Legal Issues

Government Investigations and Access to Information

The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” This amendment is an important proscription against the potential overreach of governments or public agencies seeking information from private citizens, businesses, and other organizations. Government agencies attempting to make a legal case against an individual or an organization must adhere to legal restrictions and guidelines in their efforts to obtain information useful in investigations and legal proceedings. The public’s right of access to information is also limited and restricted, with laws such as the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) proscribing what, when, and how information is to be made public.

Governments have a number of ways in which to gather information. In the context of government oversight and regulation of industries, financial sectors, and other areas of concern, the means by which regulators and government agencies can and does vary according to particular circumstances and situations. At the most basic level, regulators often receive (and transmit) information to and from those that are subject to such regulation. Put simply, “regulators talk to the regulated”(Carter and Harrington, 2000). The information gathered this way is often “communicated in an informal manner and on a voluntary basis,” (Carter and Harrington) and it is this typical form of information-gathering that underpins much of government oversight and regulation.

In instances where the government is attempting to bring a legal case against a business of organization over which it has regulatory power, the need for access to information is of significant concern; acquiring information is what gives regulators the requisite power to successfully prosecute such cases. As an example of how regulatory agencies exert power and gather information in the context of legal proceedings, it will be helpful to examine several specific instances of such activities by a government agency. While the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) is responsible at the federal level for the U.S.’ efforts to combat the problems associated with illegal drugs, it is also responsible for regulatory oversight of the handling of legally-prescribed controlled medications. In recent years, the abuse of prescription pain medications and other prescription drugs has received significant attention in the media, and has prompted both greater scrutiny and legal action on the part of the DEA (, 2013). When conducting investigations related to the handling and dispensation of medications subject to the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) the DEA must use a number of methods to acquire useful and necessary information.

At its core, the most fundamental question about the government’s interest in acquiring information is whether or not the request is reasonable. Government agencies and representatives who seek information from private citizens or from businesses and other organizations must have a reasonable purpose for asking for such information (Carter and Harrington). If the request for information or access might potentially turn up evidence that a crime or crimes have been committed, it is sometimes necessary to determine if the request for access is reasonable before such access is granted. For example, if the Occupational Safety and Health Administration wishes to carry out an inspection of a business, the OSHA representative typically needs a warrant (Carter and Harrington). If consent for the inspection is granted without a representative of the business requesting a warrant, the information uncovered in the inspection is typically useful and admissible in legal proceedings. If the request to produce a warrant is denied, then the business does not have to grant consent for the search unless and until OSHA is granted a warrant.

In the context of DEA oversight of the handling of legally-prescribed controlled substances, the agency is legally afforded strict control and oversight of the activities of physicians and other prescribers, pharmacists and pharmacies, wholesale and retail distributors of such medications, and the companies that manufacture these medications ( A significant body of regulatory procedures, guidelines, and laws has been established that are intended to assure that the activities of these various actors are transparent and that the information related to such activity is easily and readily available to the DEA. Officials from the DEA and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) have used this information to build cases against individuals and organizations that have violated the relevant policies and laws related to the handling of controlled prescription medications; when such information is not forthcoming, these same officials have used the lack of information as the substantive standard for demonstrating a reasonable need for this information (, 2013).

In recent years the state of Florida has received intense scrutiny from the DEA for activities within the state that fail to adhere to the guidelines and laws that regulate the handling and dispensation of a number of medications covered by the CSA. According to DEA officials and government prosecutors, Florida has been home to a significant number of so-called “pill mills” (; these pill mills are doctor’s offices that prescribe (and sometimes even dispense) pain medications and other controlled substances at rates that the DEA considers to be outside the boundaries of legitimate medical use. These medications are subject to widespread abuse by addicts, and the DEA has charged that the pill mills are contributing to the problem by flooding the streets of Florida with these medications (

Oversight of these medications is supposed to be strict, with doctors limiting the amount of medications they prescribe, pharmacists and pharmacies watching for prescriptions in amounts that should raise red flags, and distributors flagging orders from pharmacies that appear to be excessive. In a recent case that was settled between the DEA and Walgreen’s pharmacy, a large national chain, Walgreen’s agreed to pay a fine of $80 million and to overhaul its methods of handling and dispensing controlled medications ( Among the charges that the DEA leveled against Walgreen’s were accusations that the chain and several of its individual pharmacy locations had failed to maintain adequate records and failed to notify the DEA, per statutory regulation, about suspicious prescriptions at the retail level and excessive orders at the distribution level ( It is this sort of information that would –or at least should- normally be communicated between the regulated and regulators. When discrepancies in records and errors in reporting were uncovered by the DEA, these failures served as the foundation of the agency’s requests for the warrants needed to uncover more information and ultimately to successfully prosecute their case.

Although the DEA has made the argument that the availability of these controlled medications on the streets poses a significant public health risk, there are a number of factors that make it difficult, or sometimes impossible, for the public to acquire information related to the activities of the DEA both in terms of these investigations and of the overall activities of the agency. The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which ostensibly makes it possible for the public to request information about the activities of government, does not always assure that such requests will be met. A number of organizations and individuals who have made FOIA requests to the DEA and DOJ about the activities of the DEA have been denied; according to a recent report, the rate at which such FOIA requests about the DEA have been denied has jumped 114% since the beginning of the administration of President Barack Obama (Rumsey, 2012). Other legal restrictions, such as those that protect the privacy of patients’ medical records, further limit the amount of information available to journalists and other investigators where the DEA is concerned.

There are laws that further protect and enhance the rights of the public to access information about some aspects of the medical and pharmaceutical industries. The Sunshine Act for physicians provides transparency of payments from pharmaceutical companies to physicians, which can expose instances where physicians are receiving payments from the same companies whose medications these doctors are dispensing ( Sunshine Laws offer little in the way of providing access to information about the activities of the DEA, however, despite the fact that the activities of this agency may be as significant an area of public concern as are the activities of the individuals and organizations the DEA regulates. In any instance where information is useful and necessary, whether for use by the government of for the edification of the public, there are a number of laws that are intended to ensure such access.


Carter, L. H., & Harrington, C. B. (2000). Administrative law and politics: Cases and comments. New York, NY: Longman. / Denver News Releases, 05/30/13. (2013, May 30). Retrieved from

Pharma Compliance: License Verification | Healthcare Data Solutions | Healthcare Data Solutions. (2012). Retrieved from

Rumsey, M. (2012, July 17). The News Without Transparency: DEA FOIA rejections have increased 114 percent since the end of Bush administration – Sunlight Foundation Blog. Retrieved from

Walgreens agrees to pay a record settlement for civil penalties under the Controlled Substances Act. (2013, June 11). Retrieved from


Response Essay(A Story of an Hour)

           The piece of literature “The Story of an Hour”, written by Kate Chopin, is a very important, and layered short story about a woman who receives news about her husband’s untimely death, and her immediate thoughts afterwards. Louise, the main character, is informed by her sister that Louise’s husband had been killed in a tragic train accident. After she immediately begins crying, she runs upstairs, seemingly to be by herself and lament the death of her husband in peace.

            While contemplating the implications of his death near an open window, she becomes very aware of one thing. Although she definitely loved her dead husband, named Brently, in some sense, she was having trouble suppressing an overwhelming feeling of happiness. At first unexplainable, the author paints a vivid picture of the open window and a breeze, clearly used to illustrate the new freedom Louise was envisioning for herself. A married woman was very often subject to the will of their husbands, regardless of love or a lack of love. This idea of freedom overwhelms her, and she is actually happy at her new life. She dreams of all the prospects and doors now open to her.

            Tragically, when coming downstairs with her sister, he seemingly dead husband walked through the door. This caused an immediate stress reaction, and Louise had a heart attack, and was pronounced dead. Chopin was clearly trying to illustrate the extent that women were subject to men unfairly.

            The poem “Woman” by Nikki Giovanni, however, is very empowering with regards to women. When Chopin seemed to show despair in the character of Louise, by the time Giovanni wraps up the poem a very different message, tone, and idea is conveyed–showing a strong woman as a whole.

            The entire poem is about a woman clearly seeking approval, or in some way needing it, from her love interest or significant other. It is clear that the man in her life does not support her in her ventures and decisions, and she seems to be codependent on him in some sense. Much of the poem is a descriptive narrative of different true and metaphorical ways the author attempted to grow as a person, and was stunted by this man, as well as her attempt at cultivating a real relationship with the man. He was clearly not receptive to any and all of her advances, but the final stanza illustrates the theme of the poem as a whole.

            Giovanni says that although the woman decided to be a woman, and the man refused to be a man (possibly with regards to maturity), the woman was okay with that. She was content with herself, and her identity as an independent woman.

            The short poem “We Real Cool” by Gwendolyn Brooks gives a different social perspective, though related. Ms. Brooks, a black woman whose life-span was literally the 20th century, frequently wrote poems describing difficulties as a woman, and specifically a black woman.             The poem “We Real Cool” specifically outlines the small African American culture of which she was a part of in Chicago. African-American culture, in many ways, emerged as its own counter-culture. Brooks’ descriptive words illustrate much about the antisocial behavior blacks were attracted to as a product of the injustices they faced daily.


Music as Social Life


     Do it yourself (DIY) ideologies have been associated with music emerging from concepts of rebellion; individualism and free thought. Essentially, it has been linked to socio-political beliefs of a punk music subculture. In terms of participatory effects it is expressed sociologically, through spoken language, in art forms, music, fashion and various types of recordings. This exposition examines concepts of participatory music as it relates to this do it yourself (DIY) ideology. Importantly, an exploration into Irish Music Event, Bloomington Farm Market, and Country dance will be embraced as various aspects of do-it yourself ideologies are transposed into these dimensions of music forms.

          According to John Bealle (2013) scene theory has been applied in describing the social, economic, and geographical aspects of urban popular music. In this analysis aspect of this theory will be cited in analyzing how music is an integral part of social life and actually emerging as a basis of physical social and spiritual communication. The analyst contends that scene theory at first was associated with jazz, which carried its peculiar genre embodied in music depicting blues invoking a specific energy for participation (Bealle, 2013).

          Bealle (2013) continues to describe the theory by outlining the assumption that there appears to be a semiotic gap between the scene and the community. Further it is explained  where the identity of scene and community is closely linked to  the’ complex interplay of longevity of residence, property ownership, access to heritage discourse, access to resources elsewhere, and so on’ ( Bealle, 2013, pp 14). As such, when the ability to align community with scenes is evident music achieves its transformative impact. This is how Social influences outside of the music content itself creates a scene whereby zoning, the use of alcoholic beverages, enforcing dress codes; age limits and specific geographic locations in which the music can be aired all combine to develop the participatory portion of the music culture (Bealle, 2013).Music is influenced by norms and norms also impact the extent to which music is participatory


                The Irish music event consisted of an indigenous genre from where the music originated.  Most successful genres have been rock and popular tradition. In the American context it has been fused into what is known as rock and roll as well as punk and rock. Traditional Irish music event was conducted by singing songs that would invoke a drinking energy. Often they were referred to as drinking ballads and sung either unaccompanied or accompanied by harps and a variety of other musical instruments. Obviously, the participatory element was embodied in the singing; drinking and dance which included polka movements (Sawyers, 2002).There are distinct symbolic associations with this music event because it initiates obvious physical responses communicated in the dance.

            Bloomington Farm Market is an ethnographic event where people gather weekly to purchase vegetables harvested through organic cultivation. Usually, the market is located at a central spot where it can be located. Often as people go about their other shopping thy stop and make a purchase from observation samples of fruits are offer for tasting and people sit on the benches as they chatter participating in the lively shopping environment. The busy downtown atmosphere invokes a community spirit.

           Country dance was observed to be a social dance form. In this encounter couples dance interacting with each other as a couple then in pairs together as a group. It is performed by each dancer moving towards his/her partner dancing and facing each other. Individual couple groups dance forward to the other couples’ group. The set moving long ways is usually formed by a row of men making a line to face the women. They form line two facing the men; moving towards them as the music is played and they dance in this very significant formation for a while.

     Traditionally, this dance culture originated from the British country dance. It was first designed and choreographed by John Playford a Londoner in 1651. His strategy has been extensively applied to several other dance forms beside county dance known also as the longways formation. It has been widely used also in square dances, “round about the room” sets, which but be considered distinct from country dances and triangular dance sets where three set of couples are used to complete the routine ( Robbins,2011).

          In some cultures country dancing is also accepted as a part of the folk dance culture.  Many people own it as a tradition embodied in their socialization. Some analysts’ contend that country dance is not a demonstration exercise, but rather a participation entertainment. In highlighting its participatory nature, they emphasize the distinction between country and folk dance forms are the Clogging aspect, which can be interpreted as is primarily dancing for demonstration purposes. Further arguments are that social interaction encompassing county dance adds to the communal nature of the music art form, which has become distinguishable as it pertains to ballroom, and other forms of couple dances whereby dancers dance embrace and dance with their partners, but do not relate to other couples within their environment in designing a communal event (Robbins,2011).

Argument Analysis

        Music is influenced by norms and norms also impact the extent to which music is participatory. Reflecting on the theme scene theory it must be understood when applying music to the do it yourself (DIY) ideology regarding its participatory nature a ‘complex interplay of longevity of residence, property ownership, access to heritage discourse, access to resources elsewhere, and so on’ ( Bealle, 2013, pp 14) are embraced.

       Longevity of residence, property ownership, access to heritage discourse are all elements informing the community features that influence music norms identified as various genre. For example, the ethnographic interpretation of Irish music event clearly is impacted by the norms that determine what type of ballad is accepted as one that initiates drinking. Tradition is rooted in longevity of residence, property ownership, and access to heritage discourse. Participation is the social action emerging from how norms are held sacred when music forms are activated as cultural communication tools.

         Data observed in compiling the country dance highlighted the experience as a social dance form. Insidiously, the normative nature separates country dance from all other similar dance traditions to say that the social interaction encompassing this activity adds to the communal nature of the music art form, which has become distinguishable as it pertains to ballroom, and other forms of couple dances whereby dancers embrace and dance with their partners, but do not relate to other couples within their environment in designing a communal event. Ideologically, the do it yourself (DIY) philosophy is maintained in the normative tradition since it is subsequently emphasized that country dance is not a demonstration exercise, but rather a participation entertainment. In highlighting its participatory nature, analysts confirmed the distinction between country and folk dance forms to be the Clogging aspect, which can be interpreted as primarily dancing for demonstration purposes (Robbins, 2011). Hence, here again the social action relationship is engraved in a norm related to the dance routine, which  impacts longevity of residence being its traditional arrangement, property ownership, access to heritage discourse designed by the Londoner John Playford in 1651. Property ownership now becomes intellectual property as well regarding who owns the music forms and successfully market it across cultures.

        People engage in music forms mainly for participations while it can be demonstration to the extent of entertainment such as punk, ballroom and liturgical dancing. Patterns of behaviors are either meetings as a group to enjoy the activity together or attending a music function as part of an entertainment. Music conception is participatory because people either sign or dance to the music as feelings, and meanings for this event are expressed. Precisely, the ‘and so on’ ( Bealle 2013, pp 14) of Bealle (2013) scene theory explains how norms also impact the extent to which music is participatory since zoning, the use of alcoholic beverages, enforcing dress codes; age limits and specific geographic locations in which the music can be aired all combine to develop the participatory portion of the music culture ( Bealle, 2013).


         In assessing the significance of music as a form of social action it forces one to embrace its importance in communicating the deep beliefs and desires of a people. For example, the legendary Bob Marley used music to express world views related to the Rastafarian movement evolution in his society. In this sense the social action created by his music led to society developing a different perception of the movement. Music is important since many studies show where it is a healthy emotional nonviolent release (Robbins, 2011).

          Therefore, we can use music, participatory action, and DIY as a tool for remodeling society just by subtly communicating messages that insidiously impact the hearing through rhythm, sound that speak to the senses and reconstruct thought patterns. Precisely, music can produce calm that even medications cannot achieve. As such, it can be applied as a peace therapy in redirecting war patterns and strife across the world.

Works cited

Bealle, John. DIY Music and Scene Theory. Presented at the meetings of the Midwest Chapter of the Society for Ethnomusicology Cincinnati, Ohio, April 13, 2013. Print.               

Robbins, Donny. Country Dancing.YouTube.2011.

 Sawyers, June Skinner. The Complete Guide to Celtic Music London: 2002.Print


The Telecommunication Revolution in the Democratic Republic of Congo


The African continent has been rapidly investing into the telecommunications industry as its economy continues to grow. Despite the constant conflict in major countries in Africa, as well as poverty and crime remaining in society, the world’s fastest growing mobile phone market resides inside Africa, although the mobile phone market has only become popular in the last decade. In particular, the Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the largest importers of mobile phones in Africa, and according to recent statistics, mobile phone usage in the region has increased to double the global average. However, a reliable and consistent service provider has yet to be established in the Democratic Republic of Congo; therefore, the implications and benefits of such a service are discussed herein.

Congo Mobile Service Provider

The flawed mythology that treats Africa as a homogenous disaster area is being challenged by investors and economists1. Investors have continued to add to the growing economy in more ways than one. As the Democratic Republic of Congo continues to import mobile phones, the main source of income and growth for the country relies on the production of coltan, one of the materials used in the production of mobile phones. By working alongside the mobile manufacturers in the area, it is possible to get cheaper handsets and thus more affordable service, since the handsets are very easy to produce, and the coltan product used in the manufacturing stage is a readily available resource. Therefore, it is a two-fold strategy in which the manufacturer and the service provider can benefit in cost reductions via a corporate partnership.

Due to globalisation, the coltan material is extracted and exported to the Asian continents, where they are manufactured and packaged, then are sent to major mobile phone company’ headquarters for testing and certification. Once complete, the mobile phones are imported back into the Democratic Republic of Congo, where they are distributed and sold by mobile phone outlets. As mobile phones are part of the telecommunications industry, it relies heavily on satellite communication for reception and connectivity.

However, there remains the question of a valid service provider. Although corporate giants such as Nokia have office branches in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the service provided by the company is limited, as it is more cost effective to replace a mobile phone than troubleshoot the problem. As such, there is a great need to fill the gap between the supplier and the consumer, as millions of Africans rely on third-party networks for consistent service. As such, the need for establishing a support service that links providers directly to consumers, serving as the middle man, remains.

There are three main influences regarding the establishment of the Congo Mobile Service Provider (CMSP). Firstly, the network on which many of the mobile phones are relying upon needs to be increased. Currently, many of the mobile phones in the Democratic Republic of Congo rely on a roaming network, meaning that the reception and connectivity is inconsistent with the receiving and making of phone calls and text messages. Therefore, the network should be connected to relative countries in proximity, so that carriers can link to nearby networks and establish a consistent connection. This will be routed and provided by the CMSP.   

Secondly, the location of the service base will be an issue that remains to be solved. Although business is booming, the safety of civilians, as well as foreigners, continues to come under threat, even in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Therefore, a suitable location that is still relatively accessible to the public, but within the boundaries of safe premises, will constitute a location that will serve as the service base. It should also be in close proximity to other mobile phone providers, in the central business district, and within distance of the embassy or consulate.

Thirdly, the management of the CMSP should be carefully selected and maintained. Although it is suitable for Congo residents to be employed within the business, the first point of contact should remain as a foreign contact. This is mainly due to the fact that the Congo people value the service of foreigners, especially in such an industry as telecommunications. The Congo employees should be given the responsibility of ensuring that the business is profitable, by engaging in marketing, maintenance and operations of the business; whereas the foreigners should be charged with customer service, liaisons and other related responsibilities.

Successful Service

Labelling of a service as successful or unsuccessful in such a country as the Democratic Republic of Congo relies on the cultural and economic implications, as well as marketing initiatives by the CMSP. Emerging markets are radically different from traditional industrialised societies, and require rethinking of the core assumptions of marketing, such as market orientation, market segmentation and differential advantage2. These three purposes serve the purpose of labelling in the telecommunications industry.

Regarding market orientation, the organisational culture of the CMSP should be an organic one, mainly for the purposes of the company structure. As telecommunications continue to improve, the organisational culture of CMSP should be able to react and handle the changes in the industry effectively, as well as embracing the technology and implementing changes as necessary. This will assist in tapping into the market and increasing the differential advantage, as will be mentioned later.

In terms of market segmentation, the sub-set of consumers who have a need to be met, namely a reliable service provider, will be targeted and strategies surrounding their needs will be implemented to meet them. As there are millions of consumers who have mobile phones, but few have a reliable service provider, there is a consistent need for such a service that CMSP can provide, along with support and assistance when required. The support provides consists of mobile troubleshooting, handset servicing, sim card and battery replacement, Wi-Fi and network connectivity; as well as assistance with replacing or upgrading handsets, customer service, and improvements in mobile user-friendliness. 

Regarding differential advantage, as aforementioned, there are few companies in the Democratic Republic of Congo that provide a consistent service to mobile users. The few that do are not readily accessible to consumers, nor do they provide ongoing assistance; which is where CMSP comes in. The business will provide all three core services to consumers, filling the void between mobile phone providers and the customers themselves. This will become the differential advantage for CMSP.    

Brand Loyalty

As most Africans use mobile phones such as Nokia, CMSP will partner with such companies as their main service provider. By doing so, the brand loyalty that Africans have to Nokia and other such mobile phone manufacturers will assist in the establishment of the business. To enhance the users’ experience, mobile phone brands will be displayed prominently in marketing campaigns and joint business initiatives between Nokia and related companies, and CMSP.

By partnering with a well-known brand such as Nokia and other similar companies, the business will be able to grow and expand to serve a wide proportion of consumers in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Furthermore, by partnering with the major mobile phone manufacturers, the CMSP will be able to attract their customers and link them to the company’s service provider. This corporate partnership will be able to increase brand loyalty amongst the locals.

Offshore outsourcing has emerged as a popular competitive strategy, and emerging markets have become increasingly attractive location-wise3. Therefore, CMSP can take advantage of the outsourcing of mobile phone manufacturers by establishing a consistent service and linking customers of their companies to support and assistance when needed. As there is a great need in the Democratic Republic of Congo for such a service, Nokia and other mobile phone manufactures may be open to linking with another foreign company for service provision capabilities.

Product Life Cycle

Such a product as mobile phones is involved in all phases of the product life cycle, as it has many facets. However, the service provision of mobile phones fits into phase four, which is the utilisation stage. In such a stage, communication, management and collaboration are seen as the driving force.

For example, communication channels in the telecommunications industry for the Democratic Republic of Congo are not yet completely established. Therefore, CMSP has an advantage in this area, mainly since they are a new player and can improve on existing issues with communication problems by offering their service provision as a solution.

In addition, the management of CMSP will be completely run by foreigners, since this will ensure that autonomy is delegated to the local employees, while maintaining a high standard of efficiency and effectiveness when dealing with service provision. Customers will be provided with assistance and consistent support, whether they are new mobile phone users or experienced professionals. As research shows, mobile phone technology has been embraced by all income groups, not just low incomes households, in Africa4. Therefore, the population will rely on a service that meets its expectations, such as that provided by CMSP.

Lastly, collaborative ties with major mobile phone manufacturers such as Nokia and other similar companies will ensure that strength in numbers is the main advantage for CMSP. As one of the few, if not only, consistent and reliable service providers in the region, the company will provide local expertise coupled with foreign technology and implementation to provide an unparalleled service.

Pricing Objectives

Although there are relatively few competitors, as reliable service providers in the Democratic Republic of Congo are scarce, the main competitor remains as Vodacom. Since the company both produces mobile phones as well as provides service to customers, the business has an advantage in both size and profitability.

However, Vodacom only provides service to mobile phone users that have mobile phones linked to their specific network, or have mobile phones produced by their company. Therefore, the pricing of both mobile phones and the service provision is often bundled in and offered at a local rate. Those outside their market, or those who do not have mobile phones produced by Vodacom, are not part of their consumer base.

Since this is the situation, CMSP can use a pricing strategy such as target rate of return on sales. This pricing objective will utilise Nokia and other related companies’ customer base, linking them to the partnering service provision of CMSP, and using prices consistent with the major mobile phone manufacturers. Therefore, it will be a consistent rate of return, and sales will be aligned with mobile phone packages provided by corporate partners. With such a wide customer base, the target rate of return on sales will be maximised.

Distribution Chain and Strategy

When incorporating CMSP’s service into the distribution chain, the means of distribution itself is quite simple. One the mobile phones are sold to customers by the manufacturer or mobile phone outlet, the customer is then referred to CMSP, which relies on the mobile manufacturer and supplier for products and corporate partnership regarding service provision. This completes the distribution chain.  

In regards to the strategy, a selective distribution strategy should be used, since the producer or manufacturer relies on few intermediaries, or partners, to carry their product. CMSP will be linked to major mobile manufactures, suppliers and distributors, such as Nokia and related companies, for mobile phone production, customer relations, and links to the company’s service provision will be provided to all existing, current and new customers.

When implementing such a strategy in the distribution chain, it is important to add value in every step, from the sale made to the service provided. Therefore, the process will be streamlined so that customers’ issues are met on time and within the company’s mode of operation, so that the business continues to grow and expand.

Traditional Promotion

Although all five of the traditional promotional mix is quite useful in increasing company awareness and enlarging the customer base, there are three specific promotional tools that CMSP can utilise when promoting its exceptional service.

Firstly, advertising the company using mainly print, mobile and in-store advertisements will cover the broad media outlets that customers usually follow. By investing into this cost-effectively, CMSP will be able to capture the captive audience that uses such media, and introduce them to its service provision

Secondly, public relations is an important aspect of promotion, particularly on a corporate level, and can take the form of charitable contributions, issue advertising and even speeches by senior management at joint corporate launches with Nokia and CMSP, along with related companies. By engaging in open presentations of the quality of service the company provides, more customers will in turn be open to utilising such a service.

Thirdly, direct marketing using word-of-mouthinteractive consumer websites, promotional letters and outdoor advertising will enable the CMSP to reach those who are both technology literate and beginning novices. As much of the African population are good story-tellers, with the aid of a targeted marketing campaign, which will include local transportation advertisements, will be quite effective in spreading the word about the company and its quality services. It is argued that growth has been more closely linked to investment5. Therefore, one of the most effective ways to reach consumers and increase the customer base is to engage in such a direct form of marketing.


In summary, the establishment of the Congo Mobile Service Provider will provide consistent, reliable and exceptional service to mobile phone users, including ongoing support, assistance and technical troubleshooting for those in the Democratic Republic of Congo. As potentially one of the only type of service providers in the region, it will provide a unique service to the local Congo people, and will fill the void between mobile manufacturers and consumers, who have no current service provision on such a basis. Therefore, it will not only provide a service to the local population, but will also add value to the telecommunications market and reinvest into the economy of the country.

Works Cited

Robertson, Charles. The Fastest Billion: The Story Behind Africa’s Economic Revolution. Columbia: Renaissance Capital: 2012. Print.

Sheth, Jagdish. “Impact of Emerging Markets on Marketing: Rethinking Existing Perspectives and Practices.” Journal of Marketing 75.4 (2011): 166-182. Web. June 2013.

Javalgi, Rajshekhar., Dixit, Ashutosh., and Scherer, R. “Outsourcing to Emerging Markets: Theoretical Perspectives and Policy Implications.” Journal of International Management 15.2 (2009): 156-168. Web. June 2013.

Esselaar, Steve and Stork, Christoph. “Mobile Cellular Telephone: Fixed-Line Substitution in Sub-Saharan Africa.” The Southern African Journal of Information and Communication 7.6 (2012): 66-76. Web. June 2013.

Teal, Francis. “Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa: A Review of Channels and Interaction.” Journal of African Economies 20.3 (2011): 50-79. Web. June 2013.


Sandra Cisneros’s Eleven

The story Eleven by Sandra Cisnernos is, at first glance, an epistolary short story about an eleven-year-old girl and her journal, or diary entries. At closer examination, however, the clear intent, purpose, and means of achieving such, become more and more apparent throughout the story, highlighted by an uncanny tone and voice.


Anna Quindlen’s A Mother’s Day Message

Anna Quindlen, a very well-known an well-respected American poet and essayist very frequently uses her own children as inspiration for her works. Her very telling and descriptive narrative “A Mother’s Day Message” is no exception–this time describing at length watching her children grow up, as well as the challenges that go along with motherhood in general.


“We Real Cool” by Gwendolyn Brooks

The poem “We Real Cool” by Gwendolyn Brooks is iconic, timeless, and relevant in many different ways. Born in the early 1900’s, Brooks grew up in an age before the Civil Rights Movement as a black woman. This is reflective in much of her poetry, and is particularly apparent in her short, descriptive poem entitled “We Real Cool”.

Political Science

Institutional Rupture versus Institutional Elasticity: Capitalism, Revolution, and the Respective Modernization Experiences of China and Japan

The question of whether or not there is more than one road to modernization is paramount to the study of modernization. Does ‘modernization’ mean westernization? A superficial look at East Asia might suggest the affirmative, with China failing and Japan succeeding in the 19th century. On the other hand, both of these countries did modernize, albeit in very different ways and at quite different times: despite its 19th-early 20th-century woes, China successfully modernized from about the mid-20th century on. To some conventional (and rather unsophisticated) perspectives, this seems puzzling, the expectation being that different societies should respond to a single modernization imperative in similar, converging ways.

Political Science

The Different Paths to Modernization in the Nations of Southeast Asia

The world has changed significantly in the last century, as technology has led to advances in communication, travel, shipping and transportation, and numerous other aspects of contemporary life. The march towards modernization has moved at different speeds, and in different stages, in countries throughout the world. Theorists have made a number of efforts to explain and understand the processes by which different nations and regions undego modernization, and have further sought to understand the factors that influence and shape modernization. The aptly-named Modernization Theory posits that the process of modernization is, or at least should be similar for most nations, as the adoption of new technologies and processes affords each nation the same opportunities and possibilities. The modernization of Asian-Pacific nations in the 19th and 20th century, however, did not always fit neatly into the presupposed guidelines of modernization theory, as the growth and change of the economic and political situations and circumstances varied widely from one nation to the next. This paper will examines some of the ways that nations in this region embraced modernization, and how the practical manifestations of modernization in the region diverged or converged from one nation to the next.


Organizational Observation

  1. Introduction

I currently work for Isolux Ingenieria USA’s Spanish division as a Buyer Planner. During my work I have gained insight into the organizational structure, processes and operations management within the company. Through my observation and training within the company I have gained knowledge about the organization itself, the policies, the global market and the structure of processes, hierarchy. The below observation report is designed to reflect on the company’s mission, policies, culture, priorities, structure and operations management principles and to recommend suitable improvement opportunities for the management. I believe that my experience within the buyer-procurement department and the knowledge of the pricing policies enables me to review the company and its T&D Division Energy Business Unit.


After The Fact: The Art of Historical Detection

James West Davidson, After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection details a lot of essential events throughout American history from the founding of the nation, the Great depression and the Dust Bowl, to the events that led to the Civil Rights Movement, and the Vietnam War. Davidson provides a historical retrospective view that looks into more detail about the several accounts given by historians. In any event, there are two sides to every story, the truth and then that person’s truth. Events that have happened in the past before the technology of tape recordings and computers have to rely on the information provided from people who were there to document it. As a historian Davidson felt that it was his duty to provide illustrations of the concepts he sought to describe as in the subtitle implies, he chose to approach each chapter (event) with an art of “detection” technique in order to deeply analyze and reconstruct events in history. Within Davidson’s book, he proposes a series of questions in order to perceive a different outlook on the events that transpired in Greensboro, North Caroline, the purpose of this essay is to answer his questions with the aid of his literary context.


MGT 3446 – International Business and Management Final Project

Executive Summary

Yum Brands has enjoyed international success for many years. This is especially true of Pizza Hut in India. Pizza Hut India practices a strategy of localization that has appealed to and attracted many local consumers. As age demographics shift, fast food is becoming increasingly popular. With these changes within the country, Yum will continue to experience success. Their aggressive expansion strategy has allowed the company to enter the Indian market through strategic alliances with home companies. These alliances have aided in the easy entry as well as cultural barriers that would have led Yum to their downfall within the country. This study examines the success of Pizza Hut in India.


Yum Brands

Company History

Yum Brands is a fast food restaurant chain that operates globally. The restaurants that are owned by Yum Brands include Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, Long John Silver’s and A&W All-American Food. Yum Brands is one of the world’s largest fast food restaurant chains and is very successful locally and globally. The company has become successful due to good business practices and successful strategies. The company falls into the restaurant industry or service industry to be more generalized. Pizza Hut is a major brand for the company and Pizza Hut in India has been extremely successful, though it began with a rocky start.


Skokie and Citizens United vs. F.E.C. Social Sciences and World Ideologies

The issue on whether or not private corporations and other communications organizations are to be put on hold from supporting any candidate for elections developed a great impact on the primary structure of the American Election operations then, now and in the future. The Federal Election Commission stood in its position against the condition of allowing corporations and private entities in supporting particular candidates during particular election schedules. Given that the corporations and business entities are considered as private citizens, the court intends to recognize the fact that they have the right to decide who to support when it comes to election events. Nevertheless, to retain the balance of exposure between candidates, the court intended to point out that there should be the establishment of specific rules and limitations that would specify particular requirements that supporters of candidates should be able to respond to before they could actually provide the support they wish to give to the individual candidates.