Categories
Psychology

Brain Work

  1. Central Core and Cerebral Cortex

The central core of the brain is a structure that is common to all vertebrates. The central core controls many of the primary and essential functions of life. These processes include breathing, the regulation of the pulse, arousal, movement, motor control, sleep, and some basic components of sensory function. In a sense, the central core is the animal brain that humans share withal other vertebrates, while other more complex brain structures are not found in all vertebrates.

Categories
Psychology

Psychobiological Roots of Early Attachment

Genetic predisposition of behavior can reveal possible behavioral, physiological, and neural traits based purely on the biobehavioral systems of the body.  However, attachment bonding seems to also provide a significant involvement towards experimental learning and association.  Pertaining to Sullivan’s experiment on the aversive and positive effects of the pups’ reactions to the neutral odor of their own mother, shows an important point-in-case with children in abusive families (Sullivan, Hofer, & Brake, 1986, p. 87).  The classic argument of nature versus nurture also plays a part in the factors of the bond between mother and child. For example, the warmth of the mother as well as her milk plays a huge role in determining the pup’s heart rate and behavior.  If the mother was unhealthy to begin with and didn’t provide the necessary warmth and nutrients in the milk, the offspring is less likely to show an active interaction or hyper-reactivity.  The change and differences in temperature and milk supply also affects the pup’s rapid eye movement sleep cycle which can bring about possible averse affects in the pup’s reactions towards their environment and attachment with their mother (Parent et al., 2005, p. 87).

Categories
Psychology

Ethical Issues in Supervision

Introduction

As history shows, there are a number of legal and ethical issues that have arisen in counselling, particularly in the area of clinical supervision. These have led to problems and challenges with patients, but also causes counselors to assess whether the work they do is beneficial, and what can be done to overcome such issues. In particular, these include the main ethical issues of transference, countertransference, multicultural malpractice, and also confidentiality. These issues, and how they are handled by counselors, as well as recommendations for future approaches are discussed herein.

Categories
Psychology

Treatment of the Chemically Dependant and the Dual Diagnosis

Even with the advancements made in the subjects of biology, health, and to an extent mental health, society as a whole still has large strides to make when it comes to the treatment of psychiatric disorders, as well as addictive tendencies. The medical community has still not come to any viable conclusion as to the best treatment plan for either, and certainly not for both at the same time, especially when they fuel each other as in most cases in people with both problems. A dual-fronted approach, aimed at addressing both issues co morbidly is clearly the most effective and widely used treatment, yielding the best overall long-term results. However, there is also the paradox of handing substance abusers mind-altering drugs, as well as a few other issues.

Categories
Psychology

Reaction Paper: Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is a psychological model that is based on Pavlov’s experiments regarding triggers and characteristic responses. Classical condition is a highly interesting phenomenon because psychologists use it to explain many different human behaviors. I believe that this is an interesting process because it is learned rather than instinctual. For example, the brain has its own way of automatically reacting to stimuli, such as removing your hand from a hot surface. We are all born with these nervous impulses and don’t need to learn what to do in these situations. Classical conditioning is more of a taught process. In Pavlov’s experiments, he essentially taught dogs that ringing a bell means that food would be brought to them. After several trials, the dogs would begin to salivate even if food wasn’t brought to them. This showed that classical condition is a valid psychological concept and there is a connection between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus.

Categories
Psychology

Analysis of the Biased-Interaction Theory of Psychosexual Development

Issues pertaining to human sexuality and gender roles have long been of interest to psychologists, and have been of general interest to nearly every generation of human beings. The nature of romantic and erotic attraction dominates the world of literature, music, and other art forms, while the efforts to understand what drives or determines the way that individuals manifest romantic and erotic attraction and inhabit gender roles has been the subject of extensive research in recent decades. The earliest research into these areas largely presumed that issues such as gender identity and sexual orientation were generally innate, and that environmental factors during childhood, adolescence, and other developmental stages were responsible for the manifestation of gender identity issues, homosexuality, bisexuality, and other deviations from what was considered to be normal expressions of gender identity and sexual orientation. In recent years a number of researchers have uncovered evidence of biological and physiological factors that influence gender identity and sexual orientation, serving to underpin the so-called “nature vs. nurture” debate with regards to these issues. In the article “Biased-Interaction Theory of Psychosexual Development: ‘How Does One Know if One is Male or Female?’ ” (Diamond, 2007) a strong case is made for the theory that the development of gender identity and sexual orientation requires the interplay of both inherent biological factors and environmental factors.

Categories
Psychology

Measuring Perceptions of Prejudice among Native and Non-Native Muslims In Non-Muslim Nations

In the post-9/11 sociopolitical global environment, much discussion has been given to the nature of Islam and the issue of how Muslims are perceived in countries around the world. The purpose of this study will be to examine issues related to prejudice as experienced by Muslims living in primarily non-Muslim regions of the world, such as Western Europe and the United States. Particular attention will be paid to drawing distinctions between Muslims who are native to non-Muslim nations and Muslims who migrated more recently to non-Muslim nations, wit an eye towards determining if these groups perceive or experience prejudicial attitudes from non-Muslims to different degrees.

Categories
Psychology

Cognitive Psychology and Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is a relatively new area of research into understanding how the brain and its various structures and components influence human behavior. Neuropsychology has both clinical and experimental applications, as researchers attempt to determine how various structures of the brain and nervous system are interrelated with behavior, and psychologists in clinical settings apply the understanding of brain functions when treating patients. Neuropsychology employs a number of techniques to determine how the structures of the brain influence behavior. Psychological examinations and tests are offered in conjunction with brain scans and other testing that can see how psychology and behavior are linked with brain structures and processes.

Categories
Psychology

A Mini-Course on Long-Term Memory

Overview of the Course

As a staff member who firmly supports the initiative of the Pegasus Publishing Company related to continuing education for company success, this Mini-Course “Long-Term Memory: An Editor’s Best Friend” is composed of the following elements:

Categories
Psychology

Alcoholism

  1. What do you think about therapists advocating controlled or moderate drinking instead of abstinence? Do you think Michael might have been more successful in stopping his drinking if Dr. Lawton encouraged him to be abstinent?

Therapists advocating for controlled or moderate drinking instead of abstinence is not a good way to fight alcoholism. Alcoholism is a mental illness that should be treated with strict abstinence- like a drug addict, once an alcoholic has one drink, he might as well have had one hundred. If Doctor Lawton encouraged Michael to remain abstinent from alcohol, it at least would have increased his chances of being successful at quitting drinking permanently.

Categories
Psychology

Abnormal Psychology Article Summary

Ellison-Wright, I., & Bullmore, E. (2010). Anatomy of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 117(1), 1.

A 2010 meta-analysis by Ellison-Wright and Bullmore explores existing literature for evidence regarding the potential pathological relationship between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The afflictions have been historically perceived as completely separate entities, but recent studies have hinted at an underlying neural overlap between them. Additional support for the association has come from the consistent appearance of both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in representative family histories. Based on these and other findings, the meta-analysis authors hypothesized that existing MRI-based studies would reveal a significant correlation between brain structure changes found in those with bipolar disorder and those that are apparent in patients with schizophrenia.

Categories
Psychology

Determining the Influence of Linguistic Differences on Marital Stressors in Inter-Cultural Marriages

Introduction

In an increasingly globalized world, opportunities for people of different racial and cultural backgrounds have greater opportunities for contact than at any time in human history. In this context, the issue of interracial and intercultural marriage, and the attendant satisfaction of partners in such marriages, is of legitimate concern for researchers. The purpose of this study will be to explore the construct of intercultural marriages with a specific focus on how linguistic differences influence the ability of married partners to navigate culture-based stressors. The study will be premised on the hypothesis that intercultural married partners who share a common first language will express greater overall levels of satisfaction with their relationships than intercultural married partners who do share a common first language.

Categories
Psychology

Forced Treatment of Seriously Mentally Ill Individuals

With regards to the forced treatment of extremely mentally ill individuals, there are many very important factors to consider. Imposing a practice on anyone, mentally ill or not, against his or her will is sure to elicit a negative response. These patients are very often under an incredible amount of emotional, psychiatric, and sometimes physical distress–forcing treatment on the patient is sure to exaggerate what is considered a normal human reaction. In this way, these patients can be looked at as extensions of society in general, placed into extraordinary situations. This can make for very uncomfortable patients, and a counterproductive treatment plan.

Categories
Psychology

Prevention Points Exercise

Directions: Review the following two pages on Protective and Risk Factors.  Following, are listed 16 principles thought to be vital to the creation of Prevention Programs. Write a brief two or three sentence response explaining why you agree or disagree with the importance of   each principle.