Fire Prevention

Fire Prevention-A Guide to Protecting Employees & Property by Peggy E. Ross

In this article, the author has offered a guide on how employers can ensure safety to employees and property in the event of fire outbreak. He argues that it is good for organizations to have a well-designed fire control program that will safeguard the occupants of the facility and protect the property. This will reduce on operational costs and contain chances of losses due to fire outbreaks. Through a good fire prevention program, fire insurance premiums will be minimal. He goes ahead to state that fire control plans need to be in written, and should include all fire principles and life safety measures.


10 articles critiques

Psychology: Article critique 1

Counselor Education and Supervision:

The Development of the CACREP Doctoral Standards


Carla Adkison-Bradley

The purpose of this article is twofold. First it evaluates the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs’ guidelines and accreditation standards, which created doctoral preparation in counselor education. Also, it explores contemporary issues affecting advanced counselor education training and projects implications redesigning doctoral standards in the future (Bradley, 2013).

This researcher begins the exploration from a perspective of an expert editor by captioning ‘The Emergence of Doctoral Preparation in Counselor Education;’ ‘Development of the Doctoral


Beyond Survival? Wilderness and Canadian Identity into the 21st Century


This paper provides a critique of the article by Emily Gibson[1] ‘Beyond Survival? Wilderness and Canadian National Identity into the twenty first century’. (Gibson) An illustration of Canadian Art and Literature that draws upon the theme of wilderness and the impact of the human footprint on the land.  The contemporary artists of Canada are rewriting narratives that associate the wilderness with the national identity of Canada. The purpose being to get the reader to re-examine the role of man living in co-existance with the wilderness and to realise the fragility of this setting.  It is the question of man understanding his role in the world and his relationship with nature.

Article critique

| Thesis – The article attempts to explore the impact that the increased human presence has on the natural environment and wilderness of Canada. Contemporary artists in Canada are evoking the public to think deeper about the relationship of man with nature.  Are we really a constructive part of it or an external influence that is helping to destroy it.  There are many examples in Canada like the Oil sands developments in Alberta or open cast mining that are destroying the landscape and environment in our thirst for natural resources. Although this has largely been written towards a Canadian academic audience it has universal appeal to environmentalist and those interested in the preservation of our planet.


Critical Review of Quality Management and Job Quality How the ISO 9001 Standard for Quality Management Systems Affects Employees and Employers

  1. a) Introduction: The article by Levine and Toffel (2010) establishes a compelling link between the adoption of the ISO 9001 quality management standard and improved organizational performance. Some important limitations notwithstanding, the authors found that adopters performed better than matched peers in a number of important respects pertaining to efficiency and growth. The adoption of the ISO 9001 standard appears to yield higher growth, increased payroll and employee wages, and increased organizational longevity, a finding of considerable significance for the field of quality management in general as well as industry practitioners.
    b) Analysis:
    In their article, Levine and Toffel (2010) evaluated the effects of the ISO 9001 quality management standard on adopting organizations: specifically, whether the adoption of ISO 9001 does indeed translate to increased sales and employment, increased wages, increased workplace safety and health, and increased organizational survival (p. 978). The subjects of their study were an assortment of “California-based single-plant firms across an array of industries”; ISO 9001 adopters were matched with nonadopters on the basis of “industry, location, size (baseline sales, employment, and total payroll), and preadoption injury rates” (p. 978). In their review of the literature, Levine and Toffel found a number of studies supporting a positive correlation between ISO 9001 adoption and improved performance, including increased production growth, reductions of waste and pollutants, and increased employee productivity and attention to detail—albeit at the cost of innovation (p. 979). According to Levine and Toffel (2010), the adoption of ISO 9001 can serve as a credible honest signal of quality, particularly in industries wherein it can be difficult to ascertain quality (p. 980).

Levine and Toffel (2010) used injury data from ISO 9001 adopters and nonadopters, coupled with compensation and payroll information from the Workers’ Compensation Insurance Rating Board (WCIRB) (p. 982). Data from Dun & Bradstreet and the ISO 9000 Registered Company directory enabled them to ascertain ISO 9001 status and company characteristics (p. 982). The authors were then able to ascertain injury rates for the companies in their sample, as well as the total injury costs of compensation and the costs of payroll (p. 982). Moreover, they calculated a measure of “average occupation riskiness” in terms of “a weighted average of workers’ compensation pure premium rates across a firm’s employment in 500 occupation codes” (p. 982). With these metrics, they could evaluate both the characteristics of ISO 9001 adopter versus nonadopter firms, as well as causation of any significant differences between them.


From Thought to Therapy: Lessons from a Primate Laboratory

From Thought to Therapy: Lessons from a Primate Laboratory

The article gives a glimpse of how one research program developed studies on the learning abilities of rhesus monkeys that was carried out in the Primate Laboratory in Wisconsin. Harlow’s model of a surrogate mother used for studying primate attachments has helped psychologist to understand better the role of contact comfort in individual attachment formation. The surrogate mother research solved the original theoretical problem of measuring the relative strength of body contact comfort compared to satisfaction of nutritional needs as a motivational force that elites love for mothers in rhesus neonates. The results of the research provided support for contact comfort as the motive binding infants to mothers. The researchers also illustrated the axiom that no major act of animal behavior is determinant of a single variable. The disclosed variables from the research included nursing, rocking surrogates and cribs, and a mother’s warmth. Additionally, the researchers found out that real motherhood was superior to their man- made mothers. This is because in the study, real mothers were dynamic and responded to their infants’ needs and behaviors while the surrogate mothers only passively accepted.


make up one

Article Critique:

The Minnesota Adoption Studies:

Genetic Differences and Malleability

In this scholarly article, Sandra Scarr and Richard A. Weinberg explores how heredity and the environment affects human cognitive abilities. Their research technique is the adoption method which allows psychologists to examine the “cognitive similarities between adopted children and their adoptive and biological parents and thus distinguish between likely genetic and environmental influences” (179). This type of research technique has been utilized in numerous studies over the last fifty years and appears to result in solid and reliable findings.


From Therapy to Research: A Patient’s Legacy

From Therapy to Research: A Patient’s Legacy

The article “From Therapy to Research: A Patient’s Legacy,” written by Gary Brannigan focuses on Jerry Phares, a psychologist and past professor at Kansas State University, along with a man named Karl. Karl was a patient of Doctor Phares, and became a bit of an experiment for Phares as well. Karl was a complicated patient and required a lengthy series of diagnostic tests and background interviews in order for Doctor Phares to get a firm understanding of what Karl’s issues were.


Children’s Understanding of Sexist Language

Children’s Understanding of Sexist Language

The article “Children’s Understanding of Sexist Language” by Janet Shibley Hide, a professor at Denison University, focuses on the gender neutral use of “his” and “her” in text. Hide did an experiment where she studied a first, third and fifth grader, as well as a college student who did numerous tasks designed to see if the student would use the pronoun “he” or “she” in a sentence, or imply that “he” or “she” was the subject of the story.


Changing Conceptions of Intelligence

Changing Conceptions of Intelligence

The article “Changing Conceptions of Intelligence” focuses on Norman Frederiksen, a research scientist at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, and a skilled woodworker. Fredericksen pursued psychology in high school and then majored in psychology in college, “eventually I took all of the psychology courses that were offered. Looking back, I realize that what I learned had little resemblance to what is taught to undergraduates today…” (Brannigan, 1992). Fredericksen graduated from Nebraska Wesleyan with a BA in psychology but a small understanding of intelligence as it related to his field. Frederickson mentored under a man “who was to become one of the major figures in psychology because of his contributions to knowledge about intelligence. His name was Joy Paul Guilford, although he became known to his students and friends as just JP” (Brannigan, 1992).

Social Issues

Children’s Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

Acknowledgement: Part of this project was presented as a poster at the 2002 Conference on Human Development, Charlotte, NC. This research was supported by a grant to Christia Spears Brown from the Debra Beth Lobliner Fellowship. We are extremely grateful to the director, John Combs, and the site leaders of Extend-A-Care in Austin, TX, and to the students who participated in the project and their parents. We also thank Enrique Barroso, Jensen Sapido, Tiffany Seaman, Leah Lambert, and Allison Davis for help with data collection and Alex Brown for the illustrations.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to: Christia Spears Brown, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 Electronic Mail may be sent to: [email protected].

Discrimination on the basis of group membership (e.g., gender, race, or religion) is an important social problem in the United States and throughout the world. In the year 2000, for example, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights received approximately 5,000 complaints regarding instances of discrimination. The majority of these complaints (approximately 70%) were filed on behalf of elementary and secondary school children.Undoubtedly, many more instances of discrimination affecting children occur every year but go unreported. Although existing research has examined factors that affect adults’ perceptions of discrimination (e.g., Swim, Cohen, & Hyers, 1998), little research has examined children’s perceptions of discrimination. In this study, we examined children’s judgments about scenarios involving possible instances of gender discrimination. We were especially interested in whether children are sensitive to contextual information in making attributions to discrimination and whether individual and developmental differences among children are related to their perceptions of discrimination.

In addition to its obvious practical importance, understanding how and when children perceive discrimination is important for developmental theory.Developmentalists have argued that children’s perceptions of discrimination play an important role in shaping many developmental processes and outcomes, including identity development and academic achievement (Bowman & Howard, 1985Spencer & Markstrom-Adams, 1990). That is, researchers have argued that understanding children’s perceptions of discrimination is imperative for outlining the normative development of children who are members of stigmatized groups and who may, therefore, be the targets of discriminatory actions (Garcia Coll et al., 1996). It seems equally important to understand perceptions of discrimination among children who are members of privileged groups and who may, therefore, witness and benefit from discriminatory actions.

What is discrimination? Fishbein (1996, p. 7) defined discrimination as “harmful actions towards others because of their membership in a particular group.” Discriminatory actions can range from mild (e.g., ignoring someone) to virulent (e.g., inflicting physical harm). As racial and gender biases have become less socially acceptable in this country, discriminatory actions have become increasingly subtle and ambiguous, requiring individuals to make attributions about the motivations of others on the basis of situational information (e.g., Dovidio & Gaertner, 1986Swim, Aikin, Hall, & Hunter, 1995).It is especially important, therefore, to examine whether, and if so how, children use contextual information in making decisions about discriminatory behavior.

The earliest research examining children’s perceptions of discrimination centered on race and was conducted after the court-ordered racial desegregation of schools in the United States. For example, Radke and Sutherland (1972) asked European American children, “What are Negroes like?” They found that 12% of 11- to 12-year-olds, 49% of 13- to 14-year-olds, and 59% of 17- and 18-year-olds mentioned discrimination and that all respondents described discrimination as negative. Other studies reported that African American children viewed themselves as victims of racial bias.Rosenberg (1979) found that 51% of African American children who attended desegregated junior high schools, and 34% who attended predominantly African American schools, reported that they had experienced teasing or exclusion because of their race. Patchen (1982) found that many African Americans in newly desegregated high schools complained about the discriminatory actions of European American teachers. Those African American students who perceived discrimination had slightly lower grades and more negative attitudes toward European Americans than did other African American students.


Nursing Article Critiques

Article 1

The article entitled “The effects of crossed leg on blood pressure measurement” by Foster-Fitzpatrick (1999) addresses a quantitative research approach to determine how blood pressure is impacted by different leg positions within a specific male population. The article utilizes a convenience sample approach to evaluate a very specific and simplistic measurement of blood pressure under two separate circumstances: 1) With feet on the floor and 2) While the legs are crossed (Foster-Fitzpatrick, 1999). The study population was identified from a sample of outpatients of a Veterans Administration Medical Center in the Midwest region, and a convenience sample was chosen because it was cost and time effective, and also included a wide age range, from the ages of 31 to 81 (Foster-Fitzpatrick, 1999). This specific population group was also specific in that they had a prior diagnosis of hypertension and were prescribed medications up to the date of these readings (Foster-Fitzpatrick, 1999). In addition, any patient with a history of peripheral vascular disease or any other disruption of the lower extremities was excluded because the legs were necessary to obtain accurate readings for comparison purposes (Foster-Fitzpatrick, 1999).


Article Critique: TeamSTEPPS communicaion in the operating room or in the hospital

Study #1

Full Reference for Research Study:

Setting It was a classroom training environment being mandatory for operating room staff.  As it relates to physicians and surgeons it was optional. Sessions lasted 4 hours
Purpose  To identify the how effective TeamSTEPPS have been implemented in operating rooms and how changes have been effected (Hurlbert & Garrett, 2009, p. 2).
Research Design This embodied a combination of official training, domestic research works reporting operating room safety problems and peer to peer counseling, Consequently it can be described as a qualitative study design (Hurlbert& Garrett, 2009, p. 2).
Sample Studied They were 200 perioperative staff and 60 physicians
Findings 1.       The briefing, was not accepted by surgeons even though they saw as being beneficial

2.      Physicians did not feel the preoperative briefing would significantly impact outcomes.

3.      Great improvement in setting that had a preoperative briefing was observed.

(Hurlbert& Garrett, 2009).


This article brings evidence from single a qualitative descriptive study. It embodies an editorial and expert opinion also.. There is no profound methodology. However, expert analysis is presented when evaluation of the outcomes of TeamSTEPPS training is described by the experts.


 Study #2

Full Reference for Research Study:

Setting Data base search for literature with studies pertaining to the subject.
Purpose The focus is on TeamSTEPPS, a training program developed and disseminated by the Department of Defense and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Coburn, 2011).
Research Design Qualitative study design
Sample Studied A  representative sample of evaluations with keywords/ concepts TeamSTEPPS, training program developed and disseminated by the Department of Defense; Healthcare Research and Quality
Findings 1.      TeamSTEPPS improve patient safety through team training

2.      Team training increases communications and reduces error

3.      TeamSTEPPS success depends on

designing appropriate expectations

4.      identifying  and cultivating internal

stalwarts within the organization is a successful team work strategy.

5. Providing a patient safety infrastructure can help maintain teamwork (Coburn, 2011, p 1).


This study presents evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive or qualitative studies as an editorial, namely a project brief. It is presented from an expert perspective after reviewing data obtained through studies conducted between larger and smaller hospital implementing.

Study #3

Full Reference for Research Study:

Setting Data-based exploration for literature with keywords/concepts related to Team training; teamwork, TeamSTEPP implementation
Purpose To find out if team training works.
Research Design Qualitative study design
Sample Studied  3 articles
Findings Clinical outcomes and patient safety  were observed to be the great successes of the intervention (Salas, 2011).


This evidence emerged from descriptive qualitative review of three articles, pertaining to TeamSTEPPS and training outcomes.

 Study # 4

Full Reference for Research Study:

Setting Hospital perinatal unit
Purpose To evaluate ‘the cognitive and interpersonal skills, such as communication and teamwork, that supplement clinical and technical skills the necessary to ensure safe patient care’ (Riley, 2011, p 357).
Research Design Cluster randomized clinical trial quantitative design.
Sample studied Three small sized community hospitals with 50-66 beds in a rural suburban community.
Findings Statically, the outcomes were beneficial regarding complementing teamSTEPPS in the clinical environment (Riley, 2011, p 357).

 This study one well designed evidence obtained from at least one designed RCT

 Study # 5

Full Reference for Research Study:

Setting A combat theater of operations in U.S. Military Healthcare System in Iraq
Purpose To evaluate the effects of team work in movement of casualties when in combat from one military hospital to the next.
Research Design Qualitative study
Sample Studied Evaluation of 153 patient safety reports
Findings Marked increases in the correct medication management were observed among staff who were transmitting more accurate data from one section of the department to the other (Deering, 2011, p 350).

This study offers evidence from a single quantitative descriptive or qualitative study through 13 months evaluation of a TeamSTEPPS intervention in a military based operation theatre.

Study # 6

Full Reference for Research Study:

Setting PICU and SICU units within a hospital environment
Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of teamSTEPPS training in pediatric and surgical settings
Research Design Qualitative design
Sample Studied PICU and SICU hospital staff
Findings There was better collaboration in team work and participants learnt how to acknowledge teams work as a forces in achieving better patient outcomes

This study offers evidence from a single quantitative descriptive or qualitative study. The study relates to evaluation of a TeamSTEPPS training program


                The body of evidence derived from these six studies reviewed range from level 11 to level V1. Level 11 study encompassed a randomized controlled trial embracing three small sized community hospitals with 50-66 beds in a rural suburban community. Two level V studies were found tom be useful in showing the effectiveness of TeamSTEPS application training in improving communication in an operating room as well as hospital settings. One emerged from descriptive qualitative review of three articles, which undertook analysis of data on the issue. The second level V evidence presented a policy brief after reviewing a series of studies on TeamSTEPPS. Three studies emerged into level V1 because they presented findings obtained from a single study which was descriptive or qualitative in nature. Precise evidence pertained to independent evaluations of the effectiveness of teamSTEPSS programs.


Coburn, A. (2011). Improving Hospital Patient Safety Through Teamwork: The Use of TeamSTEPPS In Critical Access Hospitals. Maine Rural Health Research Center,University of Southern Maine.

Deering, S. Rosen, M.  Ludi, V.  Munroe, M. Pocrnich, A.  Laky,  C., & Napolitano, P.(2011).On the Front Lines of Patient Safety: Implementation and Evaluation of Team Training in Iraq. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 37(8), 350-360

Hurlbert, S., & Garrett, J. (2009).Improving operating room safety. Patient Safety in Surgery, 3:25.

Mayer, C.  Cluff, L.  Lin, W.Willis, T. Stafford, E. Williams, C.Saunders, R. Short, k. Lenfestey, N. Kane, H. Amoozegar, J. (2011). The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 37(8), 367-370

Riley, W. Davis, S. Miller, K. Hansen, H. Sainfort, F., & Sweet, R. (2011). Didactic and Simulation Nontechnical Skills Team Training to Improve Perinatal Patient Outcomes in a Community Hospital. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient.

Salas, E. Gregory, M., King, H. (2011). Team Training Can Enhance Patient Safety—the Data, the Challenge Ahead. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety.37(8), 339-340.

Links to research studies








Sexual Orientation Therapy is Unethical and Harmful

The idea of unconventional sexual orientation, and the incredible amount of controversy that surrounds it have been major social, political, and ethical issues for decades now. According to The Human Rights Campaign, The British Association for Counseling and Psychotherapy (BACP), and the American Psychological Association (APA) sexual orientation therapy is dangerous, unwarranted, and moreover not a mental illness at all, as was the age old stigma.


Of Life Death and Dignity by Thomas Fitzpatrick

If there is one thing that people cannot run away from, that is death. Relatively, humans known that somehow, somewhere, sometime, they are going to die and this is a fact that cannot be avoided no matter what one tries to do. This is probably the reason why there exists some notions that since life is so short then it should be lived fully and with full accord to one’s desires of satisfaction. On the other end, scientists and other health experts try the best they could to prolong whatever life span human individuals are subjected under today.