Categories
Criminal Justice

Airport Profiling

Introduction

Screening passengers at airports has emerged over the past decade as a complex practice that is required to ensure the safety of all passengers boarding both domestic and international flights. However, this practice is difficult to manage in many ways because it unnecessarily targets some passengers and not others on the basis of assumptions that are made regarding skin color, clothing, or other characteristics that may lead airport screeners to conduct excessive profiling techniques. With this process, some people are likely to be screened extensively without just cause, while others who might be suspect or from different questionable backgrounds are not screened using the same approach. This is a difficult situation to understand from the perspective of the typical passenger because the manner in which screening and profiling is conducted is not consistent, nor does it provide any greater means of safety and security for passengers. These considerations must be examined more closely to determine how to best move forward in the development of a more effective strategy for passenger profiling that includes potential terrorists.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Start Method

The START model of triage stands for Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment; it is the best approach that enables the EMS team to handle emergency problems with a lot of ease.  The model is the best answer for the EMS department when they are attending to victims of calamities such as earth quake, fire outbreaks or even terrorism.  The  approach has  shown positive results in many hospitals and health care units where it has been employed, for instance in California community based response  organizations have used the this model of triage in attending to victims of fire out breaks and earth quakes. In some countries the model has been used to help victims of train accidents (Turegano, 2008).

Categories
Criminal Justice

The CompStat Model: Overview and Assessment

In the early 1990s the rising crime rates and the spiraling costs of maintaining the police force in New York City prompted the leadership of the city’s police force to look for new alternatives to handling these issues. It was from the necessity caused by rising crime and rising costs that the CompStat model was born. As Henry (n.d.) describes it, the goals of the city’s leadership were to bring “crime and disorder to within manageable bounds and to refocus the NYPD on its primary mission of effectively ensuring public safety by reducing crime and violence.” The CompStat model, as it was first implemented, involved the use of statistical analysis and the development of more effective and accountable management to ensure that resources were used efficiently and that the police force focused on the city’s most pressing issues. Since 1994, when New York City began using the CompStat model, crime rates have dropped significantly; since then, police forces around the country have begun to use CompStat models and other similar approaches to address their own individual concerns. This paper will examine the basics of the CompState model and will also discuss its potential applicability to smaller agencies, with an eye towards a determination as to whether CompStat is as appropriate for implementation in smaller agencies as it is in those of larger metropolitan areas such as New York City.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Investigating Crime in the Present Time

Introduction

With the rise in crime in many parts of the world, and the cutting edge of technology, it is more possible than ever to bring justice to society. However, with increased privacy legislation and provisional jurisdiction, whether investigating crime is worthwhile is discussed herein.

Categories
Criminal Justice

The Broken Glass Theory and its Impact on Community Policing

It was 1969 when Wilson and Kelling first introduced the idea behind the Broken Glass theory as it is to be applied in community policing. This theory entails that the condition of thinking of a person is specifically affected by the thinking of another. Considerably, in the process of studying the effect of the said approach to understanding human behavior, it was observed that people respond to norms especially when they come to a point of deciding what to do on certain occasions presented to them. The thought that ‘no one cares’ lowers down the condition of thinking of a person towards what he does whether or not it is the right thing to do. Because of this, tolerance increases and people begin to view the law as a weak force that defines the community. Of course, individuals would settle for something that is more convenient for them give attention to. If for instance the law is to strict, but the norm is quite more convenient, then they would settle for the condition of following what the norms dictate to be considerably acceptable.

Categories
Criminal Justice

DNRC Scenario

  1. Identify and analyze potential legal claims of a private citizen seriously injured by the use of the LRAD’s if the decision is made by the Sub-Committee to purchase them after relying solely on the manufacturer’s claims and instructions as to their use. Assume there was insufficient time to test the device and train officers in their use before the Convention. Assume that the Sub-Committee concluded that the value of the LRAD’s use in crowd control outweighed any risk of harm caused by their use. Discuss the potential liability of the individual officer using the device, the potential liability of the officer’s supervisor (in this case, Duncan) and the potential liability of Chairperson Selerno. Finally, what is your recommendation to Chairperson Salerno regarding this issue?
Categories
Criminal Justice

Age Requirement in the law enforcement sector

The subject of age requirement in the law enforcement sector is very important to ensure that the entity employee’s individuals are old enough to partake the duties that are important for effective service delivery.  The sector should recruit people who are mature, intelligent, have good emotional suitability and reliability. The element of age enables the law enforcement sector to ensure that its recruitment process does not go against the provisions of the labors. It is however important to note that the exercise should not tolerate age discrimination where the various roles may specify given age limits (Peak, 2010).

Categories
Criminal Justice

What is Loyalty?

Loyalty can be a difficult term to define. The New Oxford American Dictionary defines loyalty as “the quality of being loyal to someone or something,” and loyal as “giving or showing firm and constant support or allegiance to a person or institution.” There are three main types of loyalty, institutional loyalty (loyalty to a county, monarch or government), personal loyalty (loyalty to a friend, family member or colleague), and idealistic loyalty (loyalty to a type of idea or a cause). Loyalty is crucial to the success in any person’s personal life, as well as their business life as well.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Needle Exchange Program

Introduction

Two dominant concerns of recent decades, the spread of the HIV virus and intravenous drug abuse, have generated various responses.  Efforts are made to combat both in social, scientific, and political arenas, as both concerns are perceived as going to issues of behavior modification; the drug addict, it is felt, requires physical and psychological treatment, while the spread of AIDS through either unprotected sex and/or syringes is also typically viewed as much as a social issue as a medical one.  Then, the two factors are inextricably linked, as the presence of HIV from sexual activity is often transmitted through needle sharing.  These realities in place, it was believed that providing clean needles would reduce risks of all infection, and some efforts have been directed accordingly.  Thus far, needle exchange programs demonstrate consistent levels of success in decreasing spreads of infection.  There remains, however, public and political opposition to such programs so strong, the perception that clean needles will encourage drug abuse and risky behavior is permitted to block governmental funding at state and federal levels.  Much of this opposition, as will be seen, is based on moral ideologies.  Nonetheless, and given the evidence thus far, needle exchange programs are a potently effective means of reducing disease, lowering fatality rates, and ultimately a responsibility the society must accept and expand if it is to serve the welfare of the people.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Crime Scene Investigation

Crime scene investigation is an important field in forensics. Probably the most important stage of crime scene investigation is the process of documentation. The aim of documentation is the creation of visual records that will be used and examined by various professionals and agencies in order to gain insight into the smallest details of the case. A central purpose behind the concept of documentation is to record the crime scene the way it was, thus facilitating the analysis of the crime scene in the future. Documentation includes note-taking, sketching, videos and photographs.  Note taking is using descriptive language and providing as much detail as possible to the scene of the crime. It is essential that investigators avoid opinions and assumptions and notes must remain objective.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Assessing Security Personnel Applicants

Hiring security personnel is a very crucial point for organizations especially in relation to the point of selection. Considerably, it could be realized that somehow this is the reason why administrators see to it that they are able to impose good and efficient steps in selecting the right individuals for the position. Among all these steps, psychological assessment is one specific process that administrators intend to apply seriously as it would define the measure of whether or not the individual they are interviewing and observing are actually able to handle the position basing on their attitude and their skills at the same time.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Preventing Shoplifting in Establishments

In the aim of monitoring shops for the possible occurrence of shop lifting incidents, it could be realized that it is important for an operator to pick one that would best fit his resources and the manner by which his business is being run. At present, there are six primary shoplifting prevention measures followed by several organizations. The said six approaches are to be discussed herein as follows:

Categories
Criminal Justice

Citizen Oversight

Introduction

It is an interesting dimension of modern culture that, as citizens consistently regard the police as a protective mainstay in a society increasingly prone to violence, those same citizens are making greater efforts to “police” these protectors.  There can be no rational disputing that the police, as with any other mode of employment, is subject to incompetence, internal abuses, or inappropriate hiring.  What renders law enforcement different is the inescapable fact that these civic employees wield significant authority, carry weapons, and are responsible for bringing order to the most disruptive and/or dangerous circumstances occurring within the society.  This being the case, growing numbers of citizens are organizing to oversee police activity in their communities, and specifically address complaints made regarding police conduct.   As will be examined in the following, these are organizations not entirely appreciated by the police, nor uniformly effective in achieving their goals.  Citizen oversight, while certainly a reasonable and commendable strategy designed to expand police management within the community, remains a practice both controversial and of uncertain benefit. Only the emphasis on third party supervision, as will be seen, may render the process the valuable instrument it is designed to be.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Criminal Law and Suicide

Since the dawn of civilization, various attempts have been made to prevent people from committing suicide or the taking of one’s own life. In ancient times, suicide was not viewed as a taboo act, nor was it illegal to end one’s life by choice. In ancient Egypt, suicide “was not a violation of either the spiritual or legal code” and was considered as a justifiable way to die if a person was facing a terminal illness with much pain and suffering (The History of Suicide, 2011). Perhaps the most famous historical person to openly debate whether suicide was justified or morally wrong was the Greek philosopher Socrates who “believed that human beings were the property of the Gods and did not have the right to take away something that did not belong to them,” being their own lives. However, after his famous trial, Socrates was forced to commit suicide by drinking hemlock (The History of Suicide, 2011).