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Theology

PWS 501 – Homiletics 1: Theory and Practice

 

New Revised Standard Version

(NRSV)

 

New

International Version

(NIV)

New American Standard Bible

(NASB)

Contemporary English Version

(CEV)

English Standard Version

(ESV)

New

Jerusalem

Bible

(NJB)

7 A Samaritan woman came to draw water, and Jesus said to her, “Give me a drink.” 7 When a Samaritan woman came to draw water, Jesus said to her, “Will you give me a drink?”

 

 

 

 

7 There came a woman of Samaria to draw water. Jesus said to her, “Give Me a drink.” 6-8 The well that Jacob had dug was still there, and Jesus sat down beside it because he was tired from traveling. It was noon, and after Jesus’ disciples had gone into town to buy some food, a Samaritan woman came to draw water from the well. 7 A woman from Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, “Give me a drink.” 7 When a Samaritan woman came to draw water, Jesus said to her, ‘Give me something to drink.’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8 (His disciples had gone to the city to buy food.) 8 (His disciples had gone into the town to buy food.) 8 For His disciples had gone away into the city to buy food. Jesus asked her, “Would you please give me a drink of water?” 8 (For his disciples had gone away into the city to buy food.) 8 His disciples had gone into the town to buy food.
9 The Samaritan woman said to him, “How is it that you, a Jew, ask a drink of me, a woman of Samaria?” (Jews do not share things in common with Samaritans.)[a] 9 The Samaritan woman said to him, “You are a Jew and I am a Samaritan woman. How can you ask me for a drink?” (For Jews do not associate with Samaritans.[a]) 9 Therefore the Samaritan woman said to Him, “How is it that You, being a Jew, ask me for a drink since I am a Samaritan woman?” (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 9 “You are a Jew,” she replied, “and I am a Samaritan woman. How can you ask me for a drink of water when Jews and Samaritans won’t have anything to do with each other?”[a] 9 The Samaritan woman said to him, “How is it that you, a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a woman of Samaria?” (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 9 The Samaritan woman said to him, ‘You are a Jew. How is it that you ask me, a Samaritan, for something to drink?’ — Jews, of course, do not associate with Samaritans.
10 Jesus answered her, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water 10 Jesus answered her, “If you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked him and he would have given you living water.” 10 Jesus answered and said to her, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, ‘Give Me a drink,’ you would have asked Him, and He would have given you living water.” 10 Jesus answered, “You don’t know what God wants to give you, and you don’t know who is asking you for a drink. If you did, you would ask me for the water that gives life.” 10 Jesus answered her, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.” 10 Jesus replied to her: If you only knew what God is offering and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me something to drink,’ you would have been the one to ask, and he would have given you living water.
.” 11 The woman said to him, “Sir, you have no bucket, and the well is deep. Where do you get that living water? 11 “Sir,” the woman said, “you have nothing to draw with and the well is deep. Where can you get this living water? 11 She *said to Him, “[a]Sir, You have nothing to draw with and the well is deep; where then do You get that living water? 11 “Sir,” the woman said, “you don’t even have a bucket, and the well is deep. Where are you going to get this life-giving water? 11 The woman said to him, “Sir, you have nothing to draw water with, and the well is deep. Where do you get that living water? 11 ‘You have no bucket, sir,’ she answered, ‘and the well is deep: how do you get this living water?
 12 Are you greater than our ancestor Jacob, who gave us the well, and with his sons and his flocks drank from it?” 12 Are you greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well and drank from it himself, as did also his sons and his livestock?”

 

 12 You are not greater than our father Jacob, are You, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself and his sons and his cattle?” 12 Our ancestor Jacob dug this well for us, and his family and animals got water from it. Are you greater than Jacob?  12 Are you greater than our father Jacob? He gave us the well and drank from it himself, as did his sons and his livestock.”  12 Are you a greater man than our father Jacob, who gave us this well and drank from it himself with his sons and his cattle?’

 

  13 Jesus said to her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again.

 

13 Jesus answered, “Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again, 13 Jesus answered and said to her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again; 13 Jesus answered, “Everyone who drinks this water will get thirsty again.

 

13 Jesus said to her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again, 13 Jesus replied: Whoever drinks this water will be thirsty again;
 14 but those who drink of the water that I will give them will never be thirsty. The water that I will give will become in them a spring of water gushing up to eternal life.” 14 but whoever drinks the water I give them will never thirst. Indeed, the water I give them will become in them a spring of water welling up to eternal life.”  14 but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him shall never thirst; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life.”  14 But no one who drinks the water I give will ever be thirsty again. The water I give is like a flowing fountain that gives eternal life.”

 

14 but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again.[a] The water that I will give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” 14 but no one who drinks the water that I shall give will ever be thirsty again: the water that I shall give will become a spring of water within, welling up for eternal life.
 15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I may never be thirsty or have to keep coming here to draw water.”

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15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water so that I won’t get thirsty and have to keep coming here to draw water  15 The woman said to Him, “[b]Sir, give me this water, so I will not be thirsty nor come all the way here to draw.”

 

 

 

15 The woman replied, “Sir, please give me a drink of that water! Then I won’t get thirsty and have to come to this well again.”.

 

15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I will not be thirsty or have to come here to draw water.”  15 ‘Sir,’ said the woman, ‘give me some of that water, so that I may never be thirsty or come here again to draw water.’

 

 

Translation

Reading all the above six translations, there are several differences in the usage of words. They were taken from the New International Version (NIV), New American Standard Bible (NASB), Contemporary English Version (CEV), New Revised Standard Version (NRSV), New Jerusalem Bible (NJB), and the English Contemporary Version (ESV). Each scripture outlined in the diagram above. Even though the overall message of the scripture remains throughout each of the translations they are several differences in use of ideas and word verbiage. One such variance that is seen is in the seventh verse, the NASB, ESV, NRSV read that when the Samaritan came to the well Jesus said, “Give me a drink” or NJB “Give me something to drink.” However, in the CEV and the ESV translation Jesus ask the Samaritan woman, “Will you give me a drink?” and “Will you please give me drink of water?” In verse nine, the NRSV and NJB read, “woman of Samaria”, In the CEV, ESV, NASB, and NIV, “Samaritan woman.” In the CEV, the verse reads that the Samaritan woman explained, “How can you ask me for a drink of water when Jews and Samaritans won’t have anything to do with each other?”, however in all the other versions it was left out of her quote. In verse ten, NIV, NASB, NRSV, and ESV put “gift of God” and “living water.” In the CEV it is only referred by saying, “You don’t know what God wants to give you” and “water that gives life. And the NJB reads “If you only knew what God is offering.” Although there are different words used to relay the same message each version of the verses would not cause the reader to misinterpret the scripture text.

Biblical Context

The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the story of Jesus’s public ministry. This book is the last in the gospel series that gives a biographical account of Jesus’s public events. It is generally one of the most significant of the four, it focuses on the eternal life, and seeing Jesus as a Messiah both human and divine[1]. It begins with the baptizing of John the Baptist and follows the journeys that Jesus went through before ending with the persecution, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.  The Gospel of John is told from John the Apostle, a given testimony of all the disciples that were closest to him.  John the Apostle was son of Zebedee and Salome, and also was the brother of James, both apart of the Twelve Disciples. (Matthew 4:21)[2]  The book is told as a testimony from the “disciples who loved him” (John 21) the purpose of the book is to tell the accounts of Jesus’s life through firsthand experience, this book shows Jesus as a part of the Trinity, a healer, miracle worker. The book was believed to be authored

The Gospel of John can be broken down into four major parts, the prologue where John introduces Jesus as the divine word. The First Part where we hear on Jesus’s ministry where he went across cities to teach and perform miracles. The Second Part where the book gives the accounts of Passion, his death, and his resurrection. The last part is seen as a prologue that details how Jesus is the word, and works that he did. (Gospel of St. John)[3] In John 4: 7-15 Jesus has left Judea heading back to Galilee but first came upon the town Synchar of Samaria, where Jacob and Joseph had dwell and built up a temple. When Jesus, went to the well that Jacob built and ask the Samaritan woman for a drink. This account of Jesus leaving Judea sets up the story of the meeting of the Samaritan that he meets at Jacob’s well. These scriptures fall in line with the first part of the Gospel of John, this is where John the Apostle shares Jesus’s journeys.  Verses 7-15, articulates the accounts of Jesus meeting the Samaritan, typically Jews did not travel through Samaria because a long contentious history of hatred between the two races. However Jesus show loved to everyone and upon stopping at the well offered to drink of the “living water”.

John the Apostle was a very significant figure in the Bible, he was one of the two that Jesus sent for along with Peter in preparation of the Passover, and one of the disciples that sat beside him during the Passover. After Jesus was taken, he followed him into the Palace.[4] When Jesus was at the cross, John stay at his feet, and cared for Jesus’s mother. Then he and Peter founded the church where they healed the lamed man. Later he help guide the church and established a Pillar in Jerusalem. He scribed the works of First and Second John, and the book of Revelations. He died from natural causes outliving his brother James in 100 ad in Ephesus and being Martyr in 44 AD. (Acts 12:2)1

 

Grammatical Issue

            The main issue is there is a direct reference to John the Apostle authoring the Gospel, however referring as the “disciple whom Jesus loved.” But comparisons are drawn between the Gospel of John and the Book of Revelations another book that John the Apostle authored. In both he refers to Jesus as the “Word of God”. (John 1:1) [5] Symbolism is shown throughout the book as Jesus is the “living water” and “bread of life.” Throughout the book of John, John the Apostle paraphrases what Jesus says, instead of saying verbatim gives interpretations of Jesus’s speech. [6] Instead of telling the parables that were written in the other Gospel’s, John gives a selective account in portraying Jesus’s messiahship and ministry.

Textual Variation

In reading all the different translations of John 4 7-15 from the six bibles, it is clear that even with different word usages or sentence structures it doesn’t take away from the message or meant to confuse the reader. There are few differences as in verse ten where a NIV, NASB, NRSV, and ESV put “gift of God” and “living water.” A big part of what John was trying to portray as a symbolism for Jesus, but in the CEV it is only referred by saying, “You don’t know what God wants to give you” and “water that gives life. As in verse twelve, where NRSV and the CEV, called Jacob, “ancestor”, where the other versions refer to Jacob as “our father”. The significance that they are at the well that Jacob built and on the land that Joseph purchased and lay the resting place for Jacob and his children. The other versions see them as the decedents of Jacob while, NRSV and CEV see Jacob as their ancestor.

It is clear that many different versions of bibles will leave out what the original bible intended in order to provide a clearer interpretation for people to understand. From the different interpretations. But b comparing the versions we are able to take away better interpretations that allows us to study and comprehend the trials and journeys that Jesus went through. While these scriptures appear to be nearly identical, by reading deeper into scripture and having the desire to know both the Greek and modern interpretations there is more to learn.

Word Study

To Drink: Greek (šātâ). The basic meaning of šātâ is “to drink” and, in the Heb. Hiphil verb stem, “to give drink to, water.[7] Jesus uses physical water from a well to invite the Samaritan woman to take a drink of living water.

Woman of Samaria – Greek (samareithv) 1) a Samaritan, 1a) an inhabitant of the city of Samaria 1b) an inhabitant of the region of Samaria

Gift of God– Greek (dórea) conveys a gift or present that is unwarranted and received without merit[8] The offer of salvation to a rebellious world is the expression of God’s grace; it is a free gift which cannot be merited or earned.

Living Water: Greek water was seen as a precious gift from God turning the dead Earth into fertile land by means of a surging spring[9]

Spring (of water): Greek (pégé) a fountain, spring, well, issue, flow.[10]

Theological Significance

There are a few theologically significant revelations in this passage of scripture, the first in John 7-15, illustrates the revelation of God by Jesus, the divine, the gift of God, the living waters, and “Word.” [11] In the John 4:10 Jesus ask the woman to take a drink from the living water. This living water is a comparison to the divineness of Jesus. He is seen throughout John as a spiritual glorification of God. [12] Jesus offering of living water isn’t literal water in the sense but, salvation, and eternal life. John illustrates Jesus’s giving the Samaritan woman a gift from God, the Holy Spirit a spiritual gift that is apart of the divine trinity, an important gift given to believers. Not only is the Holy Spirit a gift of God but he is as well as he refers to himself in John 3:16, he wants to be a savior to the woman and act as a sacrifice of her sins. In verse thirteen to never “thirst again” is serving as way to know that no longer will sinners have to “drink” to be atoned from their sins, if she was to take the gift of Jesus that Jesus is offering she will be forgiven.[13] The eternal life that Jesus offers the woman is to symbolize the woman being apart of Jesus, he will be there and she will have a seat in the kingdom of heaven for all eternity.

Literary Analysis

The Gospel of John is probably on the most significant books of the Bible in the New Testament. It is a firsthand testimony given John the Apostle who was highly favored in the eyes of Jesus. This is the fourth book in the book of gospel and breaks down the events of Jesus miracles, the Passover, his persecution, his death, and him being resurrected. The importance of Jesus a Jew speaking to a Samarian woman, was proof that Jesus loved everyone. He not only broke the barrier by communicating with the Samaritan but also acknowledging because men did not address women in public. He was “beat” at Jacob’s well, and kindly ask the woman for a drink of water. She questioned why he would acknowledge her as there were many differences and taboos about her race and culture that weren’t kind to Jews.  According to temple rules back in the bible, a man who drank from a vessel (well) polluted by a Samaritan risked being cut off from the fellowship and worship of God’s people. Jesus ignores this and replied back to the Samaritan, that “You do not know the gift of God. You do not know who asks you for water. If you did, you could ask me. I would give you living water.” The gift of God was theological symbol that stood for the Holy Spirit, a part of the holy trinity. The woman however did not understand as she was not religious or followed the word of God. She simply believed that he was referring to the water in the well. However, Jesus said, “Everyone who drinks water, from this well, will need more water later. Whoever drinks my water will never need more. My water will be like a stream that gives eternal life.” The stream and the water were symbolic of Jesus, if the woman were to accept the word of God than she wouldn’t have to look any further for answers or seek salvation.

The theme of this specific passage demonstrates how important Jesus loved everyone and was willing to cross cultural barriers to try and deliver someone from salvation.  Apostle shared accounts of Jesus’s life means that Jesus entrusted him to spread the works and wonders of God with others. As far as the overall theme of the book, John the Apostle shares with the different events in Jesus life and his ministry. The miracles and teaches that Jesus did were not just privy to those that were Jewish or Pharisees but those that were considered outcasts, women, and sinners of all kinds. He was ready to share the Gifts of God and for them to drink of the Living Water, i.e. Jesus.  Therefore, the passage is a fits along with the central ideal of the text which is: Jesus is willing to cross any barrier to deliver you from salvation.

Paraphrase

Jesus traveled to Samaria and decided to rest by Jacob’s well. There he met a Samaritan woman who was drawing water from the well. Jesus asked the woman if she could give him a drink of water. Due to the hatred that Jews and Samaritan have for each other, and the fact that she was a woman surprised her and she question why he would make such a request. However Jesus did not care, instead he told her that he wanted to offer her a Gift of God and offered her to partake in his word. The Samaritan woman did not understand and instead pointed out that Jesus did not have a bucket to draw from Jacob’s well, but Jesus said the water he was talking about wasn’t in the well, but something that would deliver her from her sins and give her salvation. The significance that they scripture places meeting the Samaritan woman at the well is a testament that Jesus wasn’t like everyone else and that he was ready to deliver any sinner that he felt needed to be save. He could tell that the woman needed to be delivered from whatever transgressions she had. Jesus showed his divineness but comparing a Gift of God to the Holy Spirit and the living water as piece of the kingdom.

Application

Central Idea of the Text:  Jesus is willing to cross any barrier to deliver you from salvation.

Proposition: Jesus leaves for Galilee once more to come upon the city in Samaria.

Contemporary Issues

There are several contemporary issues that can be addressed through the use of this passage: Although the text doesn’t present any big issues that Christians or believers can relate to it does signify the influence and notoriety that Jesus was having. Jesus was being heard that he was doing more baptisms than John the Baptist, something that alarmed the Pharisees. This could be related into today’s society when people or nonbelievers here about Jesus doing all this miracles or great works of in people’s life it makes them uncomfortable or alarms them that this is a problem. What many and the Pharisees didn’t know is that it was his disciples that were baptizing. Jesus had called ad taught others that were faithful in God’s word to baptize them, preach to them, and heal them. God works through others in order for people to work with them. When followers feel that they are not able to or don’t believe that have they knowledge to lead others to follow Jesus, this passage shows that his disciples were doing wonders in great numbers, so much that it spread across the cities. When he learned that the Pharisees knew of these works, he had to move on. He wasn’t through showing people what God can do. That is important to remember that once you get people talking about what you are doing, you cannot give up, and have to keep turning nonbelievers into believers.

Application

Central Idea of the Text:  Jesus is willing to cross any barrier to deliver you from salvation.

Proposition: Jesus gives the gift of the Holy Spirit and offer the living water.

Sermon Titles

“The Woman at the Well”

This sermon would focus on Jesus continuing to perform his many miracles and works on others. His teachings that were being shared with others and delivering sinners from their transgressions. Breaking down barriers to show that everyone has a place at the table. God doesn’t show favoritism and everyone is welcomed to know him.  Jesus was offering life and the Holy Spirit to sinners, is the way that Christians should do to nonbelievers. Children of God are a light to the world and must spread the word with the entire world. The three points to be addressed would be: Jesus is loves everyone, Willing to offer you the Holy Spirit, and to let others know about Jesus by spreading his word.

Sermon Outline 

 

Central Idea of the Text:  Jesus is willing to cross any barrier to deliver you from salvation.

 

Proposition: Jesus gives the gift of the Holy Spirit and offer the living water.

 

Sermon Title

 

“Gift of Living Water”

 

This sermon would focus on the offer that Jesus made to the Samaritan woman, a drink from the living water. When John wrote this he wrote to as a comparison to Jesus. In this theological context the living water meant to be apart or follow his word. Once sinners that were looking to be save, all they have to do is look to his word and accept Jesus into their lives. Then they would be forever change and never have to look for other places for salvation and God’s Grace. The three points that this sermon would address are: Jesus wants you to drink from him. Jesus looks to save the sinner, and anyone can be delivered from their sins.

 

Conclusion

 

Through the text, Jesus showed that he was not ashamed or afraid to speak to the Samaritan woman because of who she was, instead he offered the gifts of God and for her to drink from the living water.  Jesus knew that the woman was a sinner and looking for a way to be save. She didn’t understand at first what Jesus meant by taking a drink from the eternal spring, but she was so interested and could feel that it was something special she wanted to have it. Everyone has a place at the table with Jesus, and he was willing to offer the Holy Spirit in order to give salvation to those sinners who seek to be save.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

Bible Gateway. John 4:1-5. BibleGateway.com. Available from http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=%20John%204:7-15&version=NASB

(2013)

 

Catholic Encyclopedia: The New Advent. Available from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/

(2009)

 

Fee, Gordon and Robert L. Hubbard, Jr. The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011

 

Mays, James L., ed. The Harper Collins Bible Commentary.  San Francisco: HarperOne, 1988.

 

Mounce, William D. Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Fee, Gordon and Robert L. Hubbard, Jr. The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011

[2] Catholic Encyclopedia: John the Apostle. New Advent. Available from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/ (2009)

[3] Fee, Gordon and Robert L. Hubbard, Jr. The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011

[4] Catholic Encyclopedia: John the Apostle. The New Advent. Available from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/ (2009)

[5] Fee, Gordon and Robert L. Hubbard, Jr. The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011

[6] Ibid

[7] William D. Mounce. Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006)

[8] ibid

[9] ibid

[10] ibid

[11] Fee, Gordon and Robert L. Hubbard, Jr. The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011

[12] ibid

[13] ibid