The meta-ethics of Kant, Mill and Moore directly address the question of what can goodness possibly mean. They therefore seek out, in this sense, from taking up the approach of meta-ethics to essentially argue whether this notion of goodness that makes any ethics possible is defined in itself, or rather, if such goodness is merely a consequence of our own ways living. To phrase it differently: do our conceptions of goodness mean that we determine what is good, or is there some type of objective goodness which does not vary according to our determinations? The first part of the question can be further more divided into two sub-categories. If our conceptions of goodness mean that we determine what is good, either such goodness varies across particular normativities of what it means to be good – this implies that human beings have varying conceptions of the good – or that there is a sense in which all our normativities, in so far as they are good, are necessarily good, meaning that we have an innate understanding of what goodness means. This differentiates from the second part of the question above, because such an idea of good now becomes either an innate part of the human being, in the first case, or, in the second case, something to which the human being must emulate because it is something that they cannot wholly understand, but nevertheless follow. The philosophers, Kant, Mill and Moore seem to follow this schema. Moore argues for the point that goodness essentially is dependent upon our normativities: what we consider to be normal is good. Mill, in contrast, suggests that our actions are innately good, because he is a utilitarianist, and therefore all our actions are inherently directed towards the good. Kant, however, argues that what is good is essentially not understandable by us, and therefore, there is simply a “categorical imperative” to follow this good that is the foundation of ethics. In the following paper, I will argue in favor of Kant’s position, based on the weaknesses of an ethical relativity that appears incisive for Moore’s position, and a failed understanding of the good in the case of utilitarianism and Mill. Kant, in contrast, gives us a transcendent, almost God-like good, which is beyond either relativity or the ethical desire for the good lying in the “means” of man.
In the text “Advertising and Behavior Control” Arrington presents an ethical tension at the heart of marketing. On the one hand it is said that advertisers manipulate the desires of consumers, forcing them to purchase products they do not want. On the other hand, advertising perhaps offers an “information” service, communicating to the consumer what is available on the market. Arrington sides with the latter argument: while advertising may be accused of playing with consumer behavior, there nothing in the essence of advertising itself which suggests that advertising is necessarily manipulative. Thus, the ethical responsibility comes down to the consumer. To put Arrington’s position somewhat coarsely: advertisers are not putting a gun to consumers’ heads, forcing them to buy things.
In “Justice: A Citizen’s Guide to the 21st Century”, philosopher of law Michael Sandel approaches contemporary legal issues from the perspective of the philosophy of law, thus employing various dominant theories and positions within this tradition, such as Bentham’s utilitarianism, the Aristotelian theory of justice and Kantian deontologistics. Arguably what makes this documentary is compelling is not only that it elaborates relevant legal problems that exist in the first decades of this century, but also in the fact that by applying these existing theories to these issues, one can ascertain the continued relevance or shortcomings of these same theories. Hence, the documentary essentially functions as a metaphorical “double-edge” sword: practical concerns regarding issues such as torture are examined, whereas at the same time theoretical premises are tested in this same fire.
This article describes how the liberalization and conservation of water was an important issue in earlier times. However, more recently, the transfer of water has been a widely debated issue. The paper describes and explains the different aspects of argument and disagreements revolving water. The disagreements on water are ascribed to a combination of reasons. Water wars and specific examples of such are detailed within the article, to provide better understanding and explanation of the topic.
As we think about our morning routine, that is the hygiene schedule, there are numerous chemicals that we are exposed to each day. This includes toothpaste, mouthwash, soap, shampoo, condition, hairspray, and all of the makeup. It can be a little shocking at what we are putting ourselves through to be presentable in public. The focus of this study is hairspray.
The education that early childhood education teachers get from the universities they are enrolled in play a great role in establishing their behavior and their concentration on the responsibilities they have in relation to the profession they chose to embrace. Teaching others is indeed a noble work to pick. It does not only involve passing on knowledge to the next generation but also the endless sacrifice of unpaid efforts to establish lesson plans that are supposed to give attention to what the students are to get during their stay in class. This is especially true with that of the situation concerning early childhood education learners. Their needs are nothing less than specific. Teachers handling early childhood education classes ought to be given with the right chance to expand their skills in understanding what their students need and responding to such needs accordingly. To be able to establish a good source of understanding their responsibilities, individuals wanting to master the principles of the said profession are given particular options that could further improve the way they handle their role in the classroom and even outside its limitations. In the discussion that follows, a distinction on the philosophies believed to provide a good source of understanding on how teachers could improve their way of teaching and relating to their students in class.
According to the U.S. Immigration Reform website, the United States has long been the destination for immigrants who wish to find a more self-fulfilling life and to escape from persecution in their homelands. However, due to the complexity of immigration laws that are currently in force in the United States, immigrants find it difficult to adhere to the rules and regulations set up by the U.S. Department of Immigration and Naturalization (Immigration Reform).
This paper looks into the perspectives of several interviewees to determine the views on the subjects of prejudice, racism, and judgment. Three individuals were interviewed to determine their response to questions touching on these subjects. Among then there was Dave an African American man aged 35 years working as a mechanic married and with two children. Another interviewee was Mary a white single mother aged 41 years old working as a consultant. Lastly among the three individual’s interviewed was Adams a 53 year old man of Asian origin and a retiree.
In the process of assuming the different foundations of Early Childhood Teacher Education, it is essential to note that the process of learning and mastering such a course of profession involves the capacity to have high concern about how children at a young age learn. Noting that the past of learning of each child differs from one towards another specifically insists on the fact that teachers ought to be able to define the most comprehensive manners to address such differences accordingly. Believably, with such consideration in focus, individuals hoping to gain expertise in teaching young children ought to be able to find ways to specifically mandate the learning process that they are going to adapt in relation to educating their target students. It could be understood that somehow, the worth of better foundation for educating young students shall provide a good foundation for young learners to take into consideration as they grow into better and higher levels of getting educated.
Marx’s theory of alienation has been the subject of recent research regarding the current changes in the society and the capitalist values. The below application essay will review how the theory can be used to analyze the status of college students in the society. The main focus of the essay will be economic, work and individual circumstances, treatment of students as tools, workers or instruments, statistical data and source of income. Recent related literature will be reviewed in order to analyze the work-process of students and their influence on their product.
Marx may be criticized for many things he had written and for what happened to the world afterwards, but the theory of alienation is probably not one of them. It is written in a quite specific manner, full of humanism and actual philosophical context of main arguments justification. Although it can be argued that Marx’s further works are derived from the “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844”, it is more humanistic and moral than any others and also shows certain naivety of Marx’ desire to prove the rich of this world wrong in their very self-justification. So, this essay is about understanding Marx’s theory of alienation and its evaluation in terms of our today perception.
There are various ways to find the truth, and there are even more ways to lose one’s perception of reality and correctness of one’s actions. The best way to the confusion is a mistake of personal judgements and universal perception of a certain act. The best example of inconsistency of personal reasons and judgements with common system of moral and ethic behaviour is Ethyphro’s case. The interest to his case was not only in commonality of moral and ethical matters which were described in the indictment against Socrates, but rather in curious personal conditionality of his suite against his father. This case was interesting for Socrates mainly from the point of common goodness and exploration of truth rather than personal reasons for conversation and exploration of the case details for the personal benefits in the court (Danzig 77).
The thrust of Stace’s reasoning in “Free Will and Morality” is that, contrary to much thinking, the concepts of free will and determinism are not in strict opposition to one another. Through careful delineation of the processes of both concepts, Stace presents that the two are not mutually exclusive, and that what is typically perceived as deterministic may often be a case of free will mistaken, or not sufficiently viewed as the complex agent it itself is. More exactly, issues of definition in Stace’s thinking obscure the two main components unjustifiably, and there are inherent aspects of free will in much that is deemed determinism. Incalculable influences must go to the process of free will and, as philosophers tend to interpret the term more narrowly, Stace concludes that they create false and intrinsically contrasting ideas of the actual essences of the two forces.
Rene Descartes penned one of the most famous phrases in the history of philosophy: “Cogito ergo sum,” or, “I think, therefore I exist.” This serves as a definitive means to establish absolute certainty, insofar as human beings may do so. The following will explain how Descartes arrived at this conclusion, by analyzing his “method of doubt” and clarifying the process leading to his assertion. Lastly, this paper will provide a brief explication as to why Descartes’s statement is important in epistemological terms.