Warnings of World Health Organization are that chronic, non-communicable diseases are rapidly becoming a universal epidemic. Early life, bioaccumulated toxicants, and ongoing exposures are some of the causes ascribed to chronic diseases. However, genetics, nutrition, and lifestyle are also other causes of the illness. In 1996, statistics taken indicate that as the population ages the figure of the populace with chronic illness increases. To the Canadian government, this health burden has affected the work done by nurses and this direct impact is experienced by the community and institutions. In chronic diseases, there is a multidimensional experience because the entire family feels the pain of the illness. This research paper gives an etiology (causes and prevalence), considerations for treatment, which includes cultural and gender issues, and the contraindications for treatment of chronic illnesses. The focus will be on chronic diseases in Canada. Additionally, the paper will show how family members of this couple are affected by the chronic illness. Methodologies presented by scholars give evidence of how chronic illnesses result in multiple risk factors that interact in a multitude way and, which lead to susceptibility to negative outcomes of health.