Categories
Nursing

Differential Diagnosis

            The patient in question, a 15 year-old with a persistent dry cough, should be examined thoroughly to determine the nature of the cough and any underlying or accompanying symptoms. Upon review of the patient’s prior medical history, the problem has been intermittent for approximately one year, but the symptoms are consistent and have not worsened. Performing a detailed assessment is required to determine the extent and cause of the dry cough and to determine if any specific factors might be at work. The patient does not experience wheezing to accompany coughing episodes. Evaluation of the patient must include an examination of lungs, airway, breathing, and overall appearance.

            The patient should undergo a chest x-ray to determine if any physical findings are present in relation to the cough that are significant in nature. In this case, the chest x-ray is the most natural approach because it conveys the importance of any findings that might require additional evaluation and possible treatment. In addition, if the x-ray does not present any significant findings, testing such as examination of the sinus cavities through nasoendoscopy and bronchoscopy might be necessary in this case. Finally, an exploration of iron deficiency through iron testing could be an indicator of coughing symptoms.

            The possible differential diagnoses for this patient include the following: 1) Asthma; 2) Non-Asthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis (NAEB); and 3) Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Each of these diagnoses requires its own set of tests to determine if the presenting symptoms correspond with the diagnosis. For example, a diagnosis of Asthma requires physical assessment to determine if wheezing is present. Testing includes spirometry with the use of the bronchodilator to determine if Asthma is the appropriate diagnosis. In this case, since the patient does not present with wheezing to begin with, the diagnosis of Asthma is unlikely.

            Non-Asthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis (NAEB) is also a possibility when the patient does not present with any significant symptoms other than a random non-productive cough that is not associated with wheezing episodes or other factors that could indicate the possibility of Asthma. The most common test to determine this condition is the sputum/broncho-alveolar lavage differential count. In addition, testing to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide is a possibility in this case.

            Finally, Gastro-oesophageal Reflex Disease (GORD) is a possibility when there are presenting symptoms of heartburn, acid regurgitation, and associated postural changes in these conditions, accompanied by a random cough without any wheezing symptoms. In this case, the first line of defense and testing is to prescribe proton-pump inhibitors for a period of at least eight weeks to determine their effectiveness in reducing coughing symptoms. In this case, it is likely that since the patient has not complained of a history of heartburn or acid reflux symptoms, this diagnosis is not likely.

            Based upon the information that has been provided through the patient’s medical history and current assessment, it is likely that the patient is suffering from Non-Asthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis (NAEB). Her symptoms indicate a dry cough without accompanying wheezing, along with increased physical activity over the past week due to swim training. Therefore, it is important to begin treatment for the patient to alleviate her persistent dry coughing symptoms, including the use of inhaled corticosteroids to produce antinflammatory properties. The use of an inhaled corticosteroid, particularly after periods of heavier physical activity, such as swim training, serves as an important means of alleviating possible symptoms over a period of time and in ensuring that the patient’s condition does not worsen beyond the current dry cough, particularly at the time of increased physical activity.

Categories
Business

Trade Secrets at Morris Computer

Introduction

The situation detailed as per Carol’s involvement with Morris Computer Corporation is a typical example of business dilemmas that professionals face in the corporate world. Such cases and the decisions that have to be made are heavily influenced by the right ethical response to be made, the effect it has on key individuals, and the outcome of such a resolution, if any. A detailed analysis of Carol Curtin’s case, as well as discussion through the lens of an ethical framework, is discussed herein.

Categories
Business

Innovation in and for Emerging Markets

In today’s society, innovation is critical to the long-term success of organizations across different industries. A case study involving Chotokool addresses the importance of achieving success in emerging markets where there are significant challenges related to creativity and innovation.  Innovation must be explored in a new and exciting manner so that there are sufficient opportunities in place to influence outcomes and to reflect upon the opportunities that innovation provides to organizations in this manner (Simanis and Hart 79). By using the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) concept, this demonstrates the potential impact of a product that is both cost effective and useful to the largest group of consumers for which marketing of a product is relatively unexplored (Simanis and Hart).

Categories
Management

Managing Knowledge and Technology: Bajaj Auto and the Motorcycle Market

Bajaj Auto demonstrated its key strengths in the areas of product growth and development. Therefore, the organization sought to gain entrance into a competitive motorcycle market by using innovation and leadership to accomplish these objectives. Its collaborative efforts with Kawasaki emphasized its ability to work in conjunction with an experienced provider of motorcycles to achieve successful product development and results. The introduction of new models to the motorcycle market was a key indicator of the potential for success in expanding visibility and market share (Vallabhaneni and Krishnan 6).

Categories
Business

Facebook Platform and Collaboration

Introduction

Facebook uses an innovative collaboration platform to attract users. These users include third party developers, third party website owners, and the social media user. The platform’s strategy is based on a variety of products, services, tools and interactive applications designed to satisfy the need of the market.

 

Background

The company realized that people liked instantly sharing images, updates and life events, and developed core capabilities. The main competitive advantage the company formed over other social networking sites was its easy to handle platform and compatibility. As of 2008, Facebook was the sixth most trafficked website, according to Lewis et al. (38) and Alexa.com reports it standing on the first place in the world, second in the US. Alexa also confirms that the average visitor spends about 30 minutes on the site a day.

Categories
Business

Santander Acquires Abbey

Introduction

Santander has the core capabilities of maximizing retail banking through the use of a very efficient system of managing information. This bank is one of the most successful financial institutions worldwide and has been able to practice an aggressive expansion as well as an advanced competitive strategy gaining advantages. Competitive advantage is provided by the bank’s Partenon system as well as its efficient IT background.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Research Project Hypothetical

When conducting a research project of any kind, but especially in the field of Criminal Justice, there are many factors that must be considered from an economic, social, and political standpoint. Generally, the research topic is selected based on a whole host of very important factors.

First, when presented with the task of selecting a topic, one must consider the relevance of the topic they plan to choose. Picking a research topic that is not a controversial issue, a frequently covered news topic, or something new and innovative that can be correlated to one of the previous two criteria. If the topic is not viewed as relevant enough, not only is it likely that the university will pull a research grant, but it just overall will not have a lasting impact. The purpose of a research study is to obtain new information–a topic that is not relevant is a waste of new information. Some examples of good research topics in Criminal Justice are cyber-crime, legalization of marijuana, bullying and violence in schools, as well as reform of the penal system (Criminal Justice, 2013).

However, there are factors that also must be taken into account when even choosing a topic that is relevant. The demographic population of the city chosen would also have to be taken into account when choosing a specific topic. For example, for the aforementioned topic of penal reform, there is a host of statistics that also must be taken into consideration. If, say an urban city with a high minority population was chosen, the statistics of minorities in prisons compared to whites would have to be considered.

One of the most important parts of a study is the purpose statement. It must be specific enough to maintain its overall relevance, while remaining broad enough that it can be made applicable in the most ways possible. Keeping in mind the function of a purpose statement is to explain why the study is necessary, the statement should be clear and concise. The four parts of a purpose statement should include the method, both dependent and independent variables, the target audience, as well as the setting the study is to be conducted in (Writing the Purpose Statement, 2011).

If the proper steps have been followed to this point, a hypothesis or two should have evolved around the research topic. Taking into consideration the variables such as demographics, political affiliation, and population and applying it to a research topic should raise plenty of questions that can be addressed. At this point, the most important part is to discern which of these should be addressed–in other words, prioritizing the questions. These will be become research questions.

When a null or alternative hypothesis is introduced along with the one being presented, many things come to light as a whole, and in parts. First and foremost, considering and even presenting counter-arguments to their own can be a very effective tool in judging the strength of one’s own argument. If, when considering alternative thesis’, one sees that their research is futile, than much unnecessary work can be avoided.

Another strong reason to present counter-arguments is to actually strengthen ones own. If the alternative thesis can be deconstructed and thus proved false by ones own research study, then doing so in the findings can be nothing besides beneficial in the long-run. Thesis’ that deconstruct other thesis’ is how information progresses.

The overall research effort is measured an analyzed in many different ways. First, the outliers must be taken into consideration–why did a certain population deviate so much from the rest of the study? After that, the raw data must be compared to studies that correlate to it, and compared and contrasted for the sake of accuracy. After demographics are considered, the report can be drafted to some extent.

Quantitative research is research that depends on the collection of quantitative data. This data is characterized by deductive reasoning on the part of the researcher, and depends on the regularity of human behavior under controlled conditions. The researcher is generally supposed to be objective from the beginning. It normally ends with a statistical report (Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research, 2012).

Qualitative research is directly dependant on new hypothesis’ that arise while collecting new data. It is a more adaptive research approach, and tends to not control the environment, but rather using a natural environment. In addition it is a subjective research method that searches for patterns. The final report is more narrative in nature. Mixed research is exactly what it sounds like–it combines necessary elements of both qualitative and quantitative methods for the study at hand (Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research, 2012).

The literature review of the findings would probably be of the mixed nature, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. In this way it covers all the bases. In addition, this is the best way to end up with the highest standard of results as a whole, while encompassing the most possible amount of data into consideration.

The integrity of the report is an ethical and moral issue as well, and can be tainted if certain data is omitted, or even under-researched. This burden does indeed fall on the researcher, so the utmost time should be put into any research study, with all of the dependent and independent variables, as well as the atmosphere and climate. There are also the legal implications of the study, which can be direct or indirect, and far-reaching indeed.

First and foremost, if the researcher is able to adequately prove their thesis than their study could be cited in either future studies, or even used in testimony in court cases. If the research is in any way compromised, it must be taken into consideration as well as adequately noted. In addition, another major thing to consider is the omission of information to further prove a thesis.

Unfortunately this is something sociologists and criminologists deal with on a daily basis. To think a person would taint research with far reaching implications simply to further their own career is disgusting–however, it is a reality. Specific care must be taken to ensure all information, no matter how small, is in some way in the literature published. There is no imperative way to know how far reaching the implications of any individual research project can, and will be.

 

Resources

“Choosing & Defining a Topic   Tags: Controversial Topics, Issues in the News,           Social_issues, Thesis Statements  .” Start Here. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 June 2013.      <http://libguides.monroecc.edu/content.php?pid=124732>.

“Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research.” Southalabama.edu, n.d. Web.   <http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.pdf>.

“Writing the Purpose Statement.” Writing the Purpose Statement. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 June         2013. <http://bold-ed.com/purpose.htm>.

 

 

Categories
Management

Case study on Wal-Mart

Introduction

As one of the leading retailers in the Unites States, the Wal-Mart Corporation has dedicated itself to ‘saving people money in order to improve their lifestyle’, as the company’s mission suggests. However, with many competing stakeholder interests, and pressure to keep prices low, many company policies have come under criticism, and have faced many changes. Whether these policies are assisting in keeping Wal-Mart’s mission intact, or whether the company needs to follow a different company policy, is discussed herein.

Categories
Finance

Stock Analysis: Ralph Lauren Corp.

Executive Summary

            Within the realm of businesses the longevity success is dependent on a number of factors, tools used to evaluate a company’s success are utilized by their shareholders in the forms of financial statements such as the income statement, or cash flow statements. For investors and potential investors looking to buy stock within the company the best tool that they use is stock profile analysis. The object of this report is to provide a clear company analysis provided for the view of an investor in evaluating the probability of buying stock from Ralph Lauren Corporation. Within this report will be an overview of the company’s background, brands, business model, along with a SWOT analysis that details their strengths and weaknesses as a billion dollar global company. Along with the aid of charts and financial analysis will help to guide the investor into future earnings that will net the investor considerable ROI in the next few years. This report recommendation is to buy stock within this company, based on their performance in the last five years, and their future performance.

Categories
Literature

Case study of Apartheid in South Africa

1.

At the beginning of the film “A Dry White Season,” school teacher Ben du Toit, who is white, is approached by his gardener who is asking for his help. The gardener’s son has been beaten by police, and the gardener asks Ben to help him. Ben declines, believing that the son must have done something to deserve his punishment. It is clear that Ben does not see the Apartheid system the same way that the gardener does, and seems content to believe that the system is a good one. After the gardener’s son later dies in police custody, Ben’s feelings about the system begin to change, and he takes up a legal battle on behalf of the gardener’s family. The film serves as a coming-of-age story for Ben, as his growing awareness of the brutality and unfairness of the Apartheid system drives him deeper into his legal fight while also driving a wedge between Ben and his family.

As Ben enlists the help of an attorney in his battle, the distance between himself and his family grows wider. It is clear that his wife and daughter do not share his changing views, although his son does support his cause. Ben becomes more and more disillusioned as his career and his family life are torn apart by his involvement in the legal battle. In the end Ben pays the ultimate price for having fought against the system, as he has lost his job, alienated himself from his friends and lost most of his family. This is a difficult thing to watch, and is hardly a happy ending. The film shows that standing up for what is right can be dangerous and will not always turn out for the best.

2.

The first line of the novel “Mother to Mother” says simply: “my son killed your daughter.” It is written from the point of view of a mother whose son commits a terrible crime, and the opening introduction to the novel reads as if it is a letter written from the mother of the killer to the mother of the girl he killed. After the brief introduction, the story’s perspective shifts backwards in time, before the young girl was killed, but maintains the point of view of the mother of Mxolisi, the boy who kills the young girl. The story picks up two days before the events that end in the girl’s death, and describes both some specific details about the way Mxolisi and others in the book spend those days as well as offering insight into the mother’s life as she grew up under the system of Apartheid.

The structure of the story allows the naarator to reveal her feelings about the murder, about her son, and about his victim, slowly and deliberately. While she has already acknowledged to the mother of the young girl who she is, and has also acknowledged her son’s guilt, she does not offer significant details about the murder itself until near the end of the book. This is done for two reasons: the first is that it fits within the narrative of telling the events of the story as they unfolded from the narrator’s perspective; second, it allows the drama and the tension to build up over the course of the book. Both mothers in “Mother to Mother” are well aware that the murder has taken place. By waiting to recount the events of the murder until the end of the story, the Mxolisi’s mother has a chance to offer some insight into what her life and her son’s life have been like under Apartheid. This may not garner any sympathy for her or her son, but it does at least give her the chance to explain some of the factors on their lives that led Mxolisi to become the young man he became, and to do what he did.

3.

In “Mother to Mother,” one of the central themes of the book is the effect that the system of Apartheid had on those who suffered under it. At the beginning of the story, after Mandisa has addressed the mother of the young girl directly, she describes what it is like to start the day in her home while also imagining what the girl’s day was like. At Mandisa’ s home, she struggles to get the children fed and ready for the day, knowing that she will soon have to leave for work. She also knows that she will be home long after they have finished school, and she warns them that they better be inside when she gets home. As she is preparing for her day, she describes the young girl waking up in her home, and taking a leisurely shower and eating breakfast before returning to bed where she settles in to do some reading and studying.

It is immediately clear, even before Mandisa offers any details about the events of the coming days, and her discovery that her son has killed someone, that white people and black people in South Africa lead very different lives. The girl has a life of relative privilege (even though she has dedicated herself to causes she feels are important) while Mandisa has a difficult time feeding and caring for her family, and must take a job working long hours for a white family to make ends meet.

Throughout the story, Mandisa offers examples of the suffering she and the people of Guguletu endure at the hands of the police and the government. Mandisa had dreams of getting an education, but these dreams were interrupted by her pregnancy, and she soon found herself trapped in the same cycle of poverty that trapped everyone she knew. She also realized that her children were just as caught up in this trap as she was, and that there was nothing she could do about it. Mandisa recognizes that what her son did may almost have been inevitable; when she claims that the “resentment of three hundred years plugged his ears,” she was describing to the readers –and to the other mother- how her son was just one small figure swept up by the centuries of oppression her people had suffered.

 

Categories
Psychology

Schizophrenia: Paranoid Type Case study

  1. The earliest psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Bill occurred way before he was ever seen by a mental health professional. His sister Colleen clearly was worried about his sanity for a reason–namely his “frequent daydreaming, talking to himself, or saying things that made no sense.” I see this as a terrible initial evaluation of the patient. Considering his history, his symptoms, as well as the evasive and enigmatic symptoms he displayed during therapy were all very early signs that Bill’s situation was drastically going downhill–his brother-in-law feared Bill being around the children. Taking all these things into account, Bill always exhibited psychiatric symptoms, they just were not recognized. It is very hard to say when he first started experiencing hallucinations, because if he was previously seen speaking to himself, and saying nonsensical things, than they were probably a hallucination or delusion of some sort. Psychiatric medication never has the same effect on one person that is has on another. Though on the whole overused and overprescribed, the line between necessary and unnecessary unfortunately becomes very thin. Schizophrenia can worsen very quickly, possibly endangering the person as well as the people around them. The current “Dr. House” approach to psychiatric medication is simply to medicate, and if it works, than you have a diagnosis. In most cases psychotherapy can take the place of this, however, with regards to schizophrenia, the use of some mood stabilizing agent is recommended if there is even a slight chance.
  2. Other than medication, there are many things a schizophrenic can do in a regular environment to improve their situation. Psychotherapy is absolutely essential for the schizophrenic–it brings problems to the surface, and can stop the illness from becoming worse. It can also help with the detachment issue so common in schizophrenics. The other important thing outpatient is support groups. Very often people in similar situations can come together, and share experiences. This helps the patient feel less isolated–key in a schizophrenic.
Categories
Healthcare

Biomedical Ethics Case Briefs

CASE A: A mother comes in with a child complaining of flu-like symptoms. As a protocol to diagnosis, the physician needs to do an overall check up on the patient to confirm if the situation the boy is suffering from is really flu. Once the shirt of the child was removed, several bruises were noticed on his torso. The mother confirms that such marks came from what she called as cao gio, a supposedly herbal treatment that she confirms to be working especially for the tribe that she and her family belonged with. It is supposed to raise out bad blood thus improving circulation and healing. Nevertheless, this very treatment caused pain to the patient and practically worsened the symptom the child was already suffering from.

Categories
Management

Human Performance in PT system

Based on this case study, Visteon Automotive Systems has learned a valuable lesson in developing a quality Performance Technology system.  The fourth lesson learned by Visteon is perhaps the most critical because it outlines the necessity for an organization to have a practical and useful PT system to understand why people do what they do in order to better improve upon performance and processes. 

Categories
Finance

Freedom Communications, Inc: Family Enterprise or Liquidity?

Situation

Freedom Communication is a family media enterprise that is operated on very strong family cultures.  Raymond C. Hoiles (R.C.) a passionate voluntaryist and libertarian, founded the company.  The family ran company has been handed down from generation to generation to remain a family owned and operated company.  In 1982, the company sought outside help and the board appointed non-family executives as CEOs.  James Rosse was appointed from 1992-1999.  He supported the family business aspect and re-energized the family involvement.  He implemented the G3/G4 Family Issues Committee, or as referred to in 1998, the Family Council.  The company passing from family to non-family, back to family controls no relevance in the final outcome.