3.0: Cons

When planning organizational change there are certain ways that can make the process easier. Diagnostic tools are used in gauging the potential problems, and identifying the strengths and weaknesses within an organization. “A meaningful diagnostic effort must be based on a theory or model of organizational functioning. This makes action research possible as it facilitates problem identification, which is essential to organization development.” (Preziosi, n.d) There are several pros and advantages of using interviews as a diagnostic tool, and on the side there is equal amount of cons and disadvantages to consider.


Factor analysis models


This paper looked at the topic of factorial analysis in two settings: 1) An statistical analysis of an existing data sex (Auto Loan.Xls) to understand potential factors in the sales of new cars.  The statistical analysis found that three factors were useful in understanding predictors for a new car: 1) factors related to price; 2) factors related to fuel and engine characteristics; 3) wheelbase and miles per gallon (negatively correlated).

In addition three academic papers were examined for their treatment of factor analysis in different fields: 1) business; 2) nursing; 3) public health.  Overall, it was shown that factor analysis can play a key role in understanding and separating correlating factors among different variables.



  1. Introduction

This paper will examine the concept of factor analysis in statistical analysis.  Factor analysis is typically used when researchers are trying to understand what (and how many) potential variables compose a data set.



Over the course of this study, a series of tests will be performed on African American women both living with and without diabetes.  The sample will include roughly three hundred women depending on the baseline effect (Franz, 2003).  Should results appear to be skewed, the sample size will be adjusted accordingly to provide a better overall sample of intervention methodologies.  The study will be based on two different types of qualitative and quantitative results.


Responding to Crises in Public Health

Public health communication during the SARS crisis in Toronto, Canada, required that all individuals both professional and amateur become immediately knowledgeable and aware of the issues.  Within the SARS discussion video, the roundtable of medical professionals provided quite an array of communication avenues by which the entire community could become involved and aware in the outbreak.  First of all, professionals must be aware of the legislation.  The government communicates the appropriate resources and tasks by which medical professionals and public health officials must utilize to respond to such a crisis (University of North Carolina, 2009).  Legislation must not only be up-to-date but effectively communicated to the community for all persons to understand requirements and appropriate response efforts.  Furthermore, another key communication strategy is to provide education to local communities for citizens to understand the health risks involves and treatment methods necessary to respond to major health crises (University of North Carolina, 2009).  In areas such as Toronto, it is important to develop brochures and educational health materials in a multilingual format to ensure all persons are appropriately educated on the issue which was a highly effective technique during the SARS outbreak in Toronto.


Promoting Workforce Diversity at NYU Medical Center

Workforce diversity is crucial to the proper functioning of any public health institution. New York University Langone is a great example of a medical center that prides itself on its workforce diversity. New York University Langone is the leading public health institution in New York City, one of the most highly densely populated cities in the United States, and their excellent ability to train and implement a diverse team of workers is what makes them so reputable. “At NYU Langone Medical Center, diversity [is] a fundamental value, inherent in the Center’s mission throughout its long and groundbreaking history. Diversity at NYU Langone is not just a matter of statistics; it is a shared commitment to breaking down barriers and fostering excellence” (NYU Staff, 2010). Developing this type of diverse workplace and implementing a plan to create and maintain such a workplace is not as easy as it would seem. Many challenges come up when trying to create a diverse workforce and proper management combined with strong leadership can strongly help a healthcare institution create a more unified environment.


Workforce diversity

Q: What is the workforce diversity according to you?

A; Work force diversity is used to define in which people in an organization are the same in some aspect and different in other aspects as well. While the are other elements of the work force diversity that is protected by law, the most common work force similarities anddifferences include language skills of the employees, the education background, sexual orientation and even elements of personality(Grumbach, Munoz, Coffman, Rosenoff,  Gandara, & Sepulveda,2003).


Health Care Discussion

Implementing change in virtually any organizational context is necessary to ensure the continued improvement of products and/or services as new information becomes available. The health care industry is especially susceptible to such changes, as the wellbeing of patients will be compromised if any system within an organization fails to adapt to emerging issues. In general, the change process will result in the reallocation of resources and requires a significant number of steps regardless of the scope of the modifications being at the level of unit, department, or the whole organization. The inherent complexity of any process of change is based on the ultimate need to consider ramifications on the entire system, even when direct alterations are only made to a relatively small subgroup. However, the nature of the organization and the specific issues at hand will have a major impact on both resource allocations and the number of steps required in the change process.


Earned Value Management and Project Procurement


Project procurement is implemented during the execution phase of the project management life cycle.  This means that the groundwork for the project has been established and the project is ultimately underway in regard to scope, schedule and cost estimates.  Project procurement management plays a vital role in the process of the project in regard to procuring the necessary products, services or results needed to provide the requirements outlined in the project plan.  Project procurement management includes contract management, change control, administration of the contracts and provides the framework for meeting the obligations the company or individual representing the organization committed to.  This provides an opportunity for the project manager to view into the benefits the procurement and utilization of resources that progress the project toward completion.  This is done through monitoring the progress that is achieved versus the amount of resources required to achieve those objectives.  This is accomplished through the use of the Earned Value Management tool.  This insight provides the insight into the relationship between procurement and progress of a project.


Healthcare questions

In the healthcare industry, certain management practices have the power to arrest employee’s ability and eventually hinder the personnel from meeting certain needs. This becomes a problem for the organization because they are not able to realize the objectives and goals in a manner that satisfies end users. It is important for management practices to implement progressive practices in order to report a strong workplace climate that values the accountability, participation, and empowerment of employees (Roundeau & Wager, 2001). This in-turn helps organizations perform better on a number of outcomes valued by the organization. For example, factors linked with investment in training resources and management process combined with practical training need to be looked into because they hinder the meeting of needs by healthcare personnel.

For such situations, it is evident that training is an essential part of healthcare organizations that associates with two distinct processes and thus, needs to be monitored by the management. This can be achieved through replacement of management process and factors of training. As a result, management practices need to adapt a strategic process that involves investing in training (Miller, Summer & Deane, 2009). This is a methodology that aims at bringing to the entire organization’s quality management practices. Budget allocation by management need to consider all areas of training required in attaining quality management.

Additionally, management practices need to acknowledge the integral part of the management process, which is operational. This means that management should provides and their staff with skills that enable them manage the processes of initial training and retraining (Miller, Summer & Deane, 2009). From these, it is evident that quality management practices can be assessed in this industry through the utilization of valid and reliable instruments that measure business quality management practices. In conclusion, quality management requires the focus of long-term leadership strategies and operational day-to-day management.




Miller, W.J., Summer, A.T, & Deane, R.H. (2009). Assessment of quality management practices

within the healthcare industry. Am. J. of Economics and Business Administration, 1 (2),


Roundeau, K.V, & Wager, T.H. (2001). Impact of human resource management practices on

nursing home performance. Health Serv Manage Res, 14 (3), 192-202


Pathophysiology Reflection Assignment



This pathophysiology course has taught me a great deal, particularly when it comes to my knowledge of the medical field and has improved my assessment skills. Pathophysiology was a fairly foreign concept to me prior to my enrolling in this course, but as it is a requirement for all medical professionals, I knew that one day I would have to take pathophysiology. Although the information was new to me, it was intriguing and engaging.

I have already taken numerous courses observing how a disease manifests in a patient, pathophysiology taught me about how the body responds to the and what changes occur in the body as a result of the specific illness. This was great knowledge because it helped me learn how to treat and reverse illnesses in future patients of mine.

In the example where             Delilah just discovered that she has polycystic ovary syndrome, yet she and her husband want to have a baby, this pathophysiology course has trained me to educate Delilah about the risks involved with trying to have a child after being diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as discuss with her various fertility treatments that have been shown to be successfully when it comes to helping women with PCOS come to full-term.

After this course, I have walked away with a broader knowledge of the medical field, a better way of approaching patients, improved assessment skills and more. Although both pathology and physiology were both areas that intrigued me prior to taking pathophysiology, I still was able to take away a great deal of knowledge that I will be able to apply in my field of practice.



Mental Health Personal Statement

Our life experiences have a profound impact on our worldview and future aspirations. My family and professional experiences as well as interaction with people from diverse backgrounds has significantly expanded my thinking horizon and has also made me more passionate about social issues. I cannot begin to imagine the good fortune I have enjoyed but not everyone is as lucky as me. This is why I do not want to pursue a particular career just because it will secure my financial future but also because it will enable me to make difference in others’ lives and make this world a better place to live.

Even though I am now a full-time student and have also been working for the same company for over 7 years now, I still live with my mother because she has been through a lot in her life and there is no one else who could take care of her. She suffers from a brain tumor in the pituitary gland, aneurism, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and hip replacement. Even though it often becomes quite difficult to manage full-time academic workload, full-time job, and taking care of my mother, I also realize my struggles pale in comparison to what my mother has been going through and what many other people go through. These experiences have made me more compassionate and sensitive to the struggles other people go through. I am now pursuing my undergraduate degree in psychology which, in addition to social interactions, has greatly improved my understanding of human behavior. This is why I have decided to pursue my graduate degree in mental health counseling so that I could use my knowledge and skills to help some of the most vulnerable members of the society.

My cumulative undergraduate GPA to date is 4.0 which demonstrate my commitment to excellence in everything I do. Similarly, I have been working for the same company for about 7 years and my work responsibilities are mostly related to Accounting. In addition to academics, I am also actively involved with campus co-curricular activities as well as off campus non-profit organizations including Susan G. Komen Foundation. My academic, professional, and volunteer experiences are also guided by the belief that if we commit to something, we should give in everything to it. In addition, I also believe that if we want to see some changes in the world, we should not wait for others to come ahead but instead take the initiative. This is why I plan to explore media psychology and forensic psychology because I believe that society is still doing a poor job of understanding the issues and challenges faced by individuals with mental issues. I eventually hope to have my own private practice as a therapist and my practice will be particularly focused on individuals from poor economic backgrounds who do not only need access to quality services but also education and guidance.

Graduate school is one of the most significant investments in one’s career and I wanted to make sure I choose a program which will not only provide me quality education but will also enable me to interact with talented classmates as well as interact with industry leaders. I also visit college campuses as part of my research and am convinced that Nova Southeastern University is the best fit to my academic objectives and career goals. I believe I will be a valuable addition to the program due to my unique personal, professional, and academic background and will help enhance the learning experiences of other students as well. I also hope to be an effective ambassador of the university in the real world.


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Its Application to Healthcare

      Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs originally had its application in the business community (Maslow, 1954). It has, however, found its way into all industries including the field of healthcare (Tasman, Kay, Lieberman et al, 2008). The original hierarchy of needs was illustrated as a pyramid and divided into four levels. These four levels were designed to show the basic products of life that were important to a worker regardless of profession. The base of the pyramid contains the most basic human physiological needs: food water, sleep, and basic biological functions.  The level above basic needs includes individual security, income, health, and family. The next higher level includes relationships of family and intimacy. Finally, at the apex of the pyramid is self-actualization; the employee has achieved all he needs in life. Some workers are content with that level while others feel the need to start over, engaging themselves in some other venture (Kosner, 2006).

Maslow posited that the bottom tiers must be met first and that employee accomplishment was

hindered if each basic need was not met in a specific order.

     In applying Maslow to the healthcare industry it is safe to assume that the most basic needs of food, water, sleep, etc. can be covered by wages. Even when workers are employed doing the most menial tasks in the healthcare industry, paying them a livable wage will ensure their loyalty to the organization as a whole. Good work practices will ensure employee growth to the next level including safety and security. At the next level, safety, employees should be receiving professional development in safety procedures as they are applicable to the specific industry. A different term stemming from security may be a reduction in anxiety. An employee who has been properly trained in the safety factors associated with his or her job may feel less anxious about their personal safety when using specialized equipment.

     Maslow’s third hierarchal level, relations, family and intimacy, can easily be replaced with the formal and informal work groups which comprise all industries. Formal work groups are those created by the employer and usually includes a department supervisor and a specific number of employees. Informal groups are created by individual personalities. Those individuals who mesh well will depend upon each other to accomplish their specific tasks.

     At the apex of Maslow’s hierarchy is self-actualization. When it was created by Maslow it probably encompassed signal employees who, having realized their fiscal goals in life, were ready to either retire or start anew. In the 21st century, self-actualization may mean successful performance appraisals, incentives, and awards. These achievements are all part of self-actualization personified by feelings of self-confidence (Kendrick, Griskevisius, Neuberg, et al, 2010.

     Maslow’s Hierarchy examined the workplace as being individualized. The needs of each employee were achieved because of that individual’s willingness to go “one more step” toward his or her personal achievement. Now, in the 21st century, Maslow’s Hierarchy can be applied to healthcare or to any organization where the employer takes an active role in ensuring employee happiness and loyalty. For instance, Maslow talked about a worker’s need for shelter. Indeed, there was a time when workers were hired for daily tasks, paid daily, and used those funds to provide for their basic needs in life. In the 21st century, workers employed in any field in these United States are given livable wages. In his or her mind, the wages provided are usually enough to have some kind of housing and that single most provision ensures some amount of employee loyalty. Where Maslow thought only of the individual, in the 21st century, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can best be used to illustrate the relation formed between and employer and his or her employees.

Response to the Quote, “If you want someone to do a good job you must provide them with a good job to do.” Many employers now have a professional relationship with companies which provide employee aptitude tests as well as surveys seeking responses to professional interests. Applicant responses to these surveys helps an employer to determine what fields of interest a potential employee may want to be engaged in. Once the field of interest has been ascertained it’s important to measure the quantity of skill an employee brings to the job. If the employer is assured that an employee will provide many years of service, training programs can also be provided so that aptitude equals skill.


Kenrick, D., Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S., & Schaller, M. (2010, May 19). Renovating the

     pyramid of needs. Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations. Perspective on

     Psychological Science 6(10): 34-68.

Kosner, J. (2006). An ethnography reflecting individual differences between school principals

     and faculty members.  Chicago, IL: Roosevelt University (published dissertation).

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper Publishing.

Tasman, A., Kay, J., Lieberman, J., First, M., & Mano, M. (2008). Psychiatry (3rd Ed.). New

     York: John Wiley & Sons.

World Affairs

Chapter Enrichment Teams at the American Red Cross


The American Red Cross operates 24 hours each day, every day. It mobilizes equipment and personnel to help in wartime relief as well as in natural disasters. For instance, when Hurricane Katrina roared through Louisiana, the Red Cross sprang into action to provide food, shelter, clothing, and medical necessities to the people affected by the storm. The services of the Red Cross are provided without charge to anyone who requests such services. Family income, origin, or gender, are never considered when the Red Cross provides its services. Similar to the police or fire department, the members of the Red Cross are first responders. Services are mobilized almost as quickly as are police and fire services. Like the police and fire departments, the Red Cross never considers their own safety first; they are available to any individual or groups of individuals who need their help.

A major concern of the Red Cross is that regardless of what services are needed, these services should be rendered according to a preset standard, without regard to population characteristics and without regard to area or locale. Within certain parameters, the services provided by the Red Cross should be equal in all parts of the United States or in any part of the world. To create a standard for excellence, at the same time determining where service improvements can be made, the Red Cross creates enrichment teams (Polzer & Woolley, 2003). These teams can best be described as using group dynamics used to ensure a constantly high quality of service.

Hackman and Connor (2004) place employee teams into three categories, or as they are called by the researchers: zones. These zones are created by the information processed, the urgency in the creation of the final product, and the level of interdependence among the collaborators. Although the employees or volunteers in each of these zones may be remarkably similar, the differences come from among the variety of teaks in which they are engaged. Distinct similarities exist among enrichment teams at the American Red Cross when compared to other group dynamics as they exist in other global organizations.


Tutorial: Characterization


Characterization in the composition of literature refers to the manner in which the author creates characters for the narrative. In analyzing characterization, it is possible to identify some broad formal rules, for example, direct characterization or indirect characterization, while also examining characterization in terms of the content of its characters, i.e., the type of character presented.

In the case of the latter, characterization can be defined in terms of, for example, variations of standard or traditional archetypes. For example, a mother figure is obviously associated with traits commonly ascribed to motherhood. Nevertheless, a mother figure of course does not have to be a female character who is a mother. Characterization in terms of content, although it may rely on familiar archetypes, may nevertheless transpose these same archetypes unto a character with which it is not traditionally associated. Hence, the aforementioned mother figure could potentially be conferred upon a non-human character, such as a city. Characterization in terms of content may thus evoke familiar motifs; at the same time, creativity in literature can often be associated with a technique of using these familiar motifs in unfamiliar ways.