Bureau of Justice Statistics (2009), “Prisoners at year end”, US Department of Justice
In this report put together by the Bureau of Justice as a part of their “Prisoner Series” gives detailed data based on their year-end statistics of, state and federal correctional authorities’ jurisdiction of 1,613,656 prisoners. Throughout this report data is given for the annual count of the prison population in all the US states. Most notably is there a pattern of decrease over the years in the state prison population. In the federal prison however there has been a 3.4% increase accounting for the total increase in the prison population. (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009) These data gives statistics by state and location comparative to past years 2000-2009. This information is necessary to report the trend in the prison population over the years throughout the country. This will aid in valuable information in determining if the number of recidivism in prisoners are increasing.
Cooley, K. (2010), “Understanding recidivism among juvenile offenders: Perspectives of “experts” in Polk County, Iowa”.
This is a thesis dissertation written for American University, in response to the causes of recidivism in juveniles. This paper explores different perspectives on the results of juvenile programs and efforts of rehabilitation. How does these methods have an effect on recidivism for juvenile offenders in Polk County, Iowa. Cooley points out there have been previous studies done on the causes of recidivism in juveniles of populated cities, there has only been a handful of research done on the factors contributing to recidivism of juveniles living in rural areas. There is also a small amount of research using qualitative methods from the viewpoint of the staff that work directly with juvenile offenders. (Cooley, 2010) Cooley interviews nine different views from three juvenile corrections rehabilitative programs in an effort to get their perspectives and offer up solutions to the problem. This paper is useful in gathering information from the Cooley who presents expert perspectives from those that work closely with juveniles and rehabilitation programs, and gives evidence on how juvenile programming influences juvenile recidivism. Cooley also explores how the rehabilitation programs might also influence recidivism in juveniles. The information from this research will be useful in helping to gather support for the main ideas of the research essay.
Florida Department of Corrections (2012), “Recidivism Rates By Year of Release”, Florida Prison Recidivism Study 2011.
This is a statistical study based on information from, Florida Prison Recidivism Study conducted in the Florida’s prison system. The data ranges in years from 2003-2009, the rates are taking over periods of 36 months, 24 months, and 12 months. The study also includes factors that might influence recidivism including, outside the influence of the Department of Corrections, such as unemployment, crime rates, and local criminal justice issues such as jail bed availability and judicial behavior. (Florida Department of Corrections, 2012) Other information provided include incentives given by the state, increase in prison terms, and lack of flow of funding to rehabilitate programs also aid in the increase of rates in the Florida prison system. The upside of the study showed that there is a declining trend in the prison population and rates of recidivism. This is vital to supporting evidence of rate of which people repeat crimes, and the factors that are helping to decline these numbers.
Gendreau, Paul and Goggin, Claire. (1999). “The Effects of Prison Sentences on Recidivism.” Centre for Criminal Justice Studies.
This is study based on gathered information over the decade on criminal behavior, population, and crime control. The study states that, mandatory minimum sentencing policies have gained widespread popularity throughout the United States, severely limiting judicial discretion in sentencing. The principal rationale for mandatory minimums is the belief that length of time in prison acts as a deterrent to future recidivism. (Gendreau & Goggin, 1999) However through gathered information results have shown that prison and prison terms do little to deter repeat criminal behavior in some criminals. Prison was a means to suppress the want to repeat crimes due to its unpleasantness and lack of interaction with society. However, results from all the studies show that prison should not be used as a means of deterrence, excessive use of incarceration has enormous cost implications, and prisons need to give assessments of different criminals in deterring different personalities and values. What’s more that this study gives is a solution that prison should only be used for high risk criminals and behavior in incapacitating them for lengthy periods. This research will aid in supporting evidence of lack of support of programs and why prison is not helping to deter criminal behaviors.
Jones, Megan & Streveler, Tony. (2012). Recidivism after Release from Prison. Wisconsin Department of Corrections.
This report was made in response to defining recidivism to the department of corrections for Wisconsin, and how it relates to their prison population. In this piece, it gives a clear definition and provides data gathered from a three year period following the rates of recidivism among the criminals calculated beginning at the time the offender are released from prison. Recidivism rates represent the number of persons who have recidivated divided by the total number of persons in a defined population. (Jones & Streveler, 2012) Provided behavioral information based on demographic information and a thorough analysis of trends on how and why the rates of recidivism are decreasing in the prison population. This information is useful for supporting evidence in the types of criminals that do repeat crimes based on age, gender, and period of being incarcerated. Also, this report will aid in helping to determine the factors of why rates are declining over the years.
Maltz, D. M. (2001), “Recidivism”, Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Florida, pp. 2-25.
This is book written by Maltz for the purpose of presented a thorough view of recidivism concept to the criminal justice community in efforts to help support policy making and program development. This book explores the different definitions for recidivism and the roles they play in terms of the prison population, correctional and rehabilitation programs. The goals of this definition of what recidivism is. Maltz provides several examples of the different programs put in place throughout the US and how they are measured in their goals of achievement. Maltz’s also address the inconsistent handling of analyzing recidivism data presented, deficiencies in the standard method of analysis are noted, and different methods and models that overcome these deficiencies are described in the latter of the book. (Maltz, 2001) This information is particularly useful in the purpose of the paper, by providing supporting data and information in answering the questions posed of why criminals repeat crimes, and what is the correct definition of recidivism.
National Institute of Justice. (2010). Recidivism. Office of Justice Programs.
This is gathered research view on the concept of recidivism and the concerns of criminal behavior, and criminal system. This view gives a clear and concise definition of recidivism and what is meant in terms of criminal behavior. A topical view of sanctions administered by the government in methods of fines, community service, and prison terms. A view also on are intervention programs in order to deter criminals from repeating behavior, including drug treatment programs, therapy, and rehabilitation programs. This view also gives statistical evidence from the National Justice Bureau that provide data from 1994 in comparison with data that show a decline in recidivism among criminals. This information will aid the paper in supporting a clear definition of the concept and statistical information in supporting a decline in criminal behavior.
Nelson, E. P. & Pearson, C. J. (2004), “Confidence in Public Speaking: Telecourse Version”
This is a unique book offering helpful advice and guidance in a clear, straightforward approach on how to prepare, organize, and deliver effective public speeches–balancing theory and research with plentiful real-world example. (Nelson, Pearson, 2004) A list of chapters that tackle different issues and topics including diversity, presentation speech, fears of public speaking, and importantly, chapter eight of the book, “The Ethical and Effective Use of Evidence, Proof, and Argument How Can Evidence Be Used Ethically and Effectively in the Persuasive Speech.” (Nelson, Pearson, 2004) This book is unique to the paper as it doesn’t focus on recidivism, however, it does provide useful information in gathering effective research and getting evidence to support the argument. Also providing information on the personality causes of repeat criminals due to the lack of support of the government and programs.
Weisel, L. D. (2005), “Analyzing Repeat Victimization”, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Problem-Oriented Guides for Police, Problem-Solving Tools Series, 4, pp. 1-37
This piece of literature is a part of the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police series put together for analyzing effective tool in solving fundamental problems related to crimes. What this piece of information entails is a summarization of useful knowledge for policeman to factors that might cause disorders and crimes that present a problem in their everyday work. This is written to helping to prevent those problems and give solutions in improving and handling incident responses, properly investigating offenses from officers, victims, and suspects. The guide gives specific examples and techniques useful in controlling the problems and data gathered in supporting techniques in problem solving. This information is incredibly useful on the general behavioral observation of criminals, and provide several factors that may cause an individual to engage in the same type of crime again and again.
Zamble, E., & Quinsey, V. L. (2000), “The criminal recidivism process”
This book is a well-researched view on the effects of recidivism. This book goes to addresses the reasons and the factors on why criminals repeat their crimes soon after being released from prison. In this book the author tries to put a psychological spin on trying to explain the criminal behavior behind the criminal actions. The proven methods and techniques that most programs and prison try to implement have not been working, so this book tries to give supported solutions and a clear definition of recidivism rather than more traditional theories of crime. This book illustrates that over 300 male criminal “repeat offenders” were interviewed and tested. The results indicate that their new offenses may be the result of something like a “breakdown.” (Zamble & Quincy, 2000) This book is intentional for the criminal justice community and those influencing policies and program. This literature is helping in providing behavior evidence and statistical support of why criminals repeat their criminal behaviors and ways to reduce it.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2009), “Prisoners at year end”, US Department of Justice
Cooley, K. (2010), “Understanding recidivism among juvenile offenders: Perspectives of “experts” in Polk County, Iowa”. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/understanding-recidivism-among-juvenile-offenders-perspectives-of-experts-in-polk-county-iowa/oclc/763204170 on February 21, 2013
Florida Department of Corrections (2012), “Recidivism Rates By Year of Release”, Florida Prison Recidivism Study 2011, pp. n.d. Retrieved from http://www.dc.state.fl.us/pub/recidivism/2011/ratesovertime.html on February 21, 2013
Gendreau, Paul and Goggin, Claire. (1999). “The Effects of Prison Sentences on Recidivism.” Centre for Criminal Justice Studies. Retrieved from http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/e199912.htm
Jones, Megan & Streveler, Tony. (2012). Recidivism after Release from Prison. Wisconsin Department of Corrections. Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:K_8WRSq6_WcJ:www.wi-doc.com/PDF_Files/Recidivism%2520After%2520Release%2520from%2520Prison_FINAL.pdf+&hl=en&gl=us
Maltz, D. M. (2001), “Recidivism”, Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Florida, pp. 2-25. Retrieved from http://www.uic.edu/20E90B16-90DE-40D8-A451-50BA5D8E7722/FinalDownload/DownloadId-3D7F6C75869AFBB46AAE6B7F84EEF211/20E90B16-90DE-40D8-A451-50BA5D8E7722/depts/lib/forr/pdf/crimjust/recidivism.pdf on February 21, 2013
National Institute of Justice. (2010). Recidivism. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/corrections/recidivism/welcome.htm
Nelson, E. P. & Pearson, C. J. (2004), “Confidence in Public Speaking: Telecourse Version”, Oxford University Press, USA; 8 edition. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Public-Speaking-Telecourse-Version/dp/0195330439 on February 21, 2013
Weisel, L. D. (2005), “Analyzing Repeat Victimization”, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Problem-Oriented Guides for Police, Problem-Solving Tools Series, 4, pp. 1-37. Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e07055803.pdf on February 21, 2013
Zamble, E., & Quinsey, V. L. (2000), “The criminal recidivism process”, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/criminal-recidivism-process/oclc/247399420 on February 21, 2013