Genders in Production by Leslie Salzinger



  • New Perspective (Identification and explanation)
  • Description

New Concept (Agreed/Disagreed)

Challenging Concepts

Affirmative Ideas and Beliefs



This book review analysis explores Leslie Salzinger’s account of Genders in Production: Making Workers in Mexico’s Global Factories. Answers to questions related to whether a “new perspective” had been introduced and its impact on me as an educator; if in my view the concept was valid or invalid; challenges encountered in processing these concepts as an educator; my emotional response to them and concluding with how the concepts/ideas affirmed my beliefs will be the major focus of this review.


Relationship between Trauma, Style, and Narrative


Narratives have various styles and techniques of helping readers relate to the events and characters in a story. A story may be in first, second or third person narration. The first person narration is where the characters give an account of the story from their point of view. The second and third person narrative is where another person tells the story from their perspective. In some narratives, the author acts as the narrator while in others one of the characters gives an account of the story. There are also novels with two narrators and some of the characters reveal their distress by narrating the parts where they faced difficulties. Authors may use one narration style throughout the novel or they may also incorporate two or three narration techniques depending on their preferences. Some novels are analyses of other novels. For instance, the author of a novel analyzes the story in another novel to give it more meaning. The analysis of the novels Beloved and Jazz, and the articles The Bluest Eye and Sula: black female experience from childhood to womanhood and ”Can’t Nobody Fly with All That Shit” reveals the relationship between trauma, style and narrative.

Beloved is a novel that contains a ghost story and a realistic narrative. The author used this style to relate to the trauma his characters, especially Sethes family, went through. The story reveals how people lost their identity through the fragmentation caused by slavery. Sethe lost her identity as a mother because she killed her daughter. Mothers are capable of doing various things to protect their children, but killing them to give them eternal protection is absurd. The author uses a third person narration to give an account of the plights of the characters. It is an omniscient narration because the narrator knows the thoughts and deeds of all the characters. This style of narration portrays the trauma in the novel through the narrator. Through her narration, the readers feel the presence of the ghost character Beloved. The trauma in the novel is the fact that a mother killed her daughter to save her from slavery. Sethe, Beloved’s mother did not want her children to go back to the life of slavery. She thought that killing them, would be a better option than letting them face the troubles caused by slavery. The narrator includes the thoughts and memories of the characters to help readers understand the story from the characters point of view and not the narrator’s. The author also changes the narrative style to first person for readers to gain a full portrait and deeper understanding of the characters and their emotions. The narrator uses first person narration for Sethe to reveal the reasons for killing Beloved. Through this narration, the readers can understand the effect of slavery among the blacks. Sethe believed that death was the only way of saving her children from the dangers of slavery. She thought that death would keep them at a peaceful place. The presence of Beloved also traumatizes Sethe to a point where she starves herself to feed her. The narrator highlights the plight of the Sethe because she cannot do so by herself. She does not know that the presence of Beloved is consuming her, so the narrator tells the story from her point of view to inform reads about the ordeal faced by Sethe. On the other hand, the narrator uses first person to inform viewers of the troubles brought by Beloved. Characters such as Paul D also inform readers about Beloved. The stories told about Beloved prove to the readers that she is truly a ghost. Stamp Paid identifies Beloved as the girl who escaped from Deer Creek. On the other hand, beloved sings songs that only her mother and family can understand. For this reason, the two styles of narration help to explain that Beloved was a ghost that traumatized Sethe.

Jazz is a unique novel because of its narration style. The title of the novel reveals the complexity of its structure. The author used the call and response style in of the Jazz music genre. For this reason, the characters explored the same events from different perspectives. The readers have to analyze the novel through the lens of jazz music to tolerate the novel and also adapt to its expressive power. Just like the jazz music, the novel’s setting is Harlem. The narrator is believed to be the author of the novel; however, like the novel beloved, the narration switches from time to time. The characters also inform readers about various events from their perspective. Readers also understand the viewpoint of various aspects through the perspective of inanimate objects and concepts. The narrator gives a description of New York City from his perspective when he says “I’m crazy about this City. Daylight slants like a razor cutting the buildings in half. In the top half I see looking faces and it’s not easy to tell which are people, which the work of stonemasons” (Morrison 5). This description relates to various activities that link to the trauma faced by the characters in the novel. The story also has various aspects of trauma and the narrator uses various narration styles for readers to understand. For instance, she uses third person to show how love can make people do crazy things. The narrator informs readers that Joe shot Dorcas because he found her dancing with Acton at a party. The author then switches to first person because she wants readers to relate to the trauma felt by the characters at the party. The narrator reveals that Joe could not bear the trauma of seeing Dorcas with another lover. The characters could not understand why she did not want to receive any help. Dorcas told the people at the party that she did not need any help, so they should leave her alone (Morrison, Jazz, n.d.). On the other hand, she insists that she would tell the other characters about the man on the next day. This aspect shows that the event traumatized Dorcas and she chose death because it would save her the trouble of explaining things to her aunt and Violet. Dorcas thought that death was the end of her trouble. The novels Jazz and Beloved are similar because the Dorcas and Beloved died because of the love from other people. However, the novels differ because Dorcas chose to die but Beloved did not wanted to die, that is why she came back in form of a ghost to haunt her mother. Violet was also traumatized by the fact that her husband had an affair with Dorcas. The narrator explains her trauma through her acts. The third person narrative helps tells a story that Violet cannot explain. She portrays her trauma through her actions, so the narrator has to reveal the actions to the reader. Violet went to Dorcas’ open casket to disfigure her face because she was bitter about what she had done. The author also uses first person narrative style to inform readers about the traumatizing events in the lives of Violet and Joe. He informs readers that Violet left the family when she was young, so she was raised by a single mother. On the other hand, Joe also had a traumatizing childhood because he grew up in an adoptive home. Third person narration also reveals the traumatizing nature of the death of Violet’s mother. The narrator informs readers that she committed suicide. The narrator also informs readers about the whereabouts of Joe’s mother. Through third person narration, the readers understand that Joe questioned his identity.

The Bluest Eye and Sula is an article that uses third person, as well as the inversion narrative technique. The inversion technique helps readers to understand that the novel was modified from the film adaptation of the novel Limitations of life (Tally, 13). This technique helps readers to relate to the experiences of the characters from the perspective of another story by a different author. The experience gained from the initial source is carried on in the article. Suranyi’s article analyzes the Toni Morrison’s story from her perspective. She uses third person narrative style to refer to the events revealed by Morrison in her novel. For example when she says, “Pecola, desperately trying to escape the squalor of her life, finds that she can will her body to disappear, limb by limb, piece by piece, but never manages to free herself of her eyes, her invisibility never quite complete” (Tally, 12). This line gives readers an insight of Pecola’s traumatizing life from Suranyi’s point of view. On the other hand, Suranyi says, “At the novel’s end she has been raped by her father, lost the baby she was carrying, been driven into madness, but continues her quest for “the bluest eyes,” conversing with her imaginary friend, her double. Ironically, having been denied a sense of self and a voice to articulate her pain, in the end an insane Pecola has found not one, but two voices”( Tally, 15). This statement also reveals the traima’s in Pecola’s life. Suranyi uses third person to inform readers that Pecola had an imaginary friend. Through Suranyi’s article, the readers also understand that the Pecola could only confide in her imaginary friend. She wanted to be like Shirley, who is believed to be beautiful because she is white and has blue eyes. According to the characters in the article, Shirley had the ideal beauty. For this reason, Pecola developed self-hatred because she could not be like Shirley. The line “Her lack of self-esteem is generated by her alleged ugliness· and also by the neglect, abuse, and contempt heaped upon her” (Tally, 15). Suranyi’s article also highlights the shift from ‘I’ to ‘we’ in Morrison’s novel. Through this shift, readers discover that the narrator was present when the events took place. this is evident in the line “All of us … felt so wholesome after we cleaned ourselves on her. We were so beautiful when we stood astride her ugliness … Her inarticulateness made us believe we were eloquent. Her poverty kept us generous”. Through Suranyi’s analysis of the novel, the audience get a profound indulgence of the novel.

”Can’t Nobody Fly with All That Shit” is an article by Bouson Brooks, which analyzes Toni Morrison’s novel, Song of Solomon. The article mostly uses third person technique although there are instances where Bouson quotes directly from Morisson’s novel for emphasis. For instance, Bouson uses third person when he says “Song of Solomon ·is addressed, in part, to middle-class African Americans, especially males, who have a kind. of amnesia about their cultural history” to reveal the trauma faced by the black Americans after they realized their origins. This people boast around because they think they have been part of the western culture since its inception. They realize that they are a shameful lot because they had no voice during the time of slavery. Most of those who have developed the boisterous nature of the western culture become traumatized when given stories of the slavery of their ancestors. Most African Americans from the middle class boast about their position in the American society but this pride is limited by the fact that they have slave origins (Bouson, 76). The narrator in the article explains Morrison’s view of the black pride through analysis of her story Songs Of Solomon. The narrator tries to explain the trauma in this story by analyzing various concepts in the story. The narrator uses first and third person to inform readers about the idea of black masculinity and trauma from the perspective of the characters, Morrison as well as his own perspective. This narration style ensures that readers acquire maximum understanding of the concepts of trauma in the novel.

The four novels reveal various traumatizing aspects through narrations of the victims of trauma or from the point of view of the characters or other authors. The trauma is caused by other forces that drive people crazy. For instance, love made some of the characters to commit murder and also the society made some of them lose their self-identity. The events that followed enhanced the trauma in the characters’ lives.


Authors use various narrative styles to relate to the events in a story. In most narratives that use the third person narrative style, the authors give an account of the story because their lives inspired them to write the stories. First person narrative styles help to understand the story from the characters’ perspective. The character explains the story as it should be. Authors use this technique to eliminate any doubts from the readers. The style also shows readers that there is no exaggeration in the story also helps readers to relate to the emotions and tone of the story.


Native-American Studies

The World’s Richest Indian: The Scandal over Jackson Barnett’s Oil Fortune by Tanis Thorne

The separation of simple thinking from greedy motives is what Tanis Thorne specifically gave focus on her writing about Jackson Barnett’s oil fortune in his property in Oklahoma during  the early 1900. Describing the man as a simple minded Indian American decent, Thorne tries to draw every line possible to make sure that her readers would come to understand that Barnett’s ownership is more than just proven through papers, but also proven through his traditional decent. Being an Indian American, Barnett has every right to own a land. Nevertheless, there was a time when he was considered landless. Because of the structure of the American law on property and land ownership during the early 1900s, Barnett was noted to be not owning any particular property.

Native-American Studies

Gary Anderson’s Sitting Bull and the Paradox of the Lakota Nation

In his book, Gary Anderson argues that Sitting Bull was a very interesting man not only as a human but also as an Indian. In this fascinating book, the author seeks to explore the sacrifices it takes for one to be a leader of a given state. Gary has managed to portray Sitting Bull as a leader with unique attributes, which makes him outstanding from the rest of the people. He also illustrates that he is human through mistakes he commits, and in the way he thinks during his rule. In order to understand Sitting Bull, close study of this individual is needed in order to reveal how comes he posses supernatural abilities while he is human.


sociology paper (yao)

Sociology: Book Review

Cycle of Socialization

Question 1: 1. Identify the reading chosen

The reading is entitled; Cycle of Socialization by Bobbie Harro. It was written in 2000. Harro (2000) explains the process of socialization from seven theoretical promises applying a cyclic interpretation. The cycle begins with first socialization whereby the individual interacts with family members. Next institutional and cultural socialization is cited; thirdly, enforcements; fourthly, are results, next directions for change emerges, sixth actions are pursued and finally the born again experience is embraced (Harro, 2000).


Ways of Bridging the Inequality Gap

There are ways of bridging the gap between the current occurrence in the society and commerce as in the inequality in the United States of America and what should be happening in the society and commerce. Inequality in the United States of America has been constantly widening for several decades. The main problem is the consumption problem. When one main interest group holds more power, it will succeed in getting policies that enable it to help itself in the shortest term instead of helping the society as a whole in the long term. This is what is happening in the United States of America and it needs to be put to an end (Cavanagh 112). This is what causes a gap and it applies in public investments, tax policies as well as regulatory policies.

There are consequences of channeling income gains as well as wealth in one specific direction. This is evident in an ordinary household expenditure and is one of the American economy’s engines. Higher net incomes will be achieved once inequality is reduced. This will happen through progressive taxation. This will lead to the economy growing at a fast rate. Whenever huge amounts of money are concentrated at the society’s topmost cream, the spending by average American low-income earners will be reduced. Movement of money from the bottom average people to the top most people lowers consumption mainly because high individual consumer’s consumer lesser than the entire lower income individual (Stiglitz 97).

Intervention can also be used as a means of bridging the gap. When more money concentrates at the top then there is a decline in the aggregate demand. Intervention can be done by global economic bodies or departments within the government. This has to happen however the economy’s total demand will lessen much more than what it can supply. Much of the inequality in the economy and among people arises from rent seeking which leads to inequality among people. To put an end to this, tough measures have to be set containing actions against anyone who gains more income inappropriately. This should also apply to leaders who use their positions to amass huge wealth for themselves instead of working towards the society’s enriching. Once this happens then inequality will be greatly lowered. Rent seeking must be done away with. This is because it does not lead to the growth of anything (Stiglitz 114).

Efforts that are aiming at getting larger pie shares than increasing the pie shares should be scrapped. Once rent seeking weakens the economy and distorts means of allocating resources then inequality increases and it is equal to increasing the gap between people from different societal classes. Other policies needed in order to bridge include increasing free public services as this is highly crucial in ensuring that there is a good playing field that will bring equality. One of them is offering better treatment. In countries like Sweden people do not care whether they are so sick or not since they are assured of good treatment. This can act as one of the equalizers in many other countries (Cavanagh 75).

Income inequality has become a signature issue. The current United States of America government administration has an economic team. The economic department relies on the same policies that have been previously used. These strategies have not played a small role in encouraging sustainable economic growth. Instead the economic policies have worked towards increasing Wall Street profits as well as an inflation of the value of bonds and stocks. These are disproportionately held and owned by rich people. The republicans have not made a big issue out of all this. There have been feelings that discussing it will catalyze supporting the redistributionist policies. These policies are anathema to the Republican Party that prides in increasing its share of the pie and not in any way dividing it again (Stiglitz 103).

However, many other policy options can be used in demonstrating the commitment of the Republicans to the average people. An instance includes the renewed fiscal discussions that talk on sequestration. The government needs to put significant tax reforms forward for the people. They should also make tax reforms to be a priority for everyone. This is another way that will help in bridging the gap. This is because tax reforms aid in ending all preferential treatment as well as investment income. This allows hedge fund managers to pay half of all the tax rates. This is not only a way of bridging gaps but it also helps in encouraging investments that help in job creations. The current investment funds have led to the creation of fewer jobs. This is because of rent seeking which leads to inequality. Getting rid of it will enable more investments and development. The widening of the gap between the poor and rich people is also being associated with recession. This is because of stagnant wages. Rising debt coupled up with stagnant wages describes the current state. According to the New York Times, income inequality has continually gone up after the Great Depression. This has peaked every other period before any main economic crisis of the 1920s. If this continually happens then it will deter 100% success in the United States of America’s economy or the ability to climb out of financial crisis (Stiglitz 161).

Another main way to bridge gaps is to come up with unions. Scholars and researchers have agreed that countries that have high union density always tend to contain less inequality as well as a low gap between people. There are many reasons for this. Countries that have high union membership have left-leaning governments and this means generous transfer policies that lead to the reduction of inequality. Unions bargain for an increase in low wages for middle income workers and this greatly reduces inequality.

Another means is in the promotion of trade in the high skilled professions. A discussion that focuses on the effects of immigration and trade often tends to focus on low skilled workers’ impact. These workers produce goods and services for the United States of America’s market while others come to provide services with fewer wage. There are reforms that the U.S. can enact in order to remove any barriers to the entry of all the foreign-born lawyers, doctors and other technology professionals. This move will lead to pushing down wages for lawyers and doctors in the country and this will lead to saving of money for programs like Medicare. This will bring equality across the board and therefore bridge the gap (Noah 38).


Work Cited

Cavanagh, Gerald. American Business Values: A global Perspective 6th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hal, 2009.

Noah, Timothy. The Great Divergence: America’s Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It. Kent: Bloomsbury Press, 2012.

Stiglitz, Joseph. The Price of Inequality. Westmisnter: Penguin Books Limited, 2012.






Book Review: Michael Howard’s The First World War: A Very Short Introduction

At the very outset of his book The First World War: A Very Short Introduction, the author Michael Howard gives the reader the theoretical framework with which he will present his history of First World War. Howard thus writes: “Karl von Clausewitz had written in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars that war was a trinity composed of the policy of the government, the activities of the military, and the ‘passions of the peoples.’ Each of these must be taken into account if we are to understand both why the war happened and why it took the course that it did.” (1) As Howard also notes in his introductory paragraph, the course that was taken by the war was in fact “catastrophic.” (1) Although as Howard explains European powers had fought wars against each other throughout the world and in Europe itself, for example, the aforementioned Napoleonic wars, the First World War obviously contained within it an element of such destruction on such a scale that it merited the name of “world war.” Arguably, the approach of Howard is to explain the massive scale of this war precisely in terms of the Clausewitzian principles he cites. Accordingly, the First World War becomes such a catastrophic and mammoth event precisely because each of the Clausewtizian principles contributing to war exercised and presented themselves in a radical manner. In this regard, Howard’s work can be understood as a commentary on how the First World War satisfied such principles and took them at the same to their extreme.

Howard is clear at the outset of the work, in which he outlines the geopolitical situation in Europe at the time, that there was a continuity between the power structures and hegemonic power holders in Europe at the beginning of the First World War with previous European history. As he writes, such power structures were “much the same as they had been for the previous two centuries.” (1) Hence, the First World War in this light is presented as a certain exacerbation of the power structures of Europe which culminated in the First World War. In light of the Clausewitzian framework that guides Howard’s reading, policies, military action and the hearts and minds of the people all combined into an explosive mix to yield the situation.

Following this thesis, Howard carefully shows how the policies of the European powers were perhaps become more fragmented and conflictive, to the extent that a certain breaking point had been reached. Howard charts a basic deterioration of relations in the Europe of the time period, placing quite literally the powers of Europe at each other’s throats; in particular, “relations between Austia-Hungary and Russia deteriorated as badly as those between Britain and Germany.” (13) Here, there was a clear degeneration of the potential of diplomatic talks between the powers at stake. While as Howard also notes tensions between these powers, in various relationships and forms, had been a stable feature of European politics in the previous centuries, the First World War was marked by a point of no return in terms of these tensions. There is a point in which diplomatic conflict takes an armed aim, thus satisfying the Clausewitzian criterion of exacerbation of policy.

Yet at the same time, mere tensions were not enough to ignite the First World War in its maddening violence. Following Clausewitz, there must be military and populist elements to a conflict. It is arguably the “passions of the people” that most displayed themselves in igniting the First World War. In particular, Howard notes that it was the Balkans that played a key role in the conflict. The assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by the Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, according to Howard, was not significant in itself: “the crisis perpetuated by the Archduke’s assassination at first seemed no worse than the half-dozen or so that had preceded it in the Balkans since 1908.” (15) Hence, passions of various nationalists seeking to assert their autonomy on a national level amidst the multi-ethnic empire of Austria Hungary is construed by Howard as nothing new. What is significant was an Austrian response that intended to “crush their Serbian enemy for good.” (15) Here, the passions of the people explosively combined with national policy decisions to yield conflict, thus satisfying the basic Clausewitzian thesis that underlies Howard’s work.

Arguably, the element of Clausewitz’s thesis that Howard pays least attention to the book is perhaps the most crucial: that of military activities. For military activities and the scope of the war was only created by substantial technological gains that made a wider and more destructive war possible. This separates the First World War from, for example, the Napoleonic wars. Yet Howard only mentions modern technology once in the book: on page 106, where he discusses “a model of infantry-tank cooperation…now put to use on a very much large scale.” (106) Whereas such tactics developed only during the war, arguably what ignited the war was the technological capabilities that expanded the very potential of military activities as Clausewitz defines it. It is this large scale violence that ultimately envelops a world and suffices the labeling of a truly world war.

Howard thus not only provides an admirable summary of the First World War, providing a lucid narrative about its beginnings and unfolding, but also gives the reader a theoretical framework with which to think about why the world developed as it did: that of Clausewitz. Howard successfully uses this framework to expand his narrative to the reader, noting the significance of policy and the hearts and minds of the people. Yet arguably he falls somewhat short in noting the changes in military activity, above all demonstrated in increased technological capability. The Clausewitzian trinity seems to be wholly relevant to explaining the First World War, as Howard’s work makes clear: the only question that remains is whether Howard has developed the potency of this trinity enough in his work so as to provide a more complete picture of the conflict.

Works Cited

Howard, M. (2002). The First World War: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


Gideon’s Trumpet: Book Review

Democracy is a process. Maybe this is the foundational message of the book Gideon’s Trumpet by Anthony Lewis. The book tells the story of the Supreme Court Case of Gideon vs. Wainwright, whereby the U.S. Supreme Court decided in 1963 that all defendants have the right to an attorney, even though if they do not have the financial status to pay for an attorney. In other words, the right to an attorney becomes a legal and democratic right under American law.

Legal Issues

Gideon’s Trumpet by Anthony Lewis (1964) A Book Review

About the Author

            Known as a public intellectual and a journalist, Anthony Lewis is among the most priced writers who have tried to explore the different factions of legal policies in the United States. Starting at an early age, Lewis was fond of completing researches that are expected to provide a much defined pattern that constitutes the development from then until the current years. Considerably, his works have been remarkably noted as helpful in creating a proper definition on the developments of the legal systems in the United States, which has also specifically made a great impact on how the world recognized several legal policies especially regarding the need to support the situation of the less fortunate members of the community.

Celebrated for his command on the subjects he discusses, most of his works are basically considered as the basis of the common criticisms with regards legal matters that define the capacity of the American society to support the legal needs of their people. Working with New York Times for the most of this life’s career in writing, Lewis’ works have been relatively recognized especially in consideration with the advancements he imposes in relation to how modern legal matters could be adjusted for the sake of the greater members of the American population.



About the Book

            Gideon’s Trumpet is basically a presentation of facts and events with regards that of the case between Gideon and Wainwright. This particular case was considered as a turn of situations that redefined the patter by which the American justice system is considered especially for those who cannot specifically pay for the services that the court provides. Utilizing the last name of the defendant ‘Gideon’, the title of the book is also considered a play of conditions involving the connection of the turn of events in the case in relation to that of the situation that occurred in the bible’s record involving Gideon and his small army of 300 that won in a battle against the Canaanites. Relatively, the situation of Clarence Earl Gideon was close to that of the bible’s account on Gideon as he fought towards the war that was seemingly impossible for him and his army. Nevertheless, his defense, which was dependent on the power of the almighty protector, made his and his army’s fight successful. The defense of Clarence Earl Gideon was more dependent on the manner by which the supreme court accepted the need to hear about his rights to being represented in the case as the hearing is completed.

Chapter Summaries

            Chapter 1:

            The first chapter specifically presents how Gideon was considered a pauper during the time he was presented in court. In forma pauper was a petition that specifically exempts the plaintiffs from paying the normal fees relating to legal assistance. Under this particular clause of the law, a person who is impoverished is given the chance to pass on a petition without paying any fees. The petition to be made by the plaintiff need not be legally assisted by anyone, it shall be accepted [even with the existence of particular grammatical errors] so long as the presentation does make a point in relation to the case being heard and it does comply with the substance that must be included within the petition’s documented presentation.

In this primary chapter, Lewis made it a point that Gideon’s efforts to provide the necessary information needed in the petition were recognized properly. Written in pencil, his petition was presented by Lewis as rather a document that was as simple as possible yet was still considered an effective presentation of his request due to the copy of habeas corpus petition that he included within the document. A man at his 50’s, Gideon’s writing was considered by Lewis as destitute. Basing from Lewis’ personal distinction of who Gideon was, he notes that if the petition was to be used as a basis of profiling the plaintiff, it would define that the man is not violent, but rather a person who was having a hard time making a living and establishing a good life for him and his family. In the petition, Gideon stipulated that he was first convicted of breaking and entering into the Bay Harbor Poolroom in Panama City. He was hoping though that such conviction be reverted. This was a relatively huge request which Gideon evidently did not realize because of his state of simple-minded thinking.

            Chapter 2:

            The second chapter provides of the distinction of the court as an institution that creates a definition of what legal rules and policies should be about. In this chapter, Lewis then tries to explain how the court handles the need to define the condition of cases and specifically utilize the different elements that make up a specific case. In consideration to this, Lewis makes it a point to define the conditions of the court according to words that a layman like Gideon would be able to understand. Still using Gideon’s case as the basis of this chapter’s discussion, Lewis was able to make a distinctive instruction that would easily provide the writers with the best source of understanding that the public would best be able to comprehend with.

            Chapter 3:

            In this section of his discussion, Lewis outlines the different procedures considered by he court as they decide which case to pass on for hearing and which others would be considered as ‘dead cases’ or cases that do not need hearing anymore. It provides a basic source of understanding how the petition of Gideon changed a huge part of how the court recognizes the importance of reaction from the plaintiff and the other individuals who are involved in the cases that they pursue to push for hearing. Here, Gideon’s petition was regarded to be a bold and yet important move in relation to his part as the plaintiff in a case. Exercising his right to respond to a case he is being accused with, Gideon tried his best to make sure that the court does its duty of protecting the rights of the people, even on the part of the impoverished ones.

            Chapter 4:

            Lewis discusses in this chapter the appointment of a counsel to support Gideon’s part in relation to the case being heard. Considered as crème de la crème, the counsel that represented Gideon in the case is noted to be best in the job. At this point though, he is giving his service for free and simply responds to his duty of protecting the rights of the people. Fortas, the counsel assigned to assist Gideon and represent him in court, was described by Lewis as one of the best in the job.



            Chapter 5:

            Herein, Lewis gives an overview of how Gideon was seemingly not knowledgeable about the conditions and systems of the court. Nevertheless, his desire to get the justice he deserves pushed him to get on the wagon, even without having the ample knowledge he needs. People who are impoverished like him do have the same rights as to that with those who are capable of paying for a representation in court, and this is what Gideon made sure would happen.

            Chapter 6:

            This chapter gives clear definition on how the court considers different judicial methods to pursue particular cases. The competition between intellectual decision against the popularity of particular legislations have been described by Lewis as a particular source of specific debate in court especially in relation to deciding on which rule to follow. This has been further described by Lewis through defining the procedure assumed by Frankfurter and Black in relation to the case of Gideon.

            Chapter 7:

            To make it easier for the reader to get involved in the process of seeing how Gideon fares in consideration with the case being accused of him, this chapter provides a clear indication on who Gideon was. It provides a first-hand information on who Clarence Earl Gideon was, what he did and how he has come into a situation that involved him in a criminal case.

            Chapter 8:

            Hoping to make an outline on the development on the issue of providing counsel for the impoverished and the indigents Lewis presents the different cases that involve the relative process of choosing the relative representation that they need to be able to face the court. Relating cases such as that of Johnson v. Zerbst, Betts v. Brady and Powell v. Alabama, he considers that Gideon’s move to be the boldest and likely the most affective in changing the face of the American social system.

            Chapter 9 and 10:

            In this section Lewis presents how it is advantageous for a person to be represented by a legal professional. He insists that the need to be represented by someone who knows the law serves as a great source of protection and defense that provides a good sense of definition on how justice could be provided even for those who are less fortunate.

            Chapter 11 and 12:

This chapter gives a distinctive description and detail on how the presentation of arguments for the case of Gideon has been considered. Here he indicates the different procedures taken into consideration to finalize the writing of the final judgment on the case of Gideon. The opinion of the court to the Gideon v Wainwright case is also represented in this section in relation to the final writing issued by Justice Black.

            Chapter 13 and 14:

            Here, Lewis provides his own opinion on the matter. Having a proper command on the legalities of the American society, it could be considered that his opinion on the matter is specifically helpful in defining how the case of Gideon actually changed the situation of court hearings in the country since the 1960’s. He finalizes his book through collecting the different implications of the cases he used as reference to the discussions he has given in his book.

Implications of the Reading

            It could be noted that the reading provided by Lewis is as valuable as that of his other written works. At this point though, his opinionated views of the matter, especially relating to his experiences makes this reading specifically helpful in outlining the most important points of developments in the legal systems that the American society recognizes. In this case, it could be considered that this book by Lewis on the case of Gideon gives a distinctive representation on how he actually sees the situation to have been the stepping stone of the most important adjustments in the way the legal systems of America recognizes the rights even of the impoverished members of the society especially in receiving a representation in court.


For individuals or students having the desire to know more about the advancements of the modern legal systems of America based from the changes of the 1960’s, this book is a good read that would specifically provide good and helpful information regarding the matter. This book is especially helpful even for the needs of the individuals who would like to know more about the case in layman’s terminologies. The simple approach of Lewis in defining the aspects of court and the legal forms of procedures considered in the case of Gideon makes this reading very helpful especially when it comes to creating a connection between how simple individuals like Gideon has made one of the most important turn of events in the field of the American court.

The command of Lewis in this field of writing makes his presentation more valuable and helpful in making ordinary people realize the importance of having the capacity to provide petition, which Gideon used to make sure that his rights are recognized by the court. Having the desire to clean his name, Gideon actually made it simple in presenting that the right of people should be recognized equally by the court regardless of their race, their economic condition and their individual being.


Anthony Lewis, Gideon’s Trumpet. New York: Vintage Books/Random House, 1964.






The Creative Young Minds


Susan Wright’s Understanding Creativity in Early Childhood brings forth a very captivating proposition as to why instructors concerned with the educational welfare of our small kids need to focus more on drawing as an artistic action. This results from the following factors. First of all, drawing is an important stride towards literacy in these children. Second and equally important, the act of drawing helps the children to develop their negotiation skills, ingenuity and their capacity to wrestle with the two unique human elements i.e. reality and imagination. There are a number of studies that form the basis of this research. Recently, a number of multimodality studies have led to a number of controversies since there are no clear guidelines on what should underlie the terms “read”, “write” and “text” (Hull and Nelson, 2005). Therefore, it has become somewhat unclear when we wish to define the enlightenment practices for children.


On Trans-Saharan Trails


The book On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks, and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western Africa by Ghislaine Lydon addresses the relevance of the economy in the Sahara desert prior to modernization and considers the manner in which the history of the Sahara has had a tremendous impact on economic conditions and the challenges that prevailed in the 19th Century. The book evaluates the premise that religious and literacy-based frameworks played a significant role in removing trade barriers across the Sahara in order to stimulate relationships between Jews and Muslims regarding financial matters that became prevalent in the absence of any well-defined currency system during this era (Lydon 2). Under these conditions, it would typically be inevitable that economic decline would surely prevail; however, the creation of trade was facilitated by these Jew and Muslim connections to ensure that economic conditions were thriving (Lydon 2). The book is grounded in the belief that literacy and religion were the foundation of these trade opportunities and supported the continued faith in economic growth across the Sahara, often times at lengthy distances (Lydon 2). As a result, the book provides an interesting perspective regarding the underlying conditions that led to economic growth and change in this area. The book also supports historical research in a new light and reflects upon the critical nature of language utilization and frameworks in order to recount the events that took place in the 19th Century Sahara in a positive and meaningful manner (Lydon 2).


“None of This is Fair”, by Richard Rodriguez and “Turning Japanese”, by Heidi Julavits

The essay “None of this is Fair” by Richard Rodriguez is an extremely relevant commentary on the Affirmative Action system from the perspective of not just a Mexican-American, but one who has admittedly benefitted from the program in the past.

Communication Strategies

“Made To Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die” Review

The book “Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Stick and Others Die” by Chip and Dan Heath is an objectified look at ideas, starting broadly and gradually getting more narrow, and literally why some remain time-tested, and others do not. There is definitely great merit to this book as a whole, and the ideas the authors were trying to get across.


Plagues and Peoples by William H. McNeill

Plagues and Peoples by William H. McNeill is a book that offers a captivating view of the world by showing the relationship between diseases and humankind. In his book, William has viewed diseases as something that can cause harm to human. He analyses the history of plagues using parasites that interact with the host. He reveals that, at one point in life, these parasites and hosts will be at equilibrium, a state that will allow both of them to survive favorably. This book has six chapters. The first two pages look at the early environment humans interact with after their birth. They also explore human expansion and development of agriculture. In addition, they show how diseases started. He argues that agriculture and human development are the main avenues that brought about diseases. When agriculture started shifting from inactive state, larger communities took part in it, fostering crowd diseases.  He has arranged this book chronologically from ancient to modern times, showing different diseases that broke out at give times and the impact they brought.