Learning to read, write, and speak languages is a complicated, layered process that involves different part of the human brain and also different practices such as learning to understand that sounds that make up words, how sounds are represented by letters and can be constructed into words, and how these words can be spoken out loud, written on paper, and strung into words. Despite all these different functions and processes that are involved in the development of speech and other linguistic capabilities, there are some fundamental building blocks that are used to learn the basic functions of language. In speech, the fundamental process is phonology, which is a term that describes the “systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language”(Yule, 2010). It is phonology that allows us to create, speak, and distinguish words from one another. At the core of phonology are phonemes, which are the elemental bits of sound used to construct words and speech.
Since its emergence in 753 B.C., the Roman Empire went though many crises, and it was about to fell apart several times. Two of the most important crises took place in the 1st century BC, and four centuries later, in the 3rd century A.D. The first crisis began in 133 B.C.E., when tribune Tiberius Gracchus proposed the distribution of state-held land to poor citizen. It ended with the death of Dictator Julius Caesar, and of the republic itself. The second crises began in 235, when Emperor Augustus Severus was killed by his own troops and ended with the evolution of the form of government from principate to dominate, to different stages of the authoritarian monarchy. Though the crises had different causes and developed in different circumstances, there were certain similarities between them. The first similarity was the civil strife that represented one of the forms in which the crisis manifested itself. The second similarity consisted in the repeated killings of political leaders which only added to the instability. Finally, the crises could only be solved through a complete change of the form of government. These similarities will be discussed in the present paper.