Legal Issues

Eighth Circuit Renews OSHA’s Authority to Issue Multi-Employer Citations in the Construction Industry

As outlined in this Morgan Lewis Labor and Employment Lawflash, dated March 2, 2009, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit decided in favor of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission’s original decision related to the case Secretary of Labor v. Summit Contractors, Inc. (No. 03-1622, 4/27/07). This favorable decision apparently renews and expands upon OSHA’s “authority to issue citations to general contractors for violations” of U.S. construction standards which according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) often includes standards concerning the proper use and application of building adhesives, cement, masonry, roofing materials, thermal insulation, and especially plywood and other types of lumber (Construction Standards, 2013).


Essential Aspects of Project Scheduling

The first condition of consideration mentioned in the article is the occurrence of unrealistic deadlines. This aspect, as discussed, makes it hard for organizers of projects to make considerable decisions especially related to establishing the schedules that the group needs to complete. Nevertheless, this is often times the reason why projects often end up becoming less efficient for completion. Having a more realistic process of scheduling deadlines often lessens the stresses that occur especially in times of completing projects with realistic goals as well.

World Affairs

NATO: Current Challenges


The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an intergovernmental military alliance formed following the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on April 4, 1949. The alliance was created as a result of the threat posed by the URSS and Germany, and it comprised several European states, namely Britain, Iceland, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and United States of America. According to Peter Duignan (2000), by 1954, Greece, Turkey and the Federal German Republic had also joined NATO, as ‘hostile allies’.  Members of the alliance agreed to offer each other protection, in the event of an attack, in the form of military assistance and other types of necessary interventions.