Categories
Political Science

Tuberculosis Control Laws and Policies in the United States

INTRODUCTION

As Tuberculosis (TB) kills more than 1.8 million people worldwide each year (Lantos-Hyde 3). This, combined with the high rate of US immigration from high burden countries there is a need for policies to control the spread of the disease. Funding for prevention and treatment has been increased, however, there are different opinions about the effectiveness of the government’s approach. The below policy analysis is designed to provide an overview of the US laws, policies and guidelines and their potential benefits.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Age Requirement in the law enforcement sector

The subject of age requirement in the law enforcement sector is very important to ensure that the entity employee’s individuals are old enough to partake the duties that are important for effective service delivery.  The sector should recruit people who are mature, intelligent, have good emotional suitability and reliability. The element of age enables the law enforcement sector to ensure that its recruitment process does not go against the provisions of the labors. It is however important to note that the exercise should not tolerate age discrimination where the various roles may specify given age limits (Peak, 2010).

Categories
Law

Terrorism

The term terrorism designates violent acts that are aimed instilling fear on people. The practice is usually perpetrated by the individuals who differ on grounds of political ideologies, religion or as an attempt to propagate insecurity in the society. The element also traverses issues that comprises of war and violence on innocent people or groups of the people in the society. Terrorism underpins its causes from issues that may be personal to certain individuals or may extend to groups and organizations that have share common thoughts and ideologies on certain issues in the society.  Practices such as associating with terrorists or assisting them  in any way especially in material form can also be in itself be regarded as terrorism. Political organizations employ the act of terrorism to propagate their views in the public domain. Members of a terrorist organization use threats and violence to instill fear among people to ensure their views or needs are accommodated (William, 2009).

Categories
Legal Issues

Health and the Law

As cigarette smoking increasingly becomes legislated and criminalized, it seems to me the nation is moving in a wholly inappropriate direction.  If there was a single lesson to be learned by the great failure of Prohibition in the early 20th century, it is that morality, or choices people make regarding substances, may not be successfully legislated.  The billions spent annually in the “drug war” equally attest to this reality.  It is one thing for a society to generally disapprove of kinds of conduct in which people use control substances.  A culture will inevitably come to conclusions regarding the rightness of such behavior, and this is a natural process.  At the same time, the imposition of these views carrying into the law and actually penalizing others is both unconscionable and unreasonable.  The former is supported by the fact that criminalizing such conduct violates the rights of the individual, who has the freedom to pursue a course potentially dangerous to their health; the lack of reason is in play because, as history has repeatedly shown, such criminalization merely enables black markets and generates other kinds of crime, and usually of more severe natures.

Categories
Law

Maryland v. King

In the Supreme Court case of Maryland v. King, Justice John Roberts granted the state of Maryland a stay–temporarily upholding the State of Maryland’s ruling that DNA collected during an arrest, even without a felony conviction is not a Fourth Amendment violation of unwarranted search and seizure.

Categories
Criminal Justice

Organization Theory, Observations and Law

The Organizational Turn in International Organization Theory

Organization Theory (OT) and International Organization (IO) are the two organizational theories that have been widely used to study organization’s phenomena. There are however some assumptions that are made on their autonomy and agency.  This paper argues that OT derives the corporate ontology of an organization. This is assumed that the agency and autonomy of the organization is posed by Organization Theory (Knudsen & Tsoukas, 2005).  This is seen to serve better the OT state –centric ontology.  Scholars have been forced to debate between IO and IO autonomy and agency in terms of their methodological and epistemological terms which. This paper seeks to illustrate and explain the similarities and contrasts that exist between OT and IO. Their conceptions of organizations are also discussed in the paper.  Reviews of previous scholarly articles on IO are also discussed with its movement towards IOs corporate ontology is also discussed. The paper finally relates the existing methodologies that exist between the IO and the various OT analyses in different levels (Knudsen & Tsoukas, 2005).

Categories
Political Science

Establishment Clause of the First Amendment

There are also exceptions to the clauses regarding freedom of religion that both parties have taken note of.  Freedom of religion is also limited in important areas.  When the practice of a person’s religious beliefs has the potential to cause harm to another or an animal, the freedom to practice this religion is nullified.  Religious beliefs that require blood sacrifices or prevent parents from seeking proper medical care for sick children can cause the practitioner to suffer legal ramifications in association with such practices.  These exceptions to the rule of freedom of religion are agreed upon by members of both political parties.  Since animals and children are not able to defend their own rights, it is the duty of our judicial system to protect them.

Categories
Philosophy

Should immigration laws be reformed?

According to the U.S. Immigration Reform website, the United States has long been the destination for immigrants who wish to find a more self-fulfilling life and to escape from persecution in their homelands. However, due to the complexity of immigration laws that are currently in force in the United States, immigrants find it difficult to adhere to the rules and regulations set up by the U.S. Department of Immigration and Naturalization (Immigration Reform).

Categories
Law

Schizophrenia in the Court Room

Should Schizophrenia Patients be allowed to Waive Counsel & Represent Themself in Court?

Identification of the Problem

The right to self-representation is supposed to be guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment, but, in cases where the mental competency of the defendant is in question, the legitimacy of the certiorari petition is also called into question.  When defendant Ahmad Edwards was charged with attempted murder, battery with a deadly weapon, criminal recklessness, and theft in 1999, the trial court declared him incompetent to stand trial after two impartial psychiatrists found him to be schizophrenic (Ahmad Edwards v. State of Indiana).  However, when the defendant was found to be of sound enough mind to stand trial, he was continually denied his constitutional right to self-representation on the grounds that he was not mentally capable of providing himself the best defense.  The denial of the right to self-representation is an issue amongst schizophrenic or mentally challenged individuals since it is also the duty of the court to ensure that the accused is afforded a fair trial that includes the sufficient legal representation.  This discourse will present the argument that anyone found to be of sound enough mind to stand trial, under the statutes that follow this determination, should also be allowed to argue their own case should they so choose.

Categories
Law

The case brief of Nix v. Williams.

Case Facts:

Mr. Williams was arrested after being the subject of an investigation into the disappearance of a ten-year-old girl in Des Moines, Iowa. Being named as the lead suspect in an investigation already taking place, Williams was arrested in Davenport, Iowa. Having been Mirandized upon arrest, and having evoked his right to an attorney. His legal counsel was informed he would be transferred back to Des Moines without questioning him. During the transfer of Williams, in which a large-scale search was already in process for the girl, the officer initiating the transfer questioned the subject as to the location of the girls body to avail. Williams told the officer the location of the girls body, and thus incriminating himself while being questioned without his attorney.

Categories
Law

The law of torts

A tort is a law facet which deals with civil wrong doings. The branch of law is divided into three main sub branches such as negligent torts, strict liability torts and intentional torts. Torts may not cause physical damage but have resultant impact on ones reputation and dignity in the society or degrade the quality of live that an individual lives in the society. The case covered in this excerpt deals with intentional tort which was covered in New York Times recently. The case took place in Italy where a prison officer sexually harassed a female inmate who facing murder charges.

Categories
Law

Social Media

Abstract

Social media has become a very important tool when designing and implementing strategic and tactical marketing plans.  The use of social media to present purchasing opportunities to target audiences is ever increasing as many different companies are striving for opportunities to be in front of consumers.  Constant and instantaneous information flow has become available at the touch of a button with the use of wireless communication and increased abilities and functionalities of smart phones.  Access to Facebook, Twitter and a plethora of other social media outlets is as easy as flicking a finger across the screen of a smartphone and marketing managers want their products to be seen just as easy.  With the combination of the product teams and social media outlets there is a rare combination of tailored product marketing and social media exposure by both companies.  The user experience of both the product and social media tool is a shared responsibility among both parties.  The boundaries of the access are not only bound by the service areas of the information but also cross boundaries in the legal sense as well.  These types of exposure are shared by both parties and both must follow the state and federal regulations when purchases and consumer interactions take place.

Categories
Criminal Justice

How do the responses of correctional staff to the gangs contrast or compare to those of law enforcement?

Gangs are known to carry on criminal activity through force, terrorization, and they threaten violence and total disruption of an institution. Operating and secrecy, gangs’ potential for destructive activity are recognized by most correctional officials. Correctional officials feel there are some effective plans to win this war; these events are not being widely put into practice. In the meantime, gangs are utilizing weaknesses in the correctional system, including abusing legislative provisions intended to protect religious rights. Police organizations work together with correctional officers in bring calm to the community by creating specialized units that address specific issues of law enforcement like hate crimes, repeat offences, and domestic violence (Winterdyk & Ruddell, 2010).

Categories
Psychology

Research Paper-Biases

In this document two articles will be referenced and essential elements pertaining to the biases they contain discussed fully.  Biases are considered systemic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment’ ( Baron, 2007). There are a number of biases categorized as social; decision-making, belief and behavioral and memory errors. Theoretically, biases are cognitive confrontational adaptations (Baron, 2007).

Article 1:- Why smart people are stupid

Bias Identified: — Decision making, belief and behavioral bias (Neglect for probability)