Fort Sumter and the Civil War

The Battle at Fort Sumter was the first battle of the Civil War. It was at this fort that the first shots of the American Civil War were fired- starting the battle between the Union and the Confederates. Fort Sumter is located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. Between April 11 and April 12, 1861, fights broke out when the Confederate forces attacked the Fort–a strategically important, as well as metaphorically important site, for many reasons.

            By 1861, the balance of power in Congress between free and slave states had reached its peak time of conflict. Acts such as the Missouri Compromise, as well as the newly annexed American properties like Texas and California, were used as temporary bargaining chips–the balance between free and slave states was truly only the binding agent for the Union.

            These two separate trains of thought were apparent from the onset of the United States as a country, and perhaps foreshadowing the entire Civil War–simply making the events at Fort Sumter the unavoidable catalyst, or proverbial “spark”. The original document outlining the structure of the US Government, The Articles of Confederation, placed way too much power in the hands of individual states, and not enough in the Federal government. Though the Constitution was eventually ratified, it still left a gray area between the State and Federal Governments, leading to Hamilton’s Federalist’s and Jefferson’s Democratic Republicans. The idea of states’ rights versus power of the federal government was imbedded from the beginning.

            The economy of the South for raw materials, and the North with its manufacturing centers, were codependent. Lincoln was not an abolitionist–in fact, he was a slave owner himself. The Emancipation Proclamation outlawed slavery only in the South–border states such as Maryland, Delaware, and even Southern New Jersey had slavery until the passage of the 13th Amendment, way after the Civil War. Lincoln made the War about slavery to protect the Union, and stunt a British-backed Confederacy.

            Though the Southern attack at Fort Sumter formally started the Civil War between the Union and the Confederacy, the seed was planted many years earlier, virtually at the onset of the United States as a nation, and its overall structure of government.


National Park Service, “Fort Sumter.” Last modified 08 06, 2013. Accessed June 14, 2013.


Slavery in the South

In America, slavery was the main conflict between the North and South. However, it is little understood why the Southern states wanted to keep the institution of slavery in the era when human rights, equality were accepted in other parts of the society. After the enlightenment, nobody would have expected the South’s stubbornness to keep slaves. The below paper is going to examine the reasons behind the decision.

Criminal Justice

How to Handle Evidence

The three major types of  evidences mainly  ballistics, blood and body fluids, and fingerprints are very important in any case to ensure that the case before the court have all the necessary elements of the cases of the various cases involved. Ballistics evidence is that evidence obtained from a crime scene where fire arms were used. Ballistic evidence enables the court to get the relevant information pertaining to the type of the firearms used, the types of the bullets the distance at which the bullets were short and the time. Ballistic evidences are collected by putting on gloves, recording the serial number of the fire arm, ensuring  that they are unloaded before taken to the laboratory by checking the cartridges and placing them in a cardboard made of wood where the arms should be properly packed to avoid shifting.  The bullets from the crime scene should also place in separate containers such as envelopes or pill boxes where they are taken to the laboratory.  Body fluids and blood are important identifying individuals involved in a crime by relying on the DNA tests. These evidences can be collected by  putting on protective gloves and applying the following methods; scrapping which is done using a scalpel or a sharp razor, tape lifting method which can applied in cases where the evidence are in a dried state,  blood and body fluids can also be collected  by wet absorption method. After collection the samples are taken to the laboratory for testing. Finger prints are important evidences that can be used to identify the individuals involved in a crime. Finger prints are collected through screening of immovable objects in the crime scene. Tools such as black powder or magnetic powder are used to during the screening process; the screened samples are captured by a camera and taken to the laboratory for testing.   Admissibility of the evidences depends on the results from the laboratory which are based on scientific tests done in the laboratory (Cohen, 2010).


Essays on Issues of Cheating

First Task: Topic Proposal

The topic I hope to explore is the idea of utilizing references in school and not actually giving regard to the authors of such materials when they are being used in a research. This is often called as ‘plagiarism’. I chose to explore this particular issue, as it does seem very rampant among students today to simply resort to plagiarism than to write their own papers or create properly referenced researches (Green, 2006, 57). With the influx of information through the internet, students often disregard the importance of proper referencing thus falling into the pits of plagiarism (Bouville, 2010, 68).




Appendix A

Pilot study results

Because of the project requirement, the following pilot study was carried out on other top level managers, low level managers and employees. They gave useful information on the performance of the middle level managers.

Pilot interview questions for employees

  1. Do you think middle managers make decisions based on the information they have about the job or they pass orders from the top management?
  2. What kind of information should be availed to the middle level managers?
  3. Should there be constant training to help managers be informed about current issues? And who is the best person to carry out the training
  4. Do you think that if managers have proper training and information, will the benefits spill to the employees?
  5. Any recommendation for improving the training or additional source of information to the managers?

Main Findings:

Based on the 5 employees that were interviewed, they said that middle level manager training is a vital aspect in an organization. According to the respondents, middle level managers were more in touch with the employees and the operations; therefore they should be trained because they make wise decisions based on what is going on unlike the top management. The respondents said that managers should be trained extensively. The information should not just be about manager career development, but it should be about the organization’s operations and the employee needs. Qualified human resource personnel were suggested that they should conduct the training. This is because human resource from within know everything about the company; hence they will customize the training to fit the specific needs. It is evident that middle level manager training will affect all stakeholders positively. Manager training is a good move, employees recommended this idea.

Pilot interview questions for top managers

  1. What kind of training is beneficial to the middle level managers?
  2. What is the role of training?
  3. Who is in a better place to train the middle level managers? What is the appropriate training location?
  4. Are there any expectations that come with middle level manager training?
  5. What are your recommendations for this training?


Main findings

The top level managers offered a different perspective on the kind of information that would be useful in the training. They believed that the information should be able to propel the company’s success. They said that middle level managers should be trained on how to handle the bigger picture not just the small operations within the company. The role of training is to boost career development and the company’s performance. The training should show the middle level managers about their future duties in the top management, information on the external environment. HR personnel should carry out the training, but expert training is needed because they offer different kind of information. The training should be carried out in within the building so that it will not affect normal functioning of the company. Training should not just be about the daily operations within the company, but it should cover other aspects of the external environment because they affect the businesses. Training should be extensive; it should focus on developing the managers cognitive, social and career development.

Pilot Test Observation Questions for middle level managers

  1. Are you benefiting from the training?
  2. What kind of training do you like?

A basic literature review as been conducted and below is the current material list describe for the program, but additional research may be needed to determine the full use of materials and budget aspects.

Appendix B

Based on the projects proposal this is an estimated list of materials and labor. Additionally, more or less may be needed depending on other logistics factors and demographics based on where the program would take place.

Materials: projectors, computers, black board and printed materials.

Timeline for the project: 3 months


Appendix C

According to the literature review the following are research methods that could measure the success, failure, and the continuity of the training. Eventually, evaluation questions could provide recommendations for future changes in the training program. Qualitative research methods are volatile and they can be interpreted in many ways. Therefore, it is good to maintain accuracy.

Evaluation Questions

After implementing the training program (August – January) there will be a follow up interview and survey questions would be asked.

Evaluation questions for middle level managers

Evaluation Interview Questions for middle level managers:

  1. What did you learn during the training?
  2. What are the new things you learned during the training and how will they help you?
  3. What did you like the most about the training? What did you dislike the most?


Evaluation Survey Questions for employees and Top managers

  1. Have you noticed any difference during and after the training?
  2. Do you think the managers are using the skills they are learning?
  3. How will the training affect your roles?
  4. Do you think the managers will implement what they were trained?
  5. What recommendations do you have for the training program?
Criminal Justice

The DARE Program, Animal Rights and Henry James

The D.A.R.E program is a 41 year old law enforcement education program for children in grade school. D.A.R.E stands for Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Founded in 1983 in Los Angeles, D.A.R.E has grown into a country wide program in schools throughout America. “D.A.R.E. is a police officer-led series of classroom lessons that teaches children from kindergarten through 12th grade how to resist peer pressure and live productive drug and violence-free lives” (D.A.R.E. America, 2012). But how effective is the D.A.R.E program?

Criminal Justice

Open Discovery Scheme of Evidence

Conducting a trial in a court of law is executed for the purpose of establishing the truth and guarantees a fair hearing for the defendant and the complainant. The defendant must be given a favorable environment through providing all the vital information that will facilitate in the preparation for the defense. Planning the most suitable defense requires that specific information is provided to the defendant and it is a legal right that the defendant is given access to this information. To achieve this objective, the prosecutor has the obligation of providing very broad discovery to the defense and the best approach to achieve this objective is through open discovery scheme of evidence in court trial (Rockwood, 114).


Canada and Globalization IV

Part I—1). McNally’s thesis is that globalization has consistently served the interests of international capitalists, at the expense of essentially everybody else. According to McNally’s account, the rhetoric of free trade is a duplicitous, hypocritical charade, a façade that serves to mask the real interests of international capital (28-37). Neoliberal capitalists, McNally charges, have consistently sold governments on the doctrine of free trade and free markets, labeling everything that stands in their way “protectionism” (30-33). Rather than economic liberty, neoliberal policies have brought great riches for a few at the expense of the many—at least, according to McNally.


Program-Evaluation Research Questionnaire

  1. The initial knowledge scores of drop-outs were lower than the whole group’s average, in the case of Group 1 and Two. However, interestingly, the mean age of drop-outs in Group 1 was also lower than the group’s total. This data was reported in order to provide researchers with indicators for selecting the right people for the program in the future, the implication being that people who are more mature and aware of the problem would be more effective in learning and training others.
Education Theories

Narrative Applications

Initial Character Observations

Roelito is a good student who cares about education, exams and results. Unlike Beto, he studies hard, but not because he “accepts the rules of the house” but because he chooses to. Even Beto says: “The kid took this school business seriously. Beto thought, My little brother’s solid that way.” (p. 7.) He is also forced to grow up fast, as he has to put up with constant arguments between his father and brother. Instead of taking part, he chooses to stay out and help his brother as much as he can. In that way, he is more adult-like and responsible than Beto. He is still frustrated and angry about the situation. He is driven by ambition in school and accepts his father’s belief that the only way to get a better life is to learn and get into a good college. He carefully considers the “most suitable” options. He desperately needs balance and stability in his life.


Philosophy Questionnaire

Do you think that there should be equal opportunity in a just society?

Yes, as there should always be equal opportunity in any just society, regardless of the circumstances taking place in that society. For all persons, regardless of their race, religion, ethnicity, gender, level of education, and sexual orientation, equal opportunity should be provided for all. This concept is critical because it shapes the direction of a successful society whereby individuals have the opportunity to go after what they seek and to achieve their goals and objectives without political or social interference. This is critical to the success and longevity of any society and unfortunately, is not the case in many societies where rights and opportunities for all persons are not equal. This is an achievable ideal because it represents a challenge to the status quo to refrain from stereotypes and other preconceived notions regarding members of society and to accept all persons as equals to each other, thereby providing all persons with the same level playing field and opportunities for growth.

Women and Gender Studies

Intro To Research Methods In Health

1). The two qualitative methods used to collect data for the study, and for the broader research project, were observations and interviews (Messenger 362, 369). The observation was of the participants, who were engaged in ER practices (369). The interviews were with the clinical staff members (369). Everything was recorded by hand, inasmuch as audio taping was prohibited for confidentiality reasons (369).


Scaling Study

Among University students, poor nutritional practices and heightened stress levels are the most common attributes linked with decreased health and weight gain. In this research, the survey conducted aims at examining the relationship between student lifestyle and their eating behaviors. The developed questionnaire contained ten short questions and was administered to five male and five female university students (n=10) in a controlled setting. The survey conducted included two types of questions where some required a yes or no (open-ended variables) response while others were Likert scale variables. Through the development of the questionnaire, the researcher made attempts to make the study valid and reliable. In addition, questionnaire developed maintained legitimacy and trustworthiness of collected data. Consumption of fast food among university students has contributed to lower levels of physical activity and higher food expenditures on campus. Males spent more money on food and females take into consideration the kind of food they consume (Driskell, Meckna & Scales, 2006).

Agricultural Studies

Answering questions for a USDA Scholars Scholaship

1 I have read The Ben Carson Story “Gifted Hands” and it inspired me to be the best I can be and never fear facing life’s obstacles. The story is about the author himself overcoming the greatest obstacles and becoming the best surgeon in the world regardless of his humble background. The book made mew feel that am not that much different from Ben especially considering that I also experience the love from my two determined parents who possess unswerving Christian faith