Morgag Family Sociogram


The following sociogram depicts Morag’s family and surrounding support system:


Social Assessment in AIDS Nursing

Historically, and even in present times, the social assessment of a patient (that is, a thorough assessment of all aspects of the patient’s culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, education level,family life, lifestyle and values) has not always formed as important a part in the plan of care  as would be ideal.   As nursing develops a more holistic approach to patient care — one that encompasses all aspects of a patient: mental, physical, psychosocial and spiritual  – the social assessment is becoming more central to the formation of the patient’s plan of care. This paper reviews the multimedia presentation of  the “Social Assessment/Analysis Framework” and the article “Characterizing Social Support: Global and Specific Social Support Experiences for HIV-Infected Youth”, then discusses the general importance of social assessments for AIDS patients.


Evidence-Based Health Assessments

Identify and discuss key techniques and activities  that should be included in health assessments, considering how individual health assessments differ from community ones.

Studies conducted by Peter Tugwell (2006) and colleagues related to ‘Reduction of inequalities in health: assessing evidence-based tools’ identified five assessment tools which were valuable and should be included in health assessments, considering how individual health assessments differ from community ones. They include development of a database with systematic reviews showing influences pertaining to educational, legal, social, and health interventions. These strategies must be aimed at reducing unfair distribution of healthcare services and breaking accessibility barriers by adapting the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations model of assessment (Tugwell,, 2006).


Formation of the Office of Comprehensive Senior Services

In the last United States Census, it was estimated that there are some 41.1 million people living in this country who are 65 years or older, and that number is expected to reach 72 million by the year 2050; the fastest-growing segment of our population is among the very old, those 85 or older (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2013, p. 1). With those numbers alone, it is easy to see why services for the elderly are becoming more and more important, including services which help those who need round-the-clock care to find long-term care facilities.  An in an age of budget cuts and belt-tightening, it is also becoming more important to provide these services in as cost-effect a manner as possible.


Program evaluation

The implication of evaluation is the process applicable for critical examination of any program through collection as well as analysis of data concerning the activities, outcomes as well as characteristics of the program. The process is associated with some outstanding experiences which include the desire to improve the design of the program as well as its execution. The need for identification of areas that require further improvements are vital experiences during the process of program evaluation and this helps in efficient realization of set goals of the program (Thomson & Hoffman, 2003). The process of sharing achievable as well as less effective results promotes the advancement of environmental education.


Vendor Questions

What are the key events in the pre award phase from both the buyer and the seller           perspectives?

The pre award phase of the procurement contracts is the most crucial stage for the both the buyer and the supplier. The buyer’s aim in the contract is to obtain goods or services from the supplier of high quality at favorable terms that entails fair prices, discounts and prompt delivery of the products. The supplier on the other side is driven by urge to accomplish good deals that ensure prompt payment and minimization of complain from the buyer. The stage is characterized by an evaluation of both the buyer and the supplier. In most cases supplier evaluation forms the major part of the pre award process as most suppliers are never interested in evaluating their buyers, the suppliers in most cases are interested in making sales.


Responding to Crises in Public Health

Public health communication during the SARS crisis in Toronto, Canada, required that all individuals both professional and amateur become immediately knowledgeable and aware of the issues.  Within the SARS discussion video, the roundtable of medical professionals provided quite an array of communication avenues by which the entire community could become involved and aware in the outbreak.  First of all, professionals must be aware of the legislation.  The government communicates the appropriate resources and tasks by which medical professionals and public health officials must utilize to respond to such a crisis (University of North Carolina, 2009).  Legislation must not only be up-to-date but effectively communicated to the community for all persons to understand requirements and appropriate response efforts.  Furthermore, another key communication strategy is to provide education to local communities for citizens to understand the health risks involves and treatment methods necessary to respond to major health crises (University of North Carolina, 2009).  In areas such as Toronto, it is important to develop brochures and educational health materials in a multilingual format to ensure all persons are appropriately educated on the issue which was a highly effective technique during the SARS outbreak in Toronto.


Promoting Workforce Diversity at NYU Medical Center

Workforce diversity is crucial to the proper functioning of any public health institution. New York University Langone is a great example of a medical center that prides itself on its workforce diversity. New York University Langone is the leading public health institution in New York City, one of the most highly densely populated cities in the United States, and their excellent ability to train and implement a diverse team of workers is what makes them so reputable. “At NYU Langone Medical Center, diversity [is] a fundamental value, inherent in the Center’s mission throughout its long and groundbreaking history. Diversity at NYU Langone is not just a matter of statistics; it is a shared commitment to breaking down barriers and fostering excellence” (NYU Staff, 2010). Developing this type of diverse workplace and implementing a plan to create and maintain such a workplace is not as easy as it would seem. Many challenges come up when trying to create a diverse workforce and proper management combined with strong leadership can strongly help a healthcare institution create a more unified environment.


Workforce diversity

Q: What is the workforce diversity according to you?

A; Work force diversity is used to define in which people in an organization are the same in some aspect and different in other aspects as well. While the are other elements of the work force diversity that is protected by law, the most common work force similarities anddifferences include language skills of the employees, the education background, sexual orientation and even elements of personality(Grumbach, Munoz, Coffman, Rosenoff,  Gandara, & Sepulveda,2003).


Water Pool Equipments Bid

The contract chosen for this work is developing the Request for Proposal (RFP) to construct water pool equipments. The contract is aimed at constructing water pool equipment for the federal government and thus the need to obtain the most suitable contractor is deemed paramount for the success of the project. The project will be awarded to water and hydrologic companies that have a history of good dealings in the industry. Therefore as the procurement expert of the federal government it is important to ensure that the contractors understand all the requirements of the contract to deliver quality services.

List of bidders

This bid is open to all water and hydrological companies in America

The companies in Mississippi are also encouraged to apply as it has been identified as the actual location of the project.

All interested bidders who meet the requirements and regulations expected by the federal government are encouraged to apply for the bid.

Instructions to bidders

Bid No. 445533 construction of pool equipments in Mississippi

Experienced and potential bidders are invited to partake the construction of pool equipment for the federal government. This initiative is being pursued by the federal government in an attempt to ensure that it has modern pool equipments that are suitable for the purposes. The contract will be awarded to suitable contractors who posses the expected experience and competency. The contractors should therefore send a list of customers who they have worked with for proper assessment of before the bid can be awarded.

General description of the work

The contract will entail mapping the site where the pool equipment should be constructed, surveying, conducting soil test of the site, conducting hydrological tests and digging the pool equipment. The activities will extend to the construction of a water reservoir for the pool equipment to ensure constant supply of water for the pool. The contractor for the project is also expected to provide a clear and comprehensive time line that is necessary for the construction of the pool equipment. The pool must be constructed to adhere to the requirements set by the federal authority to ensure that the specifications for the equipment are met.

What be included in the Bid

The contractors applying for this bid are expected to comply with the general rules and regulations that monitor the operations and conduct of bidders. They are expected to be registered with the relevant body for instance; the bidders in this case must be registered members of the hydrological experts association. The bidders will also be required to submit the following copies of the following documents for the check up during the appraisal process:-

  • Certificate of registration by the water and hydrological authority
  • Tax compliance certificate
  • List of previous customers
  • List of prices and quotations for the bid
  • List of employees and their qualifications and experience
  • Environmental safety certificate
  • Certificate of insurance

The constructors are also required to submit pictures of previous jobs and if possible appraisal letters given by the relevant authorities.

The specifications of this project requires a bidder or a construction company that can properly construct a pool equipment of the following dimensions, 6 meters or 18 ft width, 10 meters or 30 ft length and 3 ft deep. The pool should be tiled and well covered to avoid water leakage. In the light of this, the contractors are therefore required to submit a list of preferred measurements that they deem applicable for the construction of the pool equipment. They should be able to shows conformity to the specifications set by the previous clients.

The bidder should also show compliance to environmental and safety requirements. It is also important that the contractors have enough financial capacity to handle the project. It is therefore deemed important that the contract provide the threshold of contracts that can the company can handle efficiently.

Schedule of Bid Period Activities

The documents from potential contractors should be submitted before 10.AM, 5th May 2013. Any bid document submitted later than the time specified will not be accepted. Any extension or changes in the deadline will be done through proper notification to all the contractors. The bid proposals will be dropped in the tender box that is located next to the federal procurement office. The proposals will be opened fourteen days after the date of receipt which is 19th May 2013, the proposals will be opened in the3 presence of all the contractors who are expected to attend and witness the process. The contractors are also allowed to send their representatives in case they cannot attend the function. The meeting will be attended by the federal bid evaluation committee and the head of the procurement department. The contractors will have the opportunity to know about the issues that pertain to the bid.

Location of work

The project for this work will be done in Mississippi, where the federal government intends to construct pool equipments for the servant quarters. The contractors are therefore expected to work out their transportation costs to the site as the road and rail transport are deemed efficient modes that can be used to ply the site. Contractors may also travel to the site to conduct an assessment of how they will conduct their operations while in the site.

Pre-Bid Meeting

The prior to the general meeting, a pre-bid meeting will be held on 9th May 2013 which will be done 10 days before the general meeting. The meeting shall commence at 10 AM and punctuality should be maintained to ensure that all the issues raised are discussed. The main aim of the meeting is to allow all the contractors to familiarize themselves with the team that they will work with. The meeting is also meant to accentuate the various terms set in the contract.

Contact for Inquiries

Any questions raised by the bidders will be addressed by the secretary to the procurement department. The secretary will be available in the federal procurement office to respond questions raised by the bidders and the process will be embraced the important elements of confidentiality and high level of professionalism. Clarifications will be provided to the bidders on issues that they will perceive vague or not properly clarified. Contact to the procurement secretary will be obtained at the reception desk where directions to the office will be given. The secretary can also be contacted on this toll free number + 862 67 784 982.

Pre- Award surveys

The bidders are expected to forward a description of the approaches to be used in handling the project; they are also expected to give. They should be to present various samples of designs that they have used to design previous pool equipments.

Bid evaluation approach

The rationale for evaluating this project will be based on quality, price and experience of the contractors. The evaluating committee will also look at the ability to develop within the expected time span. The pool equipments should be constructed properly and of high quality to ensure durability and reliability.

Ethical requirements

The relationship between the federal procurement department and the selected bidder will be guided by the provisions laid down in the procurement practice act. Cases of bribery or corruption will not be tolerated as this will interfere with the integrity of the contract. The contractor will not be expected to influence the decisions of the procurement officer in any way by offering gifts or bribes.

Responsibility for surety of bonds

The bonds to the contractor will be based on the exact value of the contract and the contractor should show the capacity and ability to meet the specified bonds for surety.

Letter of acknowledgement

The procurement department will be highly pleased to receive the information from the bidders who will be interested in participating in the bidding process. This will enable the procurement section to know the exact number of bidders that are ready to take part in the competitive process. The procurement department will also be able to make any changes should some of the bidders decline.




List Supply chain challenges for U. S. Government contractors

As government contractors, there are several challenges that result from the supply chain. Here, the US government suffers the following supply chain challenges. First, the state government sourcing and federal, multitude sourcing are driven by considerations of public policy. The disadvantage here it is that the above considerations are inconsistencies with regard to normal commercial practice. Therefore, it supplies chain challenges are imposed in a complicated manner. Secondly, if one fails to comply with the sourcing requirement of compliance from the contractors may raise claims falsely. Third, several acts buy domestic and state content requirements. The above is also a challenge for the contractors.

What is General Services Administration Schedule?

The above is award schedule that is multiple to contractors and it is administered by the service unit that is general. The above contract is the most widely used in the US government.

Importance of General Services Administration schedule

It is pertinent to note that the General Services Administration has benefits to the member government. Here it literally benefits the government that wishes to sell the federal government. In addition, the contract also benefits the federal customers who have the will to buy services and goods. Precisely, the General Services Administration enables the federal workers to hasten their purchase by simplifying the procurement procedure. Further the General Services Administration; usually carry out a thorough review of the capability of the company, commercial sales practices and past performance to quicken the purchasing of customers. It also awards numbers to the contract after a complete discount rate negotiation for the buyers of government and establishment of the list.

What is the Uniform Commercial Code?

This is a code that addresses the commercial law aspects comprehensively. It does not only address commercial law but is also observed as the most successful development of the law of America. However, it is worth to note that experts write the text and laws for commercial law of America department. The approving body is the uniformed state law of the commissioners’ national conference.

Why does the Uniform Commercial Code Exist?

Uniform Commercial Code, exists to cover up the running of the leases, sales, transfer of funds, collections and bank deposits, commercial paper which is a negotiable instrument. Further, it protects the rights of documents of titles, bulk transfers currently know as bulk sales to sample but a few.

How does the Uniform Commercial Code affect commerce?

Considerably, the uniform codes for commercial covers credit, sale of goods as well as bank transfers. Therefore, the codes specifically cover the contracts of buying services and goods for the operation of the business. Generally, the purpose of the Uniform Commercial Code is pertinent for any given organization since it is the core operator of the industrial arena for sale contracts and purchase agreements. Further, its main purpose is it clarifies, simplify as well as modernize the law governing the transactions for commercial purposes. The Uniform Commercial Code also permits the commercial transactions continually. Lastly, the codes above provide law consistency regarding the financing and selling of individual property in several jurisdictions.

What is the relationship between the Uniform Commercial Code and business ethics?

It is wise to heed that there are several aspects of business that are represented by the Uniform Commercial Code in the business realm. The diverse of business aspects are outlined by the above named codes. In addition, it also provides the detailed information to the sellers and buyers during goods transactions. On the other side, it is pertinent to heed that business usually takes the shape of actions that are legal and not ethical. That is why, Uniform Commercial Code is to some extend oppose to the ethical aspects of business.

What is the maximum amount for a forcible verbal agreement?

In most cases, the verbal or oral contracts are legally enforceable, but on the contrary, there is a fundamental problem when it comes to the above aspect. The maximum amount of verbal agreement ranges from 8 billion to 14 billion dollars depending on the agreement made.

How might commercial terms and conditions influence the outcome?

Conditional and commercial terms can affect the outcome in a business in several ways. However, the main aspect of the impact of the outcome is a positive trend. Since the business is protected by the commercial terms, then the outcome will be affected positively to the customer. Similarly, it can affect the customer negatively.

Analyze the potential role of the Uniform Commercial Code on the outcome

Pertinently, it is amazing to note that the uniform commercial code has the potential to influence the outcome. Some of the potentials are the preemption aspect where, the constitution bears the truth of the potential role of commercial code. If a party is not satisfied with the outline, then they are allowed to challenge the outcome as per the constitution. Other aspects are good faith, medication and contract formation just to mention but a few.

What role might be applicable for the government on regulations play on the outcome?

The government is another effective body of the business realm. The government determines the outcome of any given organization, in order to protect the customers. It follows that government can play a protective role on the side of the customers for, legal quality, check of the outcome. If the above is not enough, the government usually regulates the quantity of outcome for the consideration of the customers at large.

If the agreement is silent on a topic, how might the UCC protect each party?

There are times when the agreement becomes silent. Here, in such circumstances, it is the mandate of the Uniform Commercial Code to intervene and at the same time, it is required to protect each party. Therefore, if a party is not satisfied with the outline, then they are allowed to challenge the outcome as per the constitution. In addition, this is how the Uniform Commercial Code, protects the right of a party when there is a silent agreement.





Role of auditors

Q1 | Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) have a professional responsibility to their body and profession to adhere to an established code of ethics and behave in a legally responsible manner to their profession i.e. uphold professional accounting standards.  They are not the moral conscience of their clients but do have a duty to advise them on proper standards of accounting practice and taxation advice. Such advice e to work within the legal frameworks of the law and to point out any considered wrongdoings or misappropriations.  CPAs cannot govern their clients businesses but have more of a professional responsibility than that of a moral code.

CPAs are however expected to adhere to a professional code of ethics and breaches of such may result in disciplinary action by the professional body. In serious cases of misconduct, they can be removed from the professional register of Accountants. (AICPA, 2012).

S.51 of the Professional Code of Conduct puts this into context “These Principles of the Code of Professional Conduct of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants express the profession’s recognition of its responsibilities to the public, to clients, and to colleagues. They guide members in the performance of their professional responsibilities and express the basic tenets of ethical and professional conduct. The Principles call for an unswerving commitment to honorable behavior, even at the sacrifice of personal advantage.” (AICPA, 2012).


Economic Production Costs

Economic Production Costs

As far as fixed costs, variable costs, and total costs are concerned, we notice that fixed costs stay the same at all output levels while variable costs and total costs change. At any level, total costs can be found by adding the fixed costs and variable costs curve. The variable costs and total costs curve also have the same shape and the parallel distance between there is merely the fixed costs of $10 for the equipment.


Mini Case Assignment

  1. What is the real interest rate (risk free)? What is the nominal interest rate (risk free)? In what sense they differ and how these two are measured?                                                                                                                                      Real interest rate is the nominal interest rate minus the inflation rate. When used as a forward looking tool, the inflation rate must be estimated, meaning there might be discrepancies between real interest rates by different parties. The nominal interest rate does not take inflation into account. It is just the return on the principle over the principle per annum.
  2. Briefly explain the concepts of total risk and market risk.                                                                                        Market risk is the level of risk a portfolio or investment faces due to fluctuations in the market. These are the risks faced due to factors such as GDP growth or inflation. Total risk is the risk faced from market risk as well as the unique risk. Unique risk is the risk an investment faces due to its own situation, such as competitors or their own cost levels.
  3. Does the expected rate of return on a portfolio of shares depend on the percentage of portfolio invested in each share? What about the riskiness of the entire portfolio?

    The expected rate of return is dependent on the proportion of the portfolio dependent on each share. This is because one step in calculating the number is multiplying the expected rate of return for each type of share by its proportion. Riskiness is dependent on the proportion as well, as there is the unique risk faced by each investment, and the investments carrying more unique risk will bring more risk to the portfolio as their share of it increases.

  4. What is the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)? What are the assumptions underlying the model?                The CAPM is a model that can be used to determine the rate of return required to make a given investment worth adding to a larger portfolio. The model assumes large degrees of economic rationality and being able to act properly in one’s own self interest, including that they are economically self interested and have protected themselves from risk. They must also not be influential enough to influence prices, instead being price takers. Also, it assumes little outside influence, meaning no money is lost to tax and an unlimited borrowing ability at a certain rate.
  5. Financial Mgrs are more concerned with investment decisions relating to real assets, such as PP&E than with investment in financial assets, such as securities. Do you consider being any difference? How this statement does relates to real asset investment decisions especially corporate budgeting decisions?

    PPE is more analyzed due to the extra types of risk that therefore require more analysis.

  6. Why are discounted cash flow (time value of money) concepts so important to corporate financial analysis? Time value of money analysis must be used to account for the fact that money in the future is not as good as money in the present. This is due to the expected lowered purchasing power of money in the future. Also other investments making a return cannot be undertaken if the money is not available in the future. Time value of money therefore adjusts the concept of opportunity cost.
  7. What are the four steps in a DCF analysis?

    Step one is to project future cash flows. Next, compute the discount rate which is the weighted average cost of capital, which is the ratio between the total cost of equity and cost of debt. This is used to discount the projected cash flows, and then subtract the liabilities from that to get the value of an investment.

  8. How is the value of an asset determined? (hint: assume value is related on expected future cash flows)  Financial assets are evaluated by projecting the cash flows of the assets. The cash flows are then discounted until all numbers are in present value. These values are them summed to give an estimated value of the asset.
  9. What is the opportunity cost concept?                                                                                                                          Opportunity cost is the value of the things given up to pursue another action. In financial terms, opportunity cost is what was given up when one investment opportunity was passed up in favor of another.
  10. What’s a perfect capital market? How is the concept of perfect capital markets used in finance theory?

    A perfect capital market is one that does not feature transaction costs, risks of bankruptcy wiping out payments due to the asset holder, and perfect information for all actors. This is used as a way to determine the value of a company independent of its capital structure.

  11. What are the key features of a bond?                                                                                                                                      A bond is a loan that features the repayment of principle and interest at a certain schedule. The person holding the bond is a creditor and does not get equity in the party he has lent the money to.
  12. What is the Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH) and what are its three forms?                                                      The EMH states that investors cannot achieve a higher rate of return than the market rates without taking on a larger share of risk. Weak form efficiency states that prices will differ from equilibrium without allowing investors to profit from this due to the difficulty in predicting. Semi strong form states that prices adjust so quickly with new information that no one can profit by acting quickly with information. Finally, strong-form is the theory that share prices are always at equilibrium with open information, meaning there are no inefficiencies to find.
  13. What are the key features of a common share or stock and how differ from preferred stocks?                      Common stock is the standard understood form of stock where the paying of dividends can vary, leading to higher risk and higher potential for returns than preferred stock, where the terms include specific pre determined dividend payouts.
  14. What is meant by the term project’s NPV? What is the rationale behind the NPV method? According to NPV which projects should be accepted if they qualify as independent? Mutually exclusive?

    NPV is net present value, the total of present values amongst all entities. It calculates whether or not the investment is a worthy venture by comparing the present value of the investment’s cash flows to the purchase price that must be paid out immediately. Those with a higher present value than the cost, a positive net present value, should be undertaken. If two or more investments are mutually exclusive, the one with the highest NPV should be undertaken.

  15. What is capital budgeting and what does the term “Risk” mean in the context of capital budgeting process?Capital budgeting is a process that attempts to assess the worthiness of an investment in a piece of capital. A net present value is calculated and compared to a benchmark return for investments. Risk is the chance that the capital will have a lower return than expected and can be adjusted for with a higher discount rate when calculating the NPV.
  16. What are the three types of risk relevant to capital budgeting and how is each of these risk types measured and related to each other?