- How did New York City make the most of its locational advantages?
New York developed the package shipping business and became a trade hub for package shipping. This was a seaport district and it was the leading port in America. Also, it had the Erie Canal which was also significant for New York as a natural port to move goods westward. This created opportunity for the industrial industry business along the canal. Merchants built businesses on the waterfront to manage all of the goods being importing and exported to and from New York, by ship.
- How did London secure its position as a leading global city?
London secured its position as leading global city as a result of transformation of the city. Orders in London shifted to market oriented grounds. For example energy, wealth and innovation established over trade. England system of mercantilism forced traders to make their way to London. The existence of Garden city movement which entailed breaking down London city into series (garden city) in this series, elements of live such as trade, education and industrial activities was found.
- After the fire of 1666 how was London rebuilt?
After the fire of 1666 in London, there was major rebuilding of the city. Italian roman new classical buildings were constructed. Wealthy were shifted out of the center, out of congested place to western parts where existed terrace /raw houses, this were built by specular developers. There were new fortunes made in the empire that could serve the wealthy.
- What were the problems of rapid urbanization in London?
Rapid urbanization in London gave rise to problems such as congestion and increased criminal cases (local disorder) there was increase rate of poverty. For example in the Eastern part of the city poor people were unemployed they face extreme competition of jobs, and lived in congested places. Hunger was another real problem
- How did reformers attempt to deal with those problems?
Reformers attempted to address issues of criminality. They believed that since majority of people were faced with hunger they were prone to engage in criminal acts. The reformers used conciliatory system (uniform occupied army) Police force was also used to supply watchmen who could act as watchdogs.
In 19th century professional semi military police were sent to enforce order in neighborhood of London. Their contributions included; making important decisions to be able to introduce more reasonable acts that had to face arrest charges which could help reduce crimes, they acted as constables in streets to report aspects of crimes.
- What was the panoptican and what role did it play in securing urban order?
Panoptican was change of prison system associated with pento from Germany he was a thinker and also a designer .The system aided in separating people (isolation) to separate wings so that they could be watched and locked in separate confined cells. Physical operation was efficient; people were watched from central center.
In 19th century there was use of mechanical high-tech system which aided in watching the suspects, they were also locked up and educated. The main aim was to provoke them so that they would not repeat the same or any offense.
- What did the garden city concept attempt to do to London?
The garden city concept attempted to break London into series (garden city) in this garden city, elements of live such as; trade, education, innovation and industries were found. It also attempted to reform and create garden cities owned by city and in this case the city was responsible for collection of rent; landlords were no more to collect rent.
- How did proponents of council (public) housing propose to reshape the city? What happened as a result of their planning?
Proponents of council had major propositions to reshape London city for example to build castle houses that could be subsidized, elevate congestion and built beautiful houses for middle class. Due to World War I and world word II enormous bomb explosion was experienced. We must say social disorder disrupted all process of planning.
- What was the character of postwar British planning and how did it reshape London?
Destruction of warfare by Germany army characterized postwar. Planners moved people to interior .Where there were mixture of shops and industries they was separated so that to remain distinct for example, separation of towers, industries around edges and park space. They also break the city with highways and put people in towers. It projected to create all series of greenbelt new spaces in the city.
- How has London been reshaped since the collapse of the social welfare stable?
London has been made marketing oriented center. For instance Eastern part of London serves international banking firms. The wealthy were brought to city centers to engage in business activities which have brought development and many houses renovated. The condition of working class has been improved whereby tower and good houses has been build and the working class moved to live in them. There is great concern of new suburban’s which are beautiful and attractive.
- What does Engels think has happened to the people in London?
Engels believes that people in London have been pressured for the need to acquire civilization and they are being used and treated badly. He sees self reservedness in them. “…Londoners have been forced to sacrifice best qualities of human nature, to bring to pass all marvels of civilization which crowd their city; that hundred powers which slumbered within them have remain inactive”. People’s efforts, struggles, and sacrifices are not recognized. If they are, it is at later stage. People have been suppressed and the few have continued to develop more fully and multiply through union with those in power.
- What does he mean by a “social war” in London?
Engels use the term “social war” to refer to situation when one is led by self interest hence he /she wants everything for him/herself. As one struggle to acquire everything for him/her he or she exploits others. The rich exploit the poor this has led to social class difference. People take each other only as useful objects. The rich stumbles over the poor and seize everything for themselves.
- What kind of conditions does he describe?
Engels describes condition of working class in London. He points out that though they are the pillar maintenance of society. They live in poor conditions, have no clothing and food. The working classes live in slums. These slums are arranged in great town of England, and they are the worst houses in towns generally in bad conditions, dirty and with no ventilation. Example of a slum in London is Nor is St.Giles. Along the streets there are numerous alleys of courts lived with houses that are in terrible condition for one to live in. The poor houses are located close to houses of the rich that look attractive.