Throughout many population groups, patients are at a severe risk of chronic illness when they possess poor nutritional and exercise habits, both of which contribute to this risk in different ways. It is important to recognize the many disparities that exist in some populations due to differences in culture, language, education, knowledge, access to care, and other barriers that prevent them from achieving optimal health and wellbeing within their communities. It is important and necessary to develop a strategic approach that will be used to improve the understanding of different populations and their risk of chronic illnesses as attributed to poor nutrition and limited exercise. These efforts are instrumental in shaping outcomes for these individuals and their care and treatment plans. It is imperative to consider the different challenges associated with these elements and to determine how to improve the understanding of chronic illness within this population. The disparities that exist must be addressed in the development of an effective protocol to accommodate the needs of this population groups in different settings. The following discussion will address the issues related to an increased risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in the adult Hispanic population between the ages of 18-39. This discussion will demonstrate the impact of culture and language barriers, as well as other challenges that this population faces in their efforts to maintain positive health and wellbeing, and the issues that must be addressed to support this population and its exposure to chronic illness and limitations in obtaining adequate access to healthcare services.