Psychobiological Roots of Early Attachment

Genetic predisposition of behavior can reveal possible behavioral, physiological, and neural traits based purely on the biobehavioral systems of the body.  However, attachment bonding seems to also provide a significant involvement towards experimental learning and association.  Pertaining to Sullivan’s experiment on the aversive and positive effects of the pups’ reactions to the neutral odor of their own mother, shows an important point-in-case with children in abusive families (Sullivan, Hofer, & Brake, 1986, p. 87).  The classic argument of nature versus nurture also plays a part in the factors of the bond between mother and child. For example, the warmth of the mother as well as her milk plays a huge role in determining the pup’s heart rate and behavior.  If the mother was unhealthy to begin with and didn’t provide the necessary warmth and nutrients in the milk, the offspring is less likely to show an active interaction or hyper-reactivity.  The change and differences in temperature and milk supply also affects the pup’s rapid eye movement sleep cycle which can bring about possible averse affects in the pup’s reactions towards their environment and attachment with their mother (Parent et al., 2005, p. 87).