- How did shanghai merge East and West in the era of colonialism?
Colonial era was a period within (1842-1949) this period acted as dynamic meeting of East and West; Shanghai was transformed in colonial era to five traveler’s city. The key elements comprise of trade in china this involve sell of opium. Western nation never ruled china but had influence over decline monarchy this gave them a strong point to participate in trade activities.
- a) Who do you think benefited most from the city as it existed at that time?
Western nation benefited the most. They were provided with housing, practice trade, and took advantage of prostitute, introduced modernization and western architecture. The western nation was a dominant figure and equated to controllers.
- How was shanghai transformed in the communist era?
Communist was known to have subjective ideas that aided in changing people’s minds.Shanghai was transformed in that:
- Most of western elites moved to Taiwan and Hong Kong
- Much of shanghai wealth was used for national development
- All the prostitutes were gotten rid of in the city this was done by the communists
- Reorganized industries and collectively headed by state.
- Densification of housing and declining quality apartment blocks.
- a) What happened to Shanghai dynamic capitalist class?
Shanghai capitalist class facilitated the restoration of people and private enterprises. There was emergence of middle class managers who lived in high rise which led to emergence of towers. The capitalists built up wealth and distributed to people.
- 3. How has shanghai been transformed in the era of neoliberals? How have we returned to an era of east/west hybridization? Who seems to be benefiting the most?
Shanghai has been transformed in the era of neoliberals in that they have incorporated the western lifestyle, improvement of architecture, improvement of residential quarters whereby majority lived in beautiful villas .There was also reduced number of people using motorbikes and bicycles instead they use cars. This led to traffic congestion.
We have returned to an era of hybridization which involves coexistence between tradition and modernity through importation of first level of lifestyle, revolution through communists and free market, reemergence of American designs and architecture. The western nation are the one benefiting most this is because there designs are being use ,bring modernization which enable them carry their activities.
- How have migrants recently changed shanghai?
Migrants has changed shanghai through their cheap labor. Migrants have provided the country with millions of surplus laborers. Migrants have played a significant role in building the modern city for example outside high school in downtown shanghai there are beautiful new buildings, new sports stadium, Express ways and Metro system all this were built by migrants(Philip,2007)
Migrants have boosted economy of shanghai through taxes they pay, registration fee, and payment of temporary resident permits. Migrants pay relatively $70 to the private landlords.
- a) How is their experience similar to that which you read about in Manchester or Chicago?
The experience of the migrants in shanghai is similar to that in Chicago in that they were subjected to laws in order to be allow to be temporary citizens. They were used as source of labor. They also experienced discrimination.
- How has public space in shanghai changed overtime?
Public space developed in connection with modernity and it arrived during mid-to late 19th century, it as faced gradual changes brought as a result of development of rail transportation and modern modes of production. Public space changes in Shanghai have been influenced by increased modernity evolving structure of power and technology.
- What was it like before communism?
Before communism public spaces were revealed by shrines, it was expensive and was used for various functions; religious, social gathering and children’s play ground. Shanghai public space was long vigorously defined and partitioned. Walls served as the defining physical feature of traditional Chinese cities as Peter puts “…early twentieth century Beijing as a physical entry remained a city stubbornly defined by walls and gates. The fifteen century Ming plan….”
- What was it like during communism?
Communists constructed wide roads, open space and public places in cities that they were known to have closed space. High walls /fences were installed around constructed public institution and productive facilities. They limit access to public parks. The public were denied accesses to commercial and entertainment sectors within the cities since it was curtailed.
- How is it today?
New forms of urban public space have been introduced today so as to accommodate increasing economic activities and population. Today three phases are followed in the design of public space in urban shanghai from 1978(Steve, 2009)
- Phase one (1978-1991) this involved replacement of large public square with new look into landscaping.
- Phase two (1992-1999) here there is incorporation of western style which include constructing of new urban places
- Phase three (2000) puts consideration in the issues of environment
Hybrid East-West dimensions of public space coexists between traditional and modernity.
Steve L. (2009) the media of new public spaces in cities
Philip C (.2007) public sphere and civil society china the realm between states