Categories
Management

Ethics Education and Theoretical Research Involving College Students

Introduction

College students should learn that theory is a basic fundamental element of research. The definition of the term theory and what it constitutes is debated by the world’s researchers (Gelso, 2006; Harlow, 2009; Henderikus, 2007).Most researchers and theorists use typologies and classifications systems in describing the types of theories, in the context of purpose, boundaries, functions, and goals (Gay & Weaver, 2011).  Gelso (2006) defined a theory using eight constructs.  These included: Descriptive ability, heuristic value, explanatory power, integration, clarity, testability, parsimony, comprehensiveness, and delimitation.  These eight constructs are based on the fact that theory produces research and research generates and refines theory (Gelso, 2006).  Harlow (2009) suggested that theory lacks a fixed and universal meaning although considering the competing research paradigms, theory might mean a determining law, or a system of laws according to the natural sciences.  He also argued that theory can mean a construct or set of constructs for ordering and enhancing the understanding of phenomena. Therefore, this section will focus on how students can utilize research and theory and how they are related.  First, students should be aware of the following reasons that show the importance of theory in research; these will provide the baseline for this study;

Categories
Ethics

When Protection Steps Beyond Its Boundaries

It is extraordinary to see how smoking has evolved in the culture into a barometer of personal freedoms, and consequently a measurement of how far a society may go in dictating behavior.  The trajectory is striking; only decades earlier, smoking was unquestioned as a personal preference and as something of a marker of adulthood.  Today, it is not only socially ostracized, it is illegal in a wide variety of public venues, and this turnaround appears to have been generated by the mounting evidence of smoking’s harmful effects.  More importantly, the issue of secondhand smoke has been allowed to expand the thinking from a potentially unwarranted interference with a person’s choice to a societal norm.  If some always found cigarette smoke offensive, they are now equipped with the data supporting that it is dangerous to them.  In short order, then, the practice has been vastly curtailed, with the ancillary cultural disapproval attached to it.  It very much seems today that smoking is, some resistance notwithstanding, gradually being eliminated from the culture entirely.

Categories
Criminal Justice

What is Loyalty?

Loyalty can be a difficult term to define. The New Oxford American Dictionary defines loyalty as “the quality of being loyal to someone or something,” and loyal as “giving or showing firm and constant support or allegiance to a person or institution.” There are three main types of loyalty, institutional loyalty (loyalty to a county, monarch or government), personal loyalty (loyalty to a friend, family member or colleague), and idealistic loyalty (loyalty to a type of idea or a cause). Loyalty is crucial to the success in any person’s personal life, as well as their business life as well.

Categories
Ethics

An Ethical Dilemma from Aristotelian and Kantian Perpsectives

The ethical scenario “The Case of the Inquiring Murderer” presents a dilemma, in which a friend seeks a place of hiding in the home of whom the dilemma is being presented, because he or she is being sought by a murderer. This hiding place is granted: nevertheless, the murderer that the friend identifies now comes to your door, asking for the location of the friend in question. The ethical question is as follows: what should be done in this case, in other words, how should one answer the requests of the murderer?

Categories
Ethics

Ayn Rand and the Concept of ‘Objectivism’

Ayn Rand was a Russian-American novelist who wrote such novels as Atlas Shrugged and The Fountainhead, was famous for her philosophical views on culture and society. Rand was the founder of the philosophical belief of objectivist ethics- a concept based on the notion that one’s highest moral purpose is the achievement of one’s own happiness. Rand questioned the standard concepts of selfishness and based one’s own morality on a code of values developed by one’s own self. According to Rand, “it is only the concept of ‘Life’ that makes the concept of ‘Value’ possible,” and, “the fact that a living entity is, determines what it ought to do” (Rand, 1990). Rand’s views on moral ethics spread into her views on value-judgements and were similar to those of anarcho-capitalism.

Categories
Ethics

Organization Change: Theory and Practice

Chapter one of Burke’s “Organization Change: Theory and Practice”, sources for understanding organizational change are covered, including . In chapter two of Burke’s “Organization Change: Theory and Practice”, the author covers how organizations should rethink change within their own environment. The first two chapters both deal with the concept of change within an organization, combined with how to deal with such changes and how they may occur in any given company or organization.

Categories
Ethics

Ethical Issue in Business: A Philosophical Approach

Business Ethics is a field that deals with the examination and analysis of ethical and moral principles as well as the conduct of both individuals and the corporation alike. A discussion of moral reasoning is tackled in the book Ethical Issues in Business: A Philosophical Approach. In the first chapter of the book, general issues surrounding Business Ethics is discussed along with controversies that may arise. According to the authors, Ethics is the study of rightness and goodness for human beings. Meanwhile, business ethics requires analysis and evaluation of current practices within a company. The authors state that analysis of the situation should go beyond facts and instead, should examine the principles involved and what needs to be done. According to the book, there are two traditional issues involved with ethics, namely: Ethical relativism and truth telling. Ethical relativism questions universal values as it presumes that individuals’ reasoning may vary according to their culture, religion, upbringing and educational attainment. On the other hand, truth telling is a very important aspect of communication and the truth, is in fact, required in order for society to advance and gain new discoveries and knowledge.

Categories
Business

Ethics in Starbucks

Since its inception in 1971, Starbucks has grown to be a global giant in the coffee industry. Currently Starbucks operates in many countries in the world. This expansion strategy even in its local market has come under criticisms of unethical practices by the company such as overpricing its products and pushing out smaller competitors by overpaying property leases in order to stifle competition. According to the Kantian, virtue ethics, and utilitarian theories, the company is behaving in an unethical manner. This is because it focuses on profitability alone without considering the welfare of its stakeholders. To avoid these ethical concerns, the company should ensure fair pricing by conducting a thorough market research and pay leases that are equivalent to the market value.

Categories
Healthcare

Ethics In Healthcare

Introduction

An increasing number of situations within the healthcare industry involve the need for ethical decision making nowadays. Thus, it becomes essential for healthcare providers to understand the meaning of ethics and to facilitate the delivery of professional and skilled care. Ethics is becoming increasingly relevant to the day to day practices of nurses, in particular, as they are the frontline in the delivery of patient care. This paper attempts to understand the role of Ethics in the field of nursing. An interview was conducted with a Director of Nursing In a skilled nursing facility specializing in long term care to gain their perspective about the topic. The interviewee was selected because of the wealth of her experience in the field and due to the fact that this position has a significant influence on the development and implementation of policies and procedures within the organization. Furthermore, the interviewee is also involved in resolving complex issues involving patients and health care workers within the organization. Consequently, decisions made will shape the culture of the organization and the patterns of thought and actions of its workers.

Categories
Ethics

Questions Re: Omelas

Is what Omelas does “right” or “wrong”? Why? Omelas is wrong because the child is not immortal. It will die and will have to be replaced, dooming yet another child to the same fate. The town accepts the situation with no moral/philosophical justification. This raises the question of the reality of the power that protects Omelas in exchange for the child’s fate. It must be either governmental or supernatural. It seems too omniscient to be the former, so it must be the latter. If so, is the power actually real? If not, then Omelas is guilty of collective cowardism — they are afraid to find out the truth. If it is real, the force would surely be an awesomely powerful one, and so Omelas would have the moral right to accept what was handed to them. But Omelas is still wrong because it refuses to collectively own up to is agreement. It could condemn itself publically while accepting the terms. But it refuses to and chooses a happiness of the damned.

Categories
Ethics

Policy Ethics

With any set of rules or regulations there are the proponents and opponents representing the various and often conflicting stances on certain subject matter (Barsky 2009).  In this case there is a policy regarding employee’s responsibilities regarding attendance, conflicts of interests, intellectual property, privacy, confidentiality, dress code and other pertinent rules and regulations regarding the actions and conduct that is expected from the employees.  These guidelines outline the approved and expected behavior of all employees of the company at all times.  This outline of behavior and actions provide a foundation to establish good conduct and level set expectations for all employees.  In order to maintain good order and discipline within an organization it is a requirement to establish a baseline of conduct among employees.  This policy outlines the code of conduct that is necessary to maintain that good order and discipline while also providing the ability to maintain flexibility for leadership to make the appropriate modifications and adjustments to the policy to maintain flexibility and the ability to adapt and respond to specific situations.  This flexibility in the maintenance and enforcement of the policy allows the leadership to better serve their contingency and be not only effective but efficient in their leadership and business implementation.

Categories
Ethics

Identity and Sex

Introduction

The differences between males and females are dramatic in some ways and less challenging in others. It is likely that most people possess some degree of confusion regarding gender and the capacity of individuals to conduct their lives according to a predetermined plan. Gender is very closely aligned with identity, but at the same time, identity is also characterized by more than genetic makeup and gender assignments. Individual identity is instrumental in shaping a person, but at the same time, there are considerable obstacles that all human beings face on a regular basis that impact their lives in different ways and lead to specific challenges in determining how to live life to the fullest without fear and apprehension. From a feminist perspective, there is a unique approach to consider that plays an important role in exploring the freedom of liberation while also exploring one’s identity in a specific manner. The following discussion will address Judith Butler’s novel “Gender Trouble” and specifically, the section entitled “Identity, Sex, and the Metaphysics of Substance” in order to identify specific areas of the feminist argument that are likely to be effective in supporting the female perspective and the revelations associated with identity in different ways as related to sex and other variables that are likely to influence outcomes for these people.  The primary objective to consider is that gender identity is not always clear, concise, and uniform for all persons; therefore, it must be explored more deeply to encourage individuals to be true to themselves and to embrace their identities and differences.

Categories
Healthcare

Ethics and Communication in Do Not Resuscitate Orders

Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders, simply put, instruct medical personnel not to initiate CPR upon the patient in case of a cardiac arrest (New York State Department of Health, 2012, p. 1), and they remain a subject of controversy in the medical profession. In their paper on “Ethics and Communication in Do Not Resuscitate Orders”, Dr. Tom Tomlinson and Dr. Howard Brody give a thoughtful look at this very emotional issue.  This paper will discuss arguments around the possibility of no medical benefits of CPR, the possibility of poor quality of life after CPR and the possibility of poor quality of life before CPR; it will conclude with a discussion on what recommendations Dr. Tomlinson and Brody make for dealing with these orders.

Categories
Ethics

Baby Business

The baby business is an ethical chimera, governed on the one hand by the ethics and practices of business, at least to some degree, and yet brought into being to serve the decidedly non-commercial end of creating families (Spar x-5). The baby business is the business of fertility, offering millions of desperate people everything from haploid gametes to adoptions to the ability to correct congenital defects either in utero, or even before implantation (x-xiii). This is the commercial aspect of the business, and it is this that critics find so troubling: after all, the ‘products’ of this business are human beings, whether created in the course of the business (as with IVF) or given a change in status as a result of it (as with adoption) (x-xiv).