Legal Issues

The Bundeskartellamt has investigated the market for gas stations

The Article 101 was set in place in order to prevent collusive activity from occurring, more importantly prevent agreements made between cartels, and other corporations that would hinder free competition in the European internal market. In answering the question of “Is this evidence of illegal collusive activity as specified in Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union?” In order to answer the question there are several arguments that can be made in order to see the problem in two sides. The first argument that can be made is that A-Level gas stations are not aware of the B-Level gas stations changing their prices to match theirs, as their prices are set by larger corporations that they own. Another argument that can be made is that A-Level gas stations are engaging in illegal collusive activities that are setting prices in order to get more money out of the customers. One of the last arguments that can be made is that the B-Level gas stations are trying to compete with the bigger gas stations by offering cheaper gas to customers than their larger counterparts.

The Bundeskartellamt (German Competition Authority) has the right in investigating the gas stations potential illegal collusive activities. As this type of practice that is been done is typically known as price gauging, it is major concern that disrupts the free competition of big and small businesses.  This illegal practice could typically harm most B-Level gas stations, and more importantly the customers, as they are being made to pay for gas at higher price due to the activities of A-Level gas stations. In the first argument that can be made is that A-Level gas stations are not fully aware of the activities surrounding the pricing of B-Level gas stations. According to Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, “directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions.” (Article 101, 2013) What the case provides are that the A-Level gas stations that are mostly owned by larger corporation fix prices (raise or decrease) at all of their locations. They have the ability to set prices and can no way change the prices of B-Level gas stations, however, practices that have been discovered is that B-Level mirrors the pricing of A-Levels as they continually change prices. Corporations will not be aware of pricing but, can set prices by catering to the customer demand, the prices of gas in other busy areas, and the type of gas that is provides. Large corporations are mainly concern with making a profit and staying ahead of the competition.

The second argument that can be made however is that, A-Levels gas stations are in agreement with other A-Level gas stations or B-Level gas stations in order to routinely set prices during high peaks in demand in order for both levels to receive a sizable profit. With both levels of gas stations being in cohorts, this practice signals illegal activity that can be prosecuted under the Article 101. From the case, Bundeskartellamt found when one of the A-level gas stations raised its price, neighboring gas stations typically would follow within a matter of hours. These actions reflect a scheme that could be used in order to control the gas supply, and share in the market. Under these provisions, they are committing criminal acts. In the last argument, the B-Level or A-Level gas stations that didn’t follow suit, then the A-Level gas station would quickly reverse the increase. From these activities, they could be in violation of another provision that prohibit businesses, “apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage.”(Article 101, 2013) This harms B-Level gas stations that change their prices in order to keep up with the competition of A-Level gas stations. B-level gas stations will simply be responding to the actions of the bigger ones in order keep up with the market and acquire customers with lower prices. In the first argument presented, the A-Level gas stations were not at fault and simply following the directions of the larger corporations that own them. In the last two arguments, they were in violation of the provisions in the Article 101, in which the Bundeskartellamt has just cause to investigate the gas stations.


“Article 101”. (2013). Eur-Lex. Retrieved from


Economic Supply and Demand System Simulation

The concept of supply and demand system that exists in the overall standing of the general function of economy defines the condition of response that the market has upon what is offered by the industries and businesses. These responses are often based on particular impacting elements from the community that surrounds the environment of the individuals involved. In the simulation process that has been undergone through this project, three particular concepts of this economic system have been tackled. First concept to consider is that of the fact that the simulation intends to manifest a sense of control on how the business is able to manipulate its assets based on what expectations it has regarding the future performance of the organization in the market. Relatively, changing and adjusting particular operations currently undergone by the organization strongly creates an impact on how the market would respond to what the business offers. Understandably, such adjustments are based on the condition by which the environment also creates an influence on the thinking and the decisions of the people making up the buying market.


MRAC Website Analysis


Minimal reliability assessment checklist analysis will be concluded for two websites in order to determine their content and quality. The selected websites are and



            Authorship. While the website confirms that the content is created by the Dihydrogen Monoxide Research Division, the individual articles are signed by individual researchers. The website contains copyrighted material, external links to research and sources. The company’s association with the United States Environmental Research Center is confirmed through a logo displayed on the top of the page. Tom Way seems to be the author of all articles, but there is no indication that he would be an expert or researcher.

            Currency. The website was last updated on the 2nd of June, 2013, according to the authors in the byline part. It is impossible to check whether new content was really added to the site recently, as articles and posts are not dated.


Profiles and Competencies for Jobs A and B in Drilling and Measurements in Schlumberger Libya


The profiles and competencies for jobs A and B in Schlumberger which is a drilling company relate technical issues that are important to ensure that a given piece of work is done effectively. The job profiles for jobs A and B in drilling and measurement would entail issues that that touch on experience, education background and skills. The purpose of the positions of Job A is to partake preventive maintenance and repair of tools and equipment in compliance to the standards, practices and procedures as provided by the SLB and D&M. the technician in the A job category is expected to gain experience and expertise through training while on job.


Assess Semester Group Project

1 – Talk about the Assess Semester Group Project

The group assessment project for the semester is focused on developing the capacity of the students to give consideration on particular positions in the actual engineering industry. This activity enables each student to have a better condition of understanding the ups and downs of a particular position in the industry and create an evaluative analysis that allows them to develop deeper recognition of the importance of the role that the said individuals play in the industry. Through the insights gained from the project, the students become properly equipped with the knowledge they need to explore the possibilities that are open for them in the engineering industry. Knowing the different points of consideration regarding a particular position in the engineering industry gives the students a realistic view of what they are to expect and how they are to develop skills and conditions of better thinking to be able fit into the position they are hoping for to embrace later on after finishing their studies.

Communication Strategies

The Pelican Brief: Communication Strategies


The film “The Pelican Brief,” based on a novel by John Grisham, is a legal thriller with many areas of focus on business and legal communication through the portrayal of its many characters. The film’s stars, which include Julia Roberts and Denzel Washington, tell the story of a law student’s brief regarding the murder of two Supreme Court Justices and how led to changes in the lives of the student, her professor/lover, and those within their circle while the truth was discovered, including attempted murder and escape. The film represents a unique form of communication between these characters and their fight to protect themselves and to uncover the truth. From a communication-based perspective, the film offers a unique approach to these principles and demonstrates the power of some individuals over others when secrets exist and how to take control of these situations as needed to prove the truth, to reveal any obstacles that exist, and to become powerful and authoritative in one’s own right.


Clinical Diagnosis and Manifestation for PTSD


American psychiatric Association (2000) revised the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the fourth edition of its diagnostic and numerical manual of mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) (1).

The revised current criteria for PTSD diagnosis include;

Criterion A: stressor

This criterion specifies that, a person has been exposed to shocking event or events involving real or threatened death or grave injury or a threat to physical integrity of him/her or others. During the traumatic exposure the survivor subjectively responded with intense fear, helplessness or horror. In children the response may be expressed by disorganized or nervous behavior (Keane, Wolfe, & Taylor, 1987).

Criterion B: Intrusive recollection

Communication Strategies

The Great Debaters

  1. In a few paragraphs, explain the social, political and legal issues addressed in the film. What were the secret meetings about and why was secrecy so important?

The setting of the movie is concentrated upon the time when the black Americans are considered at a lower status than that of the white Americans. This is considered to be specifically reflected over the belief that the white Americans are much highly intellectual compared to the black Americans [and this is aimed to be proven through debate]. Considerably, the capacity of the team of black debaters in the movie to face the challenge of debating with white American students was considered as a specific rule out from the actual situation in the society during the time. It is because of this that the theme of the movie was considered bold especially in imposing that the black Americans were able to stand out amongst the rest of other debaters coming from the white American teams. The practices of the team of black American debaters have been held in secret showing how much suppressed their activities were and amidst these challenges, their victory has been specifically directed as a means of achievement on their part.


Assessment of Environmental Processes: Toddler

Some of the most frequent causes of injuries and death in toddlers are falls; burns from stoves, hot water, matches; hit by vehicles; falling into pools, suffocation/drowning; heavy objects falling on them; second hand smoke inhalation; drinking poisons left carelessly in the environment; overdose of medicines left carelessly in their environment; choking; physical/sexual abuse by care givers, parents significant others and neglect (Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 2010).


Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment


Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)



Erickson’s Developmental Stage:

Autonomy versus

Shame and Doubt

15-36 months



Erickson’s Developmental Stage:

Initiative Versus Guilt




Erickson’s Developmental Stage:

Industry versus Inferiority



Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.



List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers rely on their parents for health management, and are willing to participate in health promotion.

2. They develop habits such as brushing teeth at night before sleeping.



1.      Preschoolers contribute to health management by wearing weather appropriate clothing, taking medication, etc.

2.      They become inquisitive about their opposite sex.

1.      Child may believe that an illness is caused by a misdeed or bad behavior.

2.      Child shows concern about their growth, weight, time of menarche and final height.


1. Safety issues such as playing with water, toys, and strangers may cause injury become apparent.

2. As a result of their desire to explore, toddlers will climb furniture or fixtures which may lead to injuries such as scuffs, bruises, and head injuries.


1. Dental caries are apparent.

2. Group activity increases the likelihood of infection which eventually helps with the development of their immune system


1. Child is not taught healthy behaviors in the home.

2. Most acute, life-threatening diseases of a hereditary nature become evident


Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.



List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers experience a transition from breast milk to regular milk. (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 419)

2. Toddlers have great appetite. They enjoy meal time and are exposed to varieties of food if adults prepare and eat different kinds of food.


1. Preschoolers learn the taste of food and become selective as they have developed strong likes and dislikes relating to food preferences.

2. They eat variety of food with emphasis on a healthy diet.


1. School age children can help their parents plan family meals and eat better for their overall health.

2. They eat three regular meals a day with two snacks and drink plenty of water

1. Toddlers may lack iron intake due to transition from bottle and breast feeding to regular meals. This may result to anemia in the child.

2. Drinking bottled milk at bed time may cause dental caries.


1.There is a tendency to develop anemia due to selective eating habit

2. Consumption of fat and processed foods along with lack of inactivity may result to  health problems such as juvenile diabetes.

1. School age children are likely to develop obesity  by eating junk foods .

2. They do not enjoy drinking water.

Pattern of Elimination:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.




List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers express signs of readiness to be potty trained by either pointing to the toilet or pulling their panty down.

2. They are likely to have a bowel movement after meals because of the gastro colic reflex. (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 421)


1. Preschoolers try to use the toilet by themselves.

2. Their stools are semi solid.


1. School age children have control of bladder and bowel movement, and are able to move their bowels about twice a day, urinating also about 8 times in a day.

2. They are able to undress, dress, wipe, flush, and clean hands when they use the toilet.

1. Toddlers may experience delay with toilet training. Parents can try potty seat and initial toileting every two hours and after meal time.

2. They may be irritated if toilet training is introduced earlier than it was supposed to.


1. Preschoolers may not practice good hygiene such as hand washing after using the toilet which can expose them to illness.

2. They become incontinent when afraid.

1. School age children may experience enuresis known as unintentional urination on self. They bed wet.

2. They may also experience encopresis, which is defined as an unintentional fecal soiling in children who have been toilet trained. Children with encopresis often leak stool into their underpants.


Pattern of Activity and Exercise:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.




List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.

1. Toddlers are very active physically. They enjoy dressing and undressing, kicking, building and destroying towers, throwing and chasing after balls.

2. They like exploring their environment, and trying out activities that most times are beyond their abilities like trying to move heavy furniture.


1. Preschoolers involve other children in playing mostly in group setting.

2. They like to mimic the behaviors of people familiar to them by rehearsing what was demonstrated to them (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 443).

1. School age children may be very active in sports like softball, basket ball etc. It helps them develop stronger muscles, strength and promotes good health and body image.

2. They engage in playful activities which enhance social, personal, and cognitive development.


1. Toddlers play alongside with other children and do not like to share their toys.

2. As they start learning more skills and explore their environment, they are at risk for several injuries.




1. Preschoolers tend to excessively attach to television which can interrupt communication with other children as well as parents and can result to lack of physical activity.

2. They practice behavioral patterns learnt from watching movies, like kicking the wall because they saw somebody doing it on TV. This may result to injury.

1. These children prefer interacting with friends rather than family members.

2. Excessive attachment to computer and television may distract them from physical activities. This should be monitored by parents.

Cognitive/Perceptual Pattern:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.




List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.

1. Toddlers babble words and try to make sentences. They can express up to 270 words (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 424).

2. They learn and master skills by repetitive and ritualistic behavior.



1. Preschoolers are able to know about 2,100 words by age 5.

2. They understand rules and apply them during their play time (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 445).



School age children learn by rehearsing a word, which helps their retentive memory, meaning they are able to remember the word easily.

2.  Perception in school age children is remarkably improved, especially in the temporal lobe. Good functioning of the sensory organs like vision and hearing have to be intact for better learning ability.


1. Toddlers may experience delay with language development which may be related to hearing problem.

2. They may be noted as acting out especially around age 2 which is referred to as terrible twos.

1. Preschoolers find it difficult to distinguish the quantity of fluid a glass contains to the size of the glass.

2. The existence of imaginary friends can make a child set up chairs at while eating.


1. These children may have problems with mastering and learning due to sensory deficit such as vision.

2. They tend to be anti-social due to fear of not being accepted in the group.


Pattern of Sleep and Rest:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.





List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers establish a sleeping pattern which requires sleeping for 12 hours a day, and takings a few naps.

2. They usually develop a nap and bedtime rituals like having a snack, bathing, brushing their teeth, and listening to night time story.


1. Preschooler’s sleeping time during the day is reduced and will usually sleep between 8-12 hours at night.

2. They like sleeping with the night light on, and also with a treasure item like their favorite toy.


1. With school age children, school and play time adjust hours of sleep and rest.

2. They enjoy sleeping during the night and they rest well.


1. Toddlers may stay awake at nights and sleep more during daytime.

2. They find it difficult falling asleep without cuddling.




1. Preschoolers experience delay falling asleep and will repeatedly call for parents’ attention.

2. They experience night terror and nightmares that come in form of frightening dreams which interrupt with sleep.


1. Child is hyperactive and does not rest.

2. They experience shorter sleeping time than normal.


Pattern of Self-Perception and Self-Concept:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.



List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers become more independent and wanting to take control.

2. They learn to express personal feelings, rejection, and acceptance.



1. The preschooler builds self esteem by successfully accomplishing a task.

2. By praising a preschooler, it provides opportunity for new experience, improves their mental and physical health, and makes them feel good about themselves.


1. They participate in competitive and collaborative activities in school and play groups with their age mates.

2. They pay more attention to their body image because they want to be accepted by fellow peers.


Child learns to free self from effects of separation from parents.


1. Toddlers may become regressive if a new baby is introduced in the family with little or no attention given to them by parents.

2. They may become frustrated as a result of restriction from their independent attitude when parent feel the environment is not safe enough to explore.


1. Preschoolers may lose their self esteem and feel less important when their parents criticize them for wrong acts. For example throwing their toys all over the room.

2. Feeling of guilt and inadequacy may result to withdrawal.


1. Child could respond with tantrum towards adults and peers for restraining their expressions.

2. Girls experience greater competition and are faced with pressures about personal appearance.


Role-Relationship Pattern:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.



List 2 potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers tend to imitate adults, parents, and older siblings around.

2. They become knowledgeable about what the roles of their parents and sibling are in the home.


1. They admire their older sibling and want to do things just like them.

2. They play out their mother and father role like praising, punishing, and setting limits on an invented child.


1. As they mature, they are able to pick up house chores like feeding the pet and making the bed.

2. School age children model their behavior after a person they love or admire like their parent, teachers, friends and other adults.


1. Their behavior towards possessions of things that belong to others creates sibling rivalry.

2. They do not want to relate to people who are non-family members.




1. They have difficulty playing with peers especially, games, which require switching roles.

2. They are emotionally affected by parental divorce, so is left to the parent to let the child know that regardless of the separation, the child is still loved.


1. They may be exposed to child abuse, if not identified, may cause anxiety, depression, confusion and irritability in the child. (Edelman. & Mandle, 2006, p. 483).

2. They do not acknowledge authority.

Sexuality – Reproductive Pattern:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.


List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers express curiosity with their sex organs by touching or playing with it.

2. They explore their gender mostly during toileting.



1. Preschoolers are able to recognize and identify with their own gender.

2. By watching television show, they are able to identify gender role like working mother that helps them able to identify their own roles more realistically (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 452).



1. Children tend to be closer with parent of same gender.

2.  Becomes fully aware of their sexuality as it pertains to gender orientation.



1. Toddlers may engage in masturbation due to exploration of their genital.

2. They may be exposed to sexual molestation by family members.


1. Preschoolers may be confused regarding sexuality.

2. They do not know how to behave according to social gender norms.


1. May become much attached to same gender and explore one another sexual organ.

2. School age children discuss questions about sex with their peers.

Pattern of Coping and Stress Tolerance:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.


List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age.


1. Toddlers try to cope with stress by responding with tantrum.

2. They try to imitate their parent’s way of coping with stress.



1. Preschoolers can tolerate being alone more often and for longer periods.

2. They can use a doll to act out their own life stories in a form of play.



1. They are able to identify symptoms associated with stress such as fast heart beat, anxiety, and sweaty hands.

2. They have to handle the pressure of meeting targets for submitting homework, and competitions in school among school mates.


1. Toddlers tend to be aggressive if under emotional strain.

2. Their tantrum most times, may lead to injury.




1. Preschoolers attempt to be violent when not allowed to do what he/she wants.

2. They respond adversely to discipline



1. Their functional ability and success may be affected when they are being bullied by fellow peers. Some children may end-up committing suicide.

2. They suffer a feeling of loss when parents go through divorce.

Pattern of Value and Beliefs:


List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.



List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.


1. Toddlers belief in the concept of right and wrong, therefore acting to behave to abstain from chastisement.

2. They rely on their parents to instill values and beliefs in them.





1. The preschooler may enjoy community activities such as their enrollment in special that teach them moral principles.

2. They may start expressing their values by saying what they want to be as adult. (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 452)





1. The child starts developing an appreciation for the importance of rules when they start benefiting from it, for example, a child is chastised for stealing from other kids.

2. The child’s moral development enhances their ability to make the right decisions that will affect them in a positive way like submitting home work timely, and avoiding problems. (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 486).



1. Toddlers over react to attitudes of non-acceptance.

2. They become remorseful when corrected.




1. When preschoolers experience disapproval from parent, it affects their self esteem and makes them feel less important.

2. May become aggressive (fighting other children) as a result of losing a loved one.



1. Lying, stealing, or cheating are some moral problems that are very common amongst school age children.

2. Because of their desire for success, they may cheat. For example in a competition with fellow friends, a game and even with class work.

Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.

According to Gordon (2009) functional patterns of assessment across childhood age groups, nutrition shows consistence within the toddler, preschool and school aged child. Once the taste for food was established during the toddler years, this developed into a food preference and ultimately into a great appetite. A similarity was also identified across patterns of values and beliefs. Value is a component of socialization; it encompasses a wide range of artifacts which are all associated with the child’s perception of belief. Once belief developed, it emerged from a premise of value which takes the child throughout life. However, patterns of elimination and cognition showed marked differences which might be closely linked to biological factors (Gordon, 2009).

Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.

When handling a physical assessment, examination, education, and communication with children versus adults, the nurse is expected to first consider the age and culture/spiritual differences. Unlike the adult, toddlers and preschoolers like to explore their environment so the nurse should let the child feel and play with the medical instruments, such as pen light, etc. The nurse should be prepared to respond to the questions of the preschooler because they are usually inquisitive and multiple questions can be directed to dietary and health practices such as dental hygiene, beloved activities, and friends. The toddler’s parent needs to be around during assessment for improved interaction between the nurse and the toddler. However, the nurse can help the school age child develop a healthy educational environment by promoting a comprehensive and age-appropriate health education program focused on children taking responsibility for their own health (Edelman & Mandle, 2006, p. 498).

The nurse should assess the children immunization record and make sure their physical examinations are current, considering their ages at the time of communication, also putting into consideration their spiritual practices (Islam, Christianity, Jehovah witness, Hinduism, etc),  cultural practices and belief (like who makes decisions for the family, what are their views towards health promotion and illness prevention) in the family. For instance, a kind of religion does not believe in blood transfusion. While an adult can easily make the decision to abide by his/her religious belief, it might not be that easy to make such a determination for a child when the illness is life threatening and requires a blood transfusion because babies and toddlers cannot verbalize their feelings. As such the nurse is expected to take all these differences into consideration during assessment.


Crain, W. (2011). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Edelman, L., & Mandle, C. (2006) Health Promotion Throughout the Lifespan. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.

Gordon, M. (2009). Manual of Nursing Diagnosis (12th Edition). Boston: Jones & Bartlet Learning.

Jarvis, C. (2012). Physical Examination & Health Assessment (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders.


Thematic List of My Effective and Ineffective Negotiation Behavior

My Effective Negotiation Behavior

  • Competitive by nature in most of the situations
  • Able to understand the opponent perfectly. Ready to compromise on some critical issues depending on opponent’s effectiveness in negotiation. If the opponent does not match with my capabilities, I will try to be competitive and aggressive in the negotiation and close the deal. If the opponent of over matched, the only my way of dealing with the situation is ‘Compromising’.
  • Though, I am very aggressive in my negotiation, I know how much close the deal amicably.
  • With my personal experience of handling negotiation conflicts in my early stages of life, I know what I can offer (in return) to close the negotiation in favor to me.
  • The competitive attitude never let me give-up any negotiation irrespective of the ability of opponent (either big or small).
  • I believe in open and direct communication in negotiations and follow the same. And, the best part is, most of my clients like open conversation.
  • I always show my confidence in the proposal I give to my customer. I feel, if the proposal does not carry the confidence (reducing the price because my opponent has quoted lesser than me), the customer will take you for granted. So, stick to your words and carry or maintain same confidence until the negotiation is completed. I always do the same.
  • Openness and transparent in the negotiation. Most of my customers just do not entertain my opponents because I am transparent to them on pricing and offerings part.
  • Though, I show aggression in my negotiation, I always try to be as humorous and friendly as possible with the customers.
  • Reading customer mindset as well as opponent mindset.
  • Closing the negotiation with a positive note. I try to think more rationally while giving commitments and resource allocation before the agreement is getting signed.


My Ineffective Negotiation Behavior


Division Of Labor

Adam Smith believed that the key to growth is division of labor where workers become faster and better at doing a particular task through repetition (Dhamee). Smith also argued that the division of labor results in the invention of machines and further increase productivity (Rich, 2011). Smith believed that the economy benefits through competition and anything that decreases competition such as government intervention or protectionist policies also hurt overall economic growth of the nation. Allyn Young in his paper “Increasing Returns and Economic Progress” expanded the scope of Smith’s ideas (Chandra, 2004).
Smith lived at a time when industrialization didn’t yet exist. Young had the advantage of personally observing industrial revolution, thus, he observed that the division of labor is not limited to individuals but also applies to organizations. Smith believed that the progress towards machines is a natural outcome of division of labor but Young believed that whether machines are more effective than human labor depends on the scale of production and at small scales of productions, human capital may be more productive. Smith believed that the benefits due to the division of labor are determined by market size but Young believed that the relationship is two way which means that division of labor also results in expanded market (Chandra, 2004).

Assessment Class Overview

The assessment class taught both the value and philosophy of assessments. Conducting assessments evaluates and reviews the qualities and needs of individuals and educational programs or institutions.  During this class, I learned that there are important principles to conducting assessments, such as educational values, supporting student education, the complexity of individuals, the focus on individual core knowledge, goals for programs, and the ability to understand the need for assessments.

Assessment starts with education value.  Understanding the value of assessments is the most effective part of assessments.  For instance, understanding the different kinds of learning that students need is the initial starting point to help them strive to succeed.  Educational values therefore, help sort out what needs to be evaluated and reviewed, as well as what is necessary for individuals to meet peak performance.  Assessments can also support and enhance student education and learning at every level.  Meaning, individuals can be assessed on a broad spectrum of different abilities, knowledge or skills.

Communications and Media

Website Guidelines

Problems Facing the National Osteoporosis Foundation (

  1. A guideline that does not provide detailed information that might be more useful to other physicians and other healthcare people.
  2. Absence of references in some sections, making the quality and accuracy in doubt and very difficult to ascertain.
  3. Some sections of the best websites are not up to date with some last updated in 1999 and 2000.
  4. Even though the quality is fairly highly rated, the depth and the scope of information are weak from the point of view of a healthcare provider.
  5. Even though the site receives donations and sponsorships, there is no particular mention of the same on the site.
  6. The site also does not reveal its authors in almost all cases.
  7. The site does not reveal the role of the executive board as concerns review of sites or any such influences.
  8. The site does not mention who maintains or is responsible for the accuracy, quality and reliability of the information presented in the site.
  9. There is nothing on the site that reveals the up to date information or a way to analyze the information as it evolves over time.
  10. Some links are also confusing making it difficult to navigate the site.
  11. There is also continuous absence of balanced evidence and references throughout the NOF website.
  12. Absence of detail is also major concern. The site seems to specialize too much on general information.
  13. Absence of named authors affects greatly the reliability of the information.
  14. Total absence of certain aspects of the information provided like the osteoporosis, no medication information is provided.
  15. Inclusion of too much technical terms in some cases whilst the site claims to be focused on patients.

Possible Solutions

  • Improve on information detail and make the site more useful to physicians and health professionals as well (Kim, 1999).
  • Make an effort to reference all materials in the site, currently only figure and table are referenced.
  • They should be consistent in newsletter development and distribution. Their latest available newsletter is several years old.
  • They provide quality general information; however, they need to widen the scope and depth of their publications by providing diverse and in depth sources backed up by detailed citations (Hartfiled, May and Markoff, 1999).
  • As matter of ethical responsibility, the site should reveal its donors and the extent of their contributions.
  • Every article published on the site should be attributed to an author and their credentials indicated for the sake of reliability and trust.
  • Given that the site boasts of reputable board members, it is important that they indicate their overall role in the site’s content.
  • The site should also show the editorial authority behind the choice and publications of the articles on the site.
  • Navigation is the key to utilizing any web resource. Therefore, NOF site should improve on search and navigation especially in separating old articles from latest articles.
  • Failure to update the site is resulting in broken links. There are enough tools on the web that can be used to detect and remove no longer working links.
  • Most of the articles in this site refer to very minimal sources; there is a need to diversify and broaden their evidence.
  • Even though generalization is good for patients, in most cases it oversimplifies and indicates lack of depth (Elliot and Elliot, 2000).


Elliott B, Elliot G, High volume medical Web sites. Delaware Med. J 2000; 72 (l): 21-29.

Hatfield CL, May SK, Markoff JS. Quality of consumer drug information provided by four Web sites. Am J Health-SystPharm 1999; 56: 2308-11.

Kim P, Published criteria for evaluating health related Web sites: review BMJ 1999; 318: 647-           49.