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Social Issues

Falling from Grace and Katherine Newman

It nothing new that poverty in America is on the rise in record numbers. Since the economic recession the United States entered after the housing bubble burst, unemployment is on the rise and previously “secure” investments became worthless. The United States had secured a large and overwhelming middle class for a very long time.
Katherine Newman’s essay broadly looks at economic security before economic downturn, and are now victims of negative social mobility. These conclusions are logically made, and do not depend in any way on previous models that was virtually based on a caste system, separating the upper class from the lower by profession. Instead, Ms. Newman introduced her own criteria, with much larger implications.

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Social Issues

Designing Healthy Communities

Designinghealthycommunities.org is a well-designed website. It was easy to answer the health questions I had about my community because the site features easy to use tabs that break down information into categories such as “health”, “transportation”, and “food”. In addition, the videos are easy to find and its featured articles are well placed. Information about Dr. Jackson was also very easy to find; there is a tab that provides his background information on the top of the page. I learned that he was the chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health, served on the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Architects, and has won many awards including the Sedgwick Memorial Medal. He created this TV series and wrote the textbook because he is extremely interested in health and the environment, which likely resulted from his involvement with epidemiology, government health efforts, and history as a teacher.

The last time this website was updated was seemingly at the beginning of May because the front page advertises shows that begin on May 4th; if the site was regularly maintained, this information would have been gone by now. Although I do feel that the information presented is valid and easy to understand, I don’t feel that it is up to date. If any major changes in the health community have occurred between the beginning of May and now, the website wouldn’t reflect this.

The website offers a lot of information about public health that is related to obesity and chemical poisoning. It does give some information on how public heath can be characterized and measured, such as using BMI to measure obesity. It cites the common hazards that we can be exposed to due to our locations, careers, and environment. The site offers information about the nature of communities based on their setting, wealth, and ethnic makeup. It gives tips and advice on how these communities can improve their health. Although there was a lot of mention about obesity and diet, there weren’t many suggestions on how to exercise properly to become healthier. I believe that the page will be more effective once this information is added.

References

PBS. (2013). Designing Healthy Communities. Retrieved from     http://designinghealthycommunities.org/

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Social Issues

Assessing Social Support Predictors for Residential Stability Among Formerly Homeless Youth

Research Topic

Youth who have faced homelessness in the past face critical challenges in their efforts to acclimate to residential living. They are typically provided with a level of support and encouragement in these environments that they have not experienced elsewhere. Therefore, they must rely upon the social resources that are available to achieve greater outcomes. It is important for social services and support systems to recognize the level of vulnerability of this population group and the impact that their services might have on youth progress. It is believed that social services and organized interventions provide significant support and guidance for youth who face homelessness and other related challenges because these interventions provide an opportunity to explore options that have not been available in the past and that encourage their growth and maturity in a nurturing environment (Altena et.al, 2010). At the same time, homelessness and related experiences are often traumatic and create a challenging environment for youth upon which personal growth and opportunity might be achieved (Williams et.al, 2001).

This topic is related to my academic area of interest because it considers the impact of social services and support systems on disadvantaged populations, such as homeless persons. This reflects a capacity to engage in research that specifically supports this group and the challenges that they face as they acclimate into residential living in an effective manner. This is critical to their ongoing growth, development, and maturity through adolescence and into adulthood, and also to the field as a whole.

Research Literature Review

Homeless youth who transition into residential living are continuously challenged by their new environment and the changes that they face in this setting. Therefore, social services and support systems must continuously focus on these efforts and how they support youth in these settings so that they are prepared to manage the realities of daily living in different environments (Slesnick et.al, 2009). Under these conditions, it is expected that youth will face problems in their efforts not only to acclimate, but to face discipline, structure, and control over their activities and behaviors (Karbanow and Clement, 2004). These findings suggest that youth must learn how to overcome their own issues with their current behaviors so that they are prepared to manage the realities of a new living situation (Karbanow and Clement, 2004). It is expected that these efforts will encourage formerly homeless youth to take advantage of the guidance and support that is offered to them and to consider the factors that are most effective in enabling them to grow and thrive in this type of environment (Karbanow and Clement, 2004).

Research Problem

Homeless youth face significant concerns in this type of environment. Therefore, if they transition to a residential environment, support services and guidance must be continuously available to provide them with surroundings that are comfortable and supportive of their specific needs. The appropriate intervention services must be identified and supported by predictors that will facilitate improved outcomes for homeless youth through the transition to residential living over time. It is important to utilize the assistance of knowledgeable experts and other forms of support so that homeless youth are able to overcome adversity in a nurturing environment (Kurtz et.al, 2000). Furthermore, it is expected that social support systems will serve as effective forms of intervention to support homeless youth and their needs in an effective manner (Ferguson and Xie, 2008).

Research Question

The primary research question to consider is as follows: What are the key predictors of success in the transition of homeless youth to residential living through the utilization of social support services? How are these services utilized in a manner that is cost effective, efficient, and most productive for the needs of this unique population group?

Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of the study is to explore the different foundations of social services and support as key forms of intervention for homeless youth in transition to a residential living environment. It is believed that these youth will face critical challenges and potential disciplinary problems during the transition process and therefore, must be provided with a core foundation to improve behaviors, reduce disciplinary activity, and encourage effective growth and development in the new living environment. These are likely to demonstrate the importance of social services and their impact on homeless youth and their transition to new living conditions.

Epistemological Foundations

The proposed research study explores the philosophical foundation of positivism, whereby social providers of support, knowledge, resources, and guidance to enable specific population groups achieve greater than anticipated outcomes under different environmental conditions, given the knowledge that has been acquired to date. This is an important and meaningful tool to support disadvantaged populations who require social support and assistance in different forms. This also reflects the capacity to develop new social support concepts that will facilitate improved results for those in need.

Methodology and Basic Design

The proposed study design must reflect an effective means of measuring the necessary data in order to achieve effective results. Therefore, the most appropriate method for this study is regression using secondary data to complete the analysis. This method will facilitate the use of the appropriate measurements and indicators to enable the sample data to be deciphered and analyzed as accurately as possible. This will also provide additional support in the development of different conclusions that may be applicable to future studies with a similar premise or a focus on other disadvantaged population groups.

Population and Sample

For the proposed study, a population group of approximately 50-80 persons is likely to be appropriate in order to accomplish the desired study objectives. This number of participants will also encourage the development of new ideas and approaches to promoting improved social services and support systems for disadvantaged populations who would otherwise not have the type of assistance that is required to gradually overcome adversity and to be acclimated into new environments.

References

Altena, A. M., Brilleslijper-Kater, S. N., & Wolf, J. R. (2010). Effective interventions for

homeless youth: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(6), 637-645.

 

Ferguson, K. M., & Xie, B. (2008). Feasibility study of the social enterprise intervention with

homeless youth. Research on Social Work Practice18(1), 5-19.

 

Karabanow, J., & Clement, P. (2004). Interventions with street youth: A commentary on the

practice-based research literature. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention4(1), 93.

 

Kurtz, P. D., Lindsey, E. W., Jarvis, S., & Nackerud, L. (2000). How runaway and homeless

youth navigate troubled waters: The role of formal and informal helpers. Child and        Adolescent Social Work Journal17(5), 381-402.

 

Slesnick, N., Dashora, P., Letcher, A., Erdem, G., & Serovich, J. (2009). A review of services

and interventions for runaway and homeless youth: Moving forward. Children and youth services review31(7), 732-742.

 

Williams, N. R., Lindsey, E. W., Kurtz, P., & Jarvis, S. (2001). From Trauma to Resiliency:

Lessons from Former Runaway and Homeless Youth. Journal Of Youth Studies4(2), 233-253. doi:10.1080/13676260120057004

 

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Social Issues

Queerly Canadian- Play Review: “Spoon” with reflections of Will Munro

“Spoon,” written by Charles Spencer Smith, had several showings at the Studio Theatre in 4 Glen Morris Street, Toronto, Ontario. It was attended by the author on Sunday, March 4th at 2 PM. This was a free show but required reservations. “Spoon” is a Straight Camp production offered in collaboration with the Centre for Drama, Theatre, and Performance Studies at the University of Toronto. Its cast consisted of three actors; Andy Ingram, the playwright himself, Charles Spencer Smith, and Alisha Strangers.

 

The Will Munro retrospective can be currently found on display at the Art Gallery of York University (AGYU). This illustrates the crucial role of community in shaping sexual identity while also demonstrating that queer identity is part of a constantly shifting, boundary-free world that sits on or outside of the margins of mainstream Canadian society. Through this comparison / contrast essay of these two political art-forms, by the end the lack of homosexual inclusion, even within the first-world nations of this globe, will become quite evident. Moreover. several depictions will further illustrate this queer exclusion.

 

“Spoon can be considered a violent comedy, metaphorically depicting sexual orientations among minorities in the society.  The author described it as a postdramatic implosion of queer dynamics (Smith, 2012). The play contained elements of sexual battery, indiscriminate sexual violence, and bisexual relationships, and  nudity. It presented a theater of the absurd which suggested that modern, developed society may need to transform its notions regarding gender identity and sexual interactions.

Categories
Social Issues

Queerly Canadian

The Will Munro retrospective currently on display at the Art Gallery of York University (AGYU) illustrates the crucial role of community in shaping sexual identity while also demonstrating that queer identity is part of a constantly shifting, boundary-free world that sits on or outside of the margins of mainstream Canadian society.  This position allows artists like Munro, who died of brain cancer in 2010, to reinvent himself through both his art and his public persona.  Munro was well known in a variety of queer community not only for his visual art, but for his multiple roles as DJ, concert promoter, and queer activist.  The retrospective documents his creative legacy from his OCAD graduation in 2005 until his death in 2010, illustrating Munro’s rejection of static labels in favor of an ever-evolving multimedia aesthetic that included paintings, textile work, mannequin tableau, and music gig posters.

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Social Issues

Mobile/Viral Video Production

Mobile/viral video production company is focused on videos crafted for mobile production. Their goal is also design technology to make it easy to share and amplify their mobile and video reach.  They want to go viral in record setting time.  The key age of individuals who utilize mobile video is between the ages 12-17 and 18-24.  The mobile video optimizing will create a video that will appeal to these small screen viewers.  The ultimate goal is to develop the name and reputation of the company as being the leader of video production.  Name association with readily recognized videos is important for the company to proceed with their long-term company goals.  The Mobile/Viral Video Production Company will utilize content strategy to reach their goal and successfully market their product.

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Social Issues

Women are not Given an Equal Voice in Political Decision-Making Positions

Abstract

Centuries ago women were not viewed as equals and the only chance they had of being heard and having a voice in their home, community, and government was to present it through the men.  Women fought hard to find equal footing in all faucets of life.  Little by little society adapted to the idea that women should have the same rights that were given to the men.  The laws may have incorporated equality but that does not disregard the fact the women are still not being heard as equals. Women stepping up and being involved and increasing the number of representatives will ensure that the gender inequality will be squashed and there will truly be a ground for equal voices in political decision-making.

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Social Issues

Review of Social Conditions in Men for Sale

The Film

In 2008, French/Canadian filmmaker Rodrigue Jean filmed and released Men for Sale, a documentary centered on the lives of 11 male prostitutes in Montreal.  There is no plot or storyline to the film; rather, a mostly unseen and unheard presence elicits stories and experiences from the subjects.  These alternate both in intensity and content during the documentary, as everything is presented here to only convey the reality of the life as a male prostitute as these men live it.  Most of the interview segments are filmed in a neutral setting, the filmmaker’s own apartment, which acts as a safe haven for them.  The men are also largely anonymous, and only one name is actually offered.

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Social Issues

Final Examination on Social Issues

Part I: Informed consent

The idea of informed consent refers to individual or human consciousness that is experienced and essential when one is making a decision. In most cases, it has become essential for people to have an informed consent and be aware of the consequences of the decisions they make in life. Informed consent guides individuals when making decisions and many other landmark activities in their lives. The existence of informed consent establishes a strong base where people can do many activities when they are sure of the possible consequences. Informed consent is a requirement for many psychological and mental practices where practitioners may come across critical information about their patients; patients must be aware of such possibilities (be informed) before accepting (consent) anything from the doctor.

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Social Issues

Population and the Environment

The effects that declining or increasing populations have on a nation varies according to the base economic starting point when the population change occurs. Rich and poor nations are both affected differently by population change. Wairigala Wakabi’s article, “Population growth continues to drive up poverty in Uganda”, demonstrates how a rapidly increasing population can expand poverty in a country that already has a high percentage of poor. According to Wakabi’s article just five years ago Uganda’s impoverished numbered at 7.8 million. This already high number has increased to 10 million in the past five years. In contrast, Nick Pearce’s article, “We may need to have more babies: Observations on population,” demonstrates how declining population can increase poverty in a wealthy state. In Pearce’s article, it states that effects of declining population will contribute to pressure on public finances, housing issues, environmental problems, care needs, poverty and inequality in England. The only thing to be done about it is to slow or reverse the current population trends for each country.

In Pearce’s article, it is pointed out that the declining population in England will intensify environmental problems. The article does not give details on which economic problems specifically are being referred to, but readers can infer an increased demand for housing and perhaps higher personal vehicle usage based on the article’s projection that 8.7 million single-person households will exist in England by 2021, both factors that have an impact on land use, resource usage, and air-quality.  This factor switches for poor countries and again increasing population in a poor country has the same effect as declining population in a rich country. As poor populace increases in Uganda air quality is negatively affected, accumulation of waste increases, and more natural resources are used at a quicker rate. To counteract these environmental issues house planning needs to be reevaluated, alternative energy sources implemented for residential and commercial power use and transportation, and alternative building materials used.

When considering environmental concerns in relation to economic development and population control, I think the main thing to take into consideration is what will do more damage to the environment, a high number of people or increased production? Looking to the two articles, both make mention of a heavy toll on the environment resulting from increased population in the poorer country, Uganda, and decreased population growth in the wealthier country, England. England has been economically well-developed and that is being threatened by the decline in population growth. Uganda has been successful in increasing economic development along with the increase in population, though the increased populace has had a negative impact on environment. So, from the articles, population control comes first when considering environmental concerns.

If economic development is the chicken and population control is the egg, I would say you need to have a good healthy chicken before you start laying a bunch of eggs. From the information provided in Wakabi’s article, it is clear from looking at Uganda that increasing population in a country before establishing a strong economic base will provide too many eggs to be taken care of and not enough chickens to sit on them. Since China is Uganda’s president’s economic role model, this argument could be made stronger if information about China’s economic history was included. As it is, it is not clear from the article if China’s economy was

stable or rich when the population boomed.

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Social Issues

Children’s Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

Acknowledgement: Part of this project was presented as a poster at the 2002 Conference on Human Development, Charlotte, NC. This research was supported by a grant to Christia Spears Brown from the Debra Beth Lobliner Fellowship. We are extremely grateful to the director, John Combs, and the site leaders of Extend-A-Care in Austin, TX, and to the students who participated in the project and their parents. We also thank Enrique Barroso, Jensen Sapido, Tiffany Seaman, Leah Lambert, and Allison Davis for help with data collection and Alex Brown for the illustrations.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to: Christia Spears Brown, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 Electronic Mail may be sent to: [email protected].

Discrimination on the basis of group membership (e.g., gender, race, or religion) is an important social problem in the United States and throughout the world. In the year 2000, for example, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights received approximately 5,000 complaints regarding instances of discrimination. The majority of these complaints (approximately 70%) were filed on behalf of elementary and secondary school children.Undoubtedly, many more instances of discrimination affecting children occur every year but go unreported. Although existing research has examined factors that affect adults’ perceptions of discrimination (e.g., Swim, Cohen, & Hyers, 1998), little research has examined children’s perceptions of discrimination. In this study, we examined children’s judgments about scenarios involving possible instances of gender discrimination. We were especially interested in whether children are sensitive to contextual information in making attributions to discrimination and whether individual and developmental differences among children are related to their perceptions of discrimination.

In addition to its obvious practical importance, understanding how and when children perceive discrimination is important for developmental theory.Developmentalists have argued that children’s perceptions of discrimination play an important role in shaping many developmental processes and outcomes, including identity development and academic achievement (Bowman & Howard, 1985Spencer & Markstrom-Adams, 1990). That is, researchers have argued that understanding children’s perceptions of discrimination is imperative for outlining the normative development of children who are members of stigmatized groups and who may, therefore, be the targets of discriminatory actions (Garcia Coll et al., 1996). It seems equally important to understand perceptions of discrimination among children who are members of privileged groups and who may, therefore, witness and benefit from discriminatory actions.

What is discrimination? Fishbein (1996, p. 7) defined discrimination as “harmful actions towards others because of their membership in a particular group.” Discriminatory actions can range from mild (e.g., ignoring someone) to virulent (e.g., inflicting physical harm). As racial and gender biases have become less socially acceptable in this country, discriminatory actions have become increasingly subtle and ambiguous, requiring individuals to make attributions about the motivations of others on the basis of situational information (e.g., Dovidio & Gaertner, 1986Swim, Aikin, Hall, & Hunter, 1995).It is especially important, therefore, to examine whether, and if so how, children use contextual information in making decisions about discriminatory behavior.

The earliest research examining children’s perceptions of discrimination centered on race and was conducted after the court-ordered racial desegregation of schools in the United States. For example, Radke and Sutherland (1972) asked European American children, “What are Negroes like?” They found that 12% of 11- to 12-year-olds, 49% of 13- to 14-year-olds, and 59% of 17- and 18-year-olds mentioned discrimination and that all respondents described discrimination as negative. Other studies reported that African American children viewed themselves as victims of racial bias.Rosenberg (1979) found that 51% of African American children who attended desegregated junior high schools, and 34% who attended predominantly African American schools, reported that they had experienced teasing or exclusion because of their race. Patchen (1982) found that many African Americans in newly desegregated high schools complained about the discriminatory actions of European American teachers. Those African American students who perceived discrimination had slightly lower grades and more negative attitudes toward European Americans than did other African American students.

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Social Issues

Marijuana

Introduction

The debate of marijuana has been a drug used since the beginning of time. This product is used to create a temporary euphoric effect that alters an individual’s perception. Public perception has associated marijuana with reckless fun and dangerous drug lords. Movies that focus on getting high portrays individuals as funny, careless people who have no responsibilities other than having fun and smoking weed.   There is far more the marijuana than the 420 connotation that is associated with it. Marijuana is a natural drug that needs has many different uses than what is portrayed through the media.

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Social Issues

Strategies to help prevent and manage HIV among the youths

When HIV epidemic was first discovered in 1983, it was majorly concentrated among the adult male persons who were injecting drug users. Today however, this epidemic has spread to other industries like the sex industry, and its increase is alarming. This epidemic has been observed to be very prevalent among young people of between the ages 15- 24 years at a percentage of 51.1%.  Almost 23% affects the people of ages 24 to 35 years. The proportion of those between 10 to 14 years was also increasing, and by 2006 had reached 10.2%. (MOH, 2010).

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Social Issues

Child Soldiers in Uganda Name

Introduction

History of child soldiers in Uganda is traced back to the national Resistance Army in which children were conscripted to fight with the soldiers. Children below 18 years old were recruited and made to join the armed forces and used as child soldiers in combat operation, for sexual purposes, to set or clear land mines or simply work as spies, porters and messengers. The break down of social structures in Uganda meant the children were forcefully abducted, separated from the parents. The national resistance army was formed in 1981 by Yoweri Museveni and Yusuf lule to wage war against the Government of Milton Obote and mainly used Guerilla tactics. On the other hand, the Lord Resistance army which was started by Alice Lakwena now led by the self style spiritual leader Joseph kony. The group has been in operation in northern Uganda, southern Sudan and recently shifted base to Congo (Haynes, 2002).