy

Hairspray!

As we think about our morning routine, that is the hygiene schedule, there are numerous chemicals that we are exposed to each day. This includes toothpaste, mouthwash, soap, shampoo, condition, hairspray, and all of the makeup. It can be a little shocking at what we are putting ourselves through to be presentable in public. The focus of this study is hairspray.

Categories
Philosophy

Moral and Social Problems

Spinoza: Evolution versus Creationism

In modern times, the idea that rationality and Creationism are interchangeable ideas is all but disregarded. Such a conviction is  not only contrary to the usual belief, but it seems to defy modern sensibilities altogether. For most people in the twenty-first century, a belief in Creationism emerges from a feeling of faith rather than from the consequence of logic and reason. however, past notions of rationality and Biblical account of Creation, such as the views represented by Spinoza in his Theological Political Treatise (1669) show an entirely different interpretation of both scripture and the function of human intellect. In order to truly understand this view of Creationism it is necessary in some ways to acknowledge that the ability to deduce through reason is, itself, an indication of Divine Creation. More specifically, for thinkers such as Spinoza, the way in which logic and rationality functioned in accordance with ethics and morality indicated intelligent design. It is also necessary, according to Spinoza, to apply the same kind of rigorous intellectual logic to the interpretation of scripture which functions as further evidence of Creationism.

Categories
Philosophy

Do CEOs get paid too much?

Do CEOs get paid too much?

Company CEOs are some of the most paid personalities. The question as to whether they are paid more than they deserve depends on many factors. This question can only be answered by three theories of justice in wages. These theories discuss why CEOs deserve or do not deserve to get that amount of money.

Categories
Philosophy

Is corporal punishment needed to discipline children?

Background of research

Thesis or Problem Statement

(There is an old English adage that states `spare the rod and spoil the child `, this stemmed from Victorian times when raising children was based upon a strict disciplinarian attitude of  `the child should be seen but not heard.  During these times corporal punishment was viewed as a means of disciplining the child  and creating moral fibre.  Today we are a more progressive society and realise that such actions of violence and brutality can inflict lasting psychological damage to the children.  As such the argument is against the use of corporal punishment either at home or in domestic settings. )

LITERATURE REVIEW

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT

The historical  perspective

The modern context

Latest Research

Reservations on the use of corporal punishment

Sociological and Psychological concerns

Categories
Philosophy

12 step program

Literature Review
The following academic journal publications relate to the 12 Step Program in psychology.
  1. Two-Year Outcome of Alcohol Interventions in Swedish University Halls of Residence: A Cluster Randomized Trial of a Brief Skills Training Program, Twelve-Step–Influenced Intervention, and Controls, 2007, Henrietta Ståhlbrandt, Kent O. Johnsson, Mats Berglund, Alcoholism Clinical & Experimental Research, Vol 31 Iss 3 pp 458-466 (Ståhlbrandt, H. 2007)
  2. Cognitive Restructuring and 12 step program of Alcoholics Anonymous, 1999, Staigerwald, M and Stone, D. Journal of Substance Abuse, Vol 15 Iss 4 pp 321-327. (Staigerwald, M. 1999)
  3. Drug treatment a 12 step program particiapation, 2000, Florentine, R. Hillhouse, M.P. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment Vol 18 Issue 1 pp 65-74 (Florentine, 2000)
  4. Twelve Step program use amongst Oxford House Residents: spirituality and social support of sobriety, 2002, Nealon-Woods, M.A. Jason, L.A. Journal of Substance Abuse Vol 7 Iss 3  pp 311-318  (Nealon-Woods, M.A. 2002)
  5. Methadone Anonymous: A 12 step program for methadone maintained Heroin Addicts, 1994, Gilman S.M. Gallanter, M Dermatis, M.  Substance Abuse Vol 22 No 4  pp 247-256. (Gilman, S.M. 1994)
  6. 12 Step Participation and effectiveness: Do gender and ethnic differences exist. Hillhouse, M.D.  Florentine, R.  2001  Journal of Drug Issues Vol 31 Iss 3 (Hillhouse, M.D. 2001)
  7. Preliminary outcome evaluation of the First Step Program: a daily physical activity intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes, CE Tudor-Locke, AM Myers, RC Bell. 2002, Patient Education and Counseling, Vol 47 Iss 1 pp 23-28  (Tudor-Locke, C.,E. 2002).
  8. The selective adaptation of the alcoholics anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous, 1991, Basil R. Browne Journal of Gambling Studies , Volume 7, Number 3, 187-206,(Basil, 1991)
  9. Social Support, Spiritual Program, and Addiction Recovery, Gila Chen, International Journal Offender – The Comp Criminal , 2006 vol. 50 no. 3 306-323 (Chen, G. 2006)
  10. Twelve-step and cognitive-behavioral treatment for substance abuse: A comparison of treatment effectiveness. Ouimette, Paige Crosby;Finney, John W.;Moos, Rudolf H. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 65(2), Apr 1997, 230-240 (Paige, O. 1997).
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