African-American Studies

African American Slave Culture

Europe’s racist tendencies towards African’s during the Transatlantic Slave period stemmed from a lack of their ability to understand a culture so different from their own. A major anthropological consideration in studying racism is the concept of ethnocentricity; many societies’ asses other cultures using their own values and believe their own way of life to be superior. Before the Transatlantic Slave period, the Europeans had not had much interaction with the Africans; therefore the behaviors, beliefs, values, and language they observed greatly shocked them because they were so unfamiliar. As a result, Jordan claims in “First Impressions that the Europeans believed the Africans to be savage, heathenistic, beastly, and inferior. In order to fully understand racism in a historical context, it is necessary to interpret the reasoning behind Europe’s feelings of inferiority towards the African community.


New England Literature & Culture


            A Model of Christian Charity by John Winthrop (1630). One of the major arguments of Winthrop is to create a new society in America. Based on religious ethical concerns and rules, he lays down the foundation of the society that acts as an example of good Christianity. The use of the word “charity” in the script is taken as it is used in the King James Bible; meaning “love” or “Christian love”. Therefore, the idea of Christian love is based on following the example of Jesus. Helping people who are unable to help themselves is one of the main traits of Jesus, and Winthrop believes that by implementing this view and putting it into action in the New England society, emphasizing the ethical views if the puritan society in America. By stating that “For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a   by-word through the world.” (Winthrop)


Social institutions in Canada

Chapter 11: Political and Economic System

Canada’s political system is embedded in democracy linking a federal system of parliamentary government with these strong democratic traditions. Importantly, this country is considered a constitutional monarchy. The monarch functions as the head of state and dispenses authority. Politically, it is designed within the confines of a multi-party system since many of its legislative practices were derived from the conventions written under the precedents established by Great Britain’s Westminster Parliament (Bickerton, 2009).


Dent’s definition of culture in his study of Euro Rail

Accounting is a common practice for most organizations. Systems of hierarchical accountability, planning and budgeting activities, budgetary controls and remuneration arrangements, and performance appraisal procedures rely on accounting practices in more or lesser extent. Accounting is therefore, likely to be implicated in the cultural systems of organizations (Dent 442). Culture has many definitions depending on the circumstance with which they are applied. Culture is ordered clusters of significance, shared web of meaning through which individuals learn to appreciate the meaning of experience as guiding by action (Dent 444). Culture is produced as well as reproduced through interaction and action.


New England Literature and Culture

The Crucible

The New England of Arthur Miller’s The Crucible is a landscape both savage and mythic.  Miller essentially uses New England as a stage to reveal how normal passions and behaviors can become corrupted or grossly misjudged in an environment of fear.  In Act One,  Abigail Williams

speaks in a way revealing the extraordinary level of tensions in this atmosphere: “We danced…And that is all.  And mark this. Let either of you breathe a word, or the edge of a word, about the other things, and I will come to you in the black of some terrible night and I will bring a pointy reckoning that will shudder you. And you know I can do it; I saw Indians smash my dear parents’ heads on the pillow next to mine, and I have seen some reddish work done at night, and I can make you wish you had never seen the sun go down!”


Cross Cultural Study of Dante’s Divine Comedy Representations In Different Cultures


This is a case printed in the early 14th century by an Italian politician called Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy is the literary reaction by Dante Alighieri to the bitterly contested politics of feudal Florence. Florence was the richest of states in the Italian if not Europe at the time. The region was under two divisions, the black people and the white people. The black people supported the pope while the white people were against the popes verdicts. The then pope, Boniface VII went ahead and schemed with the black people in Florence to seize power over the region in a military coup. This led to the exiling of Dante and by writing his Divine Comedy; he expresses his hatred of the pope and the entire system. The Divine Comedy is Dante’s provocative fictional account of himself having to travel through the three sets of divine realms (Alighieri, 145). They are hell, Purgatory and finally Heaven. He shows in his passage on how tribulations and misinterpretations occur, eliminating his existence in space. As expected, Dante puts his enemies in Hell. He calls this the inferno since it is dense with the corrupt politicians of Florentine. Dante sees them as sinners, thus their position in Hell. The Divine Comedy is not only a means of payback, but it is also the first work of italic poetry, which is not in Latin. The divine Comedy in its original version was in the vernacular, the language of the common people, the language used by the people of Florentine. Date in this perspective goes a long way into stabilizing the Italian language, fomenting new vocabularies, and finally paving the way for a majority of works Witten in the vernacular language (Alighieri 222). He is indeed a lofty Kahuna in the world of poets. His works brought about the influence in the works of Botticelli, William Blake, and Gustav Dore.


Culture and Identity Interview


Ethnographic research strives to adapt a viewpoint on its subject matter that is faithful to that which is being studied. In other words, the ethnographer under ideal conditions tries to let the subject speak for him or herself. Since ethnography is dealing with human beings, there is an ethical aspect to ethnography that is underscored by a basic humanity, whereby the ethnographer tries to suspend his or her prejudice, and let the narrative of the ethnographic topic in question develop on its own accord. In this regard, the interview can be viewed as an ideal form of ethnography, since one is trying to let the interviewee express his or her sentiments on the questions asked. This preamble helps clarify what the basic guidelines were that framed the following interview with a 21 year old American of Hmong ancestry. In short, the interview sought to let this narrative of an individual existing at the intersection of Hmong and American culture unfold at its own tempo and volition.