Classic English Literature

Progressivist Issues in Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Aurora Leigh

This paper will seek to discuss progressivist issues present in the long-poem Aurora Leigh, by Elizabeth Barrett Browning.¬† The intent of this paper is to delve into the meaning of this poem with fellow English students and discuss some of the feminist issues which are inherent in the work, and how those issues apply to women’s issues even today.


Differences in quality of life between Hispanic and African American patients with PVD after two years post smoking cessation

Background of the Problem

Cigarette smoking continues to be a serious problem across many population groups and is a significant detriment to health and wellbeing. By the year 2015, it is anticipated that smoking will contribute to approximately 6.5 million deaths throughout the world (Hays, 2010). For smokers, their quality of life is often dramatically reduced as a result of this habit and contributes to many different diseases that could otherwise be prevented (Hays, 2010). Furthermore, smokers from different racial and cultural backgrounds often experience significant disparities in the prevalence of such diseases as cancer and heart disease, particularly in developed countries where many smokers reside (Trinidad, 2011). Therefore, these population groups are at a higher risk of these diseases, as well as other contributing factors, such as poor diet and exercise habits (Baruth, 2011). These creates difficult challenges for many population groups in their efforts to quit smoking and to successfully participate and complete in smoking cessation programs to accomplish their goals and objectives (Trinidad, 2011).

Computer Science

Professional Project Proposal


The group chosen for this work study is managers of organizations, starting from operational level managers, the middle level managers, the top managers and the chief executive officers in the organizations. The managers of the organization are the most important people that are used to define and differentiate each organization from another. This group of people is very important in the business arena for they determine the direction of the business activities and shape the goals and objectives within the organization. The subject of management is as old as the medieval period; managers had been there even before man ventured into formal business. Management as an operational tool in organization relies on information for effective delivery of value to the target customers, every aspect of management needs information for success. In the contemporary world, where change characterizes every operation within the organization, information need is very paramount for managers to execute their duties effectively and to ensure that an organization procures a good competitive edge over its rivals.  Information determines what the business stands offer and what is expected from its managers (Chumbler, 2007).

The need for information by the managers is very impetus for their operations in the organization and in their daily to daily activities. Drawing from a reservoir of studies on the subject of management, managers need information for them to know where the organization is and where the organization is heading to (Cullen, 2000).


From Educational Haven to a Vacation Paradise: Defining the Advancement of Tourism in Villars-sur-Ollon in Switzerland


            When the name Villars-Sur-Ollon comes to ear, it could be pictured as the cradle of the most expensive international education ever offered in the world today. Elite families often send their studying children in the area to perfect their skills and become more academically excellent especially when it comes to the studies that they are trying to complete. Relatively, it is the environment that defines Villars-sur-Ollon that makes it a haven for studying. The coolness of the weather and the serenity of the place, almost undisturbed by the essence of modern living [like it is in modern cities  today], students are given the chance to relax and concentrate to their heart’s fullest.

Medicine and Health

A survey of midwifery management of infants born Through meconium-stained amniotic fluid

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is defined as the presence of respiratory distress and hypoxemia in an infant from aspiration of meconium stained amniotic fluid during the birth process, resulting in illness, admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and a prolonged hospital stay.  MAS can lead to morbidity and mortality among infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF), which occurs in approximately 10-15% of all births.  Approaches to the prevention of MAS have changed over time, and MAS prevention remains one of the most common challenges for midwives and other birth care providers.  While recent studies have found no benefits to oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning before the delivery of the infant’s shoulders or to postnatal suctioning in vigorous MSAF infants, it nonetheless still seems a reasonable practice for infants born in communities with limited resources (Lurdakok, 2011). However, these suctioning techniques are not without the potential for harm and current evidence supports discontinuation of use.  Ingrained practice habits are difficult, but not impossible, to change. The Normalization Process Model will be used as a guiding framework in this inquiry to help to explore and review midwife self-reported practice patterns of suctioning or not suctioning the upper airway of infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid before the birth of the shoulder delivery and after the birth of the body.  A quantitative survey research design will be used to explore management of midwife deliveries where MSAF is present.

Education Theories

Asexual reproduction evolutionary prop

Educational Theory

Proposal: Nature is life and life is in nature and by this philosophy, ideal relationships can generate asexual products within the confines of an ideal evolutionary design.


A Proposal for Investigating the Relationship between Primary School Teacher’s Attitudes towards Teaching Health Promotion, Teacher’s Efficacy and Understanding of the Philosophy of the New Cypriot Health Promotion Curriculum.


  1. Introduction

Promoting healthful attitudes and healthful behaviour is a critical part of helping young students to develop into mature young men and women.  Health promoting schools can be determined by their goals. For example, the European Network of Health Promoting Schools (ENHPS) has identified specific characteristics of such schools, including (among a number of others)  that they take a very broad perspective on health, that they provide their students with tools to encourage and enable healthy choices, offer students the opportunities to make meaningful contributions to both school and community, and increase the quality of life for the students and staff (Barkenow, 2006).

This role is so crucial that in Cyprus, a new health education curriculum has been developed (Ioannou et al., 2011).  The goal of this new curriculum is to allow students, teachers, and school administrators to unite in an effort to move past individual lifestyle and behaviour modification approaches to develop mechanisms to recognise and deal with the issues that determine good health.  Ioannou et al. describe this new curriculum as one that deals with four key themes, including the development and empowerment of each individual person, the establishment of a safe and healthy lifestyle, the development and improvement of the individual’s social skills, and the development of the individual as an active participant in the citizenry.  To this end, the curriculum uses three levels including understanding the factors that determine good health, practicing the skills that develop or maintain good health, and making behavioural changes to support healthful living.  The overall approach of this new Cypriot curriculum is one of active learning, but it is intended to look beyond the individual to the socio-cultural factors that also influence the health of the population.

This new Cypriot health promotion curriculum is directed particularly at primary schools and  offers a larger-scale perspective on the issue of lifetime healthful behaviours. Ioannou (2007) demonstrated the effectiveness of taking such a positive, holistic approach to health promotion.

A recent study by Viig, Tjomsland, and Wold (2010) investigated what conditions improved teacher participation in a health promotion curriculum in Norway.  That study found varying levels of participation in the program, based on such factors as teachers’ personal interests in health promotion and how highly they regarded the specific program being used in that nation.  Also, the teachers reported that other factors affected their decisions to incorporate the specified health promotion curriculum into their teaching plans.

Thus, the Cypriot program may be implemented to the extent intended, or it may be less effective than anticipated.  The new curriculum can be only as effective as the teachers make it.  Because this new curriculum takes a significantly different approach to health promotion, it is not clear whether teachers in Cyprus fully support such a change.  Further, it is not clear whether teachers in primary education schools understand the  philosophy of the new health promotion curriculum, and whether their teacher efficacy affects their implementation of the program.

This proposed research project would consider this issue and investigate the relationship between implementation of the new Cypriot health promotion programme and various factors that may be influencing the incorporation of the programme.

Statement of the Problem

The new Cypriot health promotion curriculum for primary schools is in sharp contrast with the previous approach to health education and promotion. For this reason, it is important to understand how the teachers who have to follow this curriculum understand the curriculum, grasp the philosophy behind it.  It is unknown whether teacher efficacy impacts the teachers’ understanding of and use of the curriculum as well.

Thus, the research problem for this project will be to investigate the relationships among teacher efficacy, teacher attitudes toward the new curriculum, and teacher understanding of the philosophy behind the curriculum. The project will use a quantitative approach to examine the relationships among these elements.

  1. Review of the Literature

My dissertation will explore the relationship between primary school teachers’ attitudes toward teaching health promotion, their efficacy at developing and implementing such curriculum, and their overall understanding of the philosophy that underlies the new Cypriot Health Promotion curriculum.  My aim is to gain a deeper understanding of the role played by teachers in taking health promotion curriculum from a developmental stage to a practical one that will instill children with the skills necessary to take a proactive role in their own personal health.

Literature Review

The perception of teachers and administrative staff toward any health promotion curriculum is an important predictor of success in the curriculum. Mohammadi, Rowling, and Nutbeam (2010) performed a qualitative study in Australian schools to determine their understanding of health promotion in schools and how these professionals perceived such curricula benefitting the schools.  The interviews resulted in a set of themes, the most important of which was the need for having a shared understanding between health and education, and even more importantly, an understanding of how health promotion benefits the core business of the schools (Mohammadi et al., 2010).

One critical social benefit for health promotion curricula was demonstrated by a study by Mogford, Gould, and DeVoght (2010), and that is the usefulness of increasing health literacy as a mechanism for overcoming society’s health inequities.  In the U.S. in particular, with its lack of universal health care for its citizenry, significant socioeconomic health inequities exist.  Mogford et al. reported on the results of efforts to develop a more health promoting curriculum as opposed to a more traditional health education programme.  The four-part curriculum described by Mogford et al. included a segment on teaching the social determinants of health, a segment on teaching students to be their own agents of change in health issues, a segment on teaching specific health promoting skills and strategies, and a segment on creating and implementing an action plan to improve health equity.  Although specific results from implementation of this curriculum are forthcoming in later studies, the preliminary evaluations reported by these authors noted that responses to their proposed curriculum has been positive (Mogford et al., 2010).

When new curricula are introduced, teacher acceptance is a critical factor for the success or failure of that new curricula.  For example, in a study of Greek physical education (PE) teachers presented with a new curriculum, Gorozidis and Papaioannou (2011) reported that teacher characteristics are important determining factors to implementation of the changed curriculum.   In the change studied, the curriculum was a top-down change instituted at the national level rather than driven by teachers’ desires.  The results of the study showed that many teachers did not implement the new curriculum, with fewer than half of the proposed activities being taught two years after the introduction, and with many teachers teaching none of the new activities at all.  The authors concluded that introducing a new curriculum requires extensive attention to teachers’ intension, attitudes, self-efficacy, and orientation toward mastery and attaining goals (Gorozidis & Papaioannou, 2011).

St. Leger (1998) considered the subject of health promotion within the educational system and provided substantial information about the successes and limitations of health promotion curriculum in the Australian ¬†school systems.¬† Although not specific to the Cypriot Health Promotion curriculum, St. Leger explored the reasons why health promotion is a crucial addition to all school curricula, as well as illustrated universal barriers to creating a comprehensive and sustainable school program that emphasized healthy lifestyles and choices amongst students, parents, and educators.¬† St. Leger discussed a variety of movements within the European, Australian, and American school systems which sought to provide children with curricula that employed a holistic approach that went beyond mere education of the mind in order to help students develop healthy physical selves through health promotion programs.¬† Successful health promotion programs were largely dependent on the ability of teachers to accept and understand the reasons for merging such campaigns into their general curricula.¬† While the author found that a majority of teachers were concerned about the health of their students and eager to provide their students with tools for better health, the author also found that many teachers were hindered in their efforts to implement such programs due to a lack of preparation and education.¬† Using international efforts in health promotion as a framework through which to explore the specific needs of educators when attempting to implement health promotion programs, the article focused specifically on an Australian research study conducted in the early 1990s.¬† Interviews and surveys of teachers demonstrated that a majority of respondents had difficulty looking at health promotion beyond its use within the classroom, and were often ignorant of the resources available to them and the manner in which family and community partnerships could be used to improve the programs‚Äô likelihood of success (St. Leger, 1998).¬† While the overall enthusiasm and acceptance of the majority of the respondents when presented with the opportunity to discuss health promotion within their schools was a positive outcome of the study, illustrating that Australian primary school teachers were generally open to expanding their curriculum to include health promotion, the author noted that there were a number of key areas that acted as potential roadblocks in efforts to create a long-term health promotion program within Australian schools.¬† Among these were a lack of integration between schools and health services organizations and personnel, the challenge of motivating school administration to support curriculum changes in the area of health promotion, and the continued need for teachers‚Äô continued professional development (St. Leger, 1998).¬† Many teachers surveyed in the study had difficulty expressing what a ‚Äėhealth promotion school‚Äô looked like to them, primarily because they had not been exposed to any successful examples of schools who had been able to integrate health promotion into the overall curriculum of their institutions (St. Leger, 1998).¬† While health promotion curriculum presented an opportunity for educators and administrators to create programs which allowed them to address the health concerns of both their students and society, St. Leger (1998) emphasized ¬†that health promotion efforts ‚Äėwill only be successful if teachers can understand it, interpret it, and shape it to meet the needs of their school community‚Äô ¬†(p.234).

Research conducted by Tjomsland and colleagues (2009) touched on many of the same areas, including the perceptions that teachers had towards health promotion programs and the manner in which their attitudes can help or hinder the success of such programs. The key difference was that Tjomsland et al. focused on Norwegian schools rather than Australian ones.¬† Thus, this article evaluated research conducted at ten Norwegian schools which were already participating in the European Network of Health Promoting Schools (ENHPS), an educational network which seeks to develop support and alliances throughout over 40 European countries regarding health promotion in schools.¬† The authors found that Norwegian teachers wielded a great deal of power when it came to influencing the behaviours of their students, and thus the teachers could be viewed as a largely untapped resource for improving the health behaviours and attitudes of their students (Tjomsland et al., 2009).¬† As agents of change, teachers were uniquely positioned to take on a greater role within the classroom in order to engage in health promotion campaigns.¬† Similarly, such programs had difficulty succeeding if teachers are disinterested, uninformed, or resistant to change (Tjomsland et al., 2009).¬† The health promoting school was defined as an institution which takes a ‚Äėmultifaceted approach [in] combining health education in the classroom with a healthy school environment, school health policies, collaboration with parents, and community, and reoriented school services‚Äô (Tjomsland et al., 2009, p.89).¬†¬†¬† The authors reviewed surveys of 104 teachers that were conducted in 1994 and then again in 1997 in order to determine whether teachers‚Äô initial motivation regarding health promotion programs was sustainable over a period of three years.¬† The researchers examined how teachers‚Äô attitudes towards health promotion changed during the program, the role that their expectations, general attitude, and intentions played in their ability to participate in health promotion activities, and whether their expectations and intentions during the 1994 survey substantially altered when researchers reinterviewed them in 1997 (Tjomsland et al., 2009).¬† Their research indicated that, overall, those teachers who were most positive about their potential involvement in health promotion programs continued to demonstrate a positive attitude in the subsequent survey; indeed, Tjomsland and colleagues (2009) suggest that positivity and an openness to curricular change tends to be self-perpetuating.¬† The researchers also found that 80% of those surveyed reported during the three-year follow-up that health promotion curriculums had been successfully developed, although not all of the respondents had been personally involved in the development of the program.¬† Tjomsland and colleagues (2009) attribute the statistically high number of positive reports at the follow-up point to the likelihood that ‚Äėthe more teachers invest in a program, the more they want the program to succeed, and the more positive their reporting of outcomes will be‚Äô (p. 99).¬† Overall, the researchers suggested that health promotion programs were more likely to become a long-term and sustainable portion of the general curriculum when teachers themselves believed in the viability and effectiveness of such programs, thereby creating an environment in which teachers were motivated to participate and implement health promotion interventions within the classroom (Tjomsland et al., 2009).

Leurs, Bessmes, Schaalma and de Vries (2007) reported on the relationship between teacher implementation of health promotion activities and attributes of the teachers in Dutch primary schools.  The specific factors studied included attitude, social influence, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy.  In studying teachers of students in late primary grades (9- to 12-year-old students), the authors found that teachers who addressed more health issues tended to be teachers of higher grade levels, perceived fewer disadvantages, had higher self-efficacy, and greater staff  and administrative support.  Of these factors, the authors found that having greater staff support was the most important factor in determining greater health promotion implementation in the curriculum. Thus, Leurs et al. concluded that improving and increasing administrative and staff support for teachers of health promotion was one of the most important factors in increasing health promotion efforts in Dutch schools (Leurs et al., 2007).

A health promotion attitude requires more than support from teachers to succeed. Jourdan et al. (2010) investigated the relevance of factors in non-teaching personnel within a school for health promotion. Specifically, the authors conducted interviews of staff including principals, school nurses and doctors, counsellors, administrative, maintenance, canteen, and cleaning staff as well as teachers in French middle schools (grades 6-9).  These personnel noted three types of roles in health promotion: educator, provider of individual support or a listening ear, and participator in collective projects (including facilitator of such projects).  Jourdan et al. found that to truly promote health education and promotion in schools required gaining support from all personnel in the school, both teaching and non-teaching staff (Jourdan et al., 2010).  In a separate study, Jourdan et al. (2011) found that teachers noted several factors as being of importance to health promotion programmes, including the teachers’ understanding of how the curriculum impacted their roles and staff relationships,  and the quality of relationships between teachers and school organisations and parents.  The teachers in this study felt it was essential to consider and respect the total school environment and context when deciding to implement a health promotion curriculum (Jourdan et al., 2011).

Other researchers have looked at more topic-specific health promotion programmes. For example, Sy and Glanz (2008) considered factors that influenced teacher participation in a specific tobacco prevention programme aimed at multiethnic youth in Hawaii. The authors investigated whether there were specific factors that influenced the implementation of the programme by teachers.  Specific factors considered included teacher attitudes, teacher characteristics, teacher training, external facilitators and barriers, and curriculum characteristics.  Of these factors, the authors found that having a programme be part of a year-long curriculum and teachers having a high self-efficacy perception were most closely related to greater implementation.  In contrast, greater perceived complexity implied less complete implementation of the programme. These authors concluded that improving teacher self-efficacy and confidence, perhaps by providing appropriate background and training for the teachers in the curriculum, should improve implementation compliance (Sy an Glanz, 2008).

  1. Research Design

Critical Issues and Theoretical Framework

Based on the review of literature and the characteristics of the new Cypriot health promotion curriculum, several key issues have been identified as being of interest in this study.  These issues include the attitudes of primary school teachers toward the new curriculum, their efficacy as teachers, and their understanding of the philosophy behind the curriculum.


Football brain injury


The world of football is challenged on a regular basis by the experiences associated with traumatic brain injuries in athletes, sustained during hits to the body that lead to significant trauma and health concerns such as concussions. These experiences have become increasingly prevalent in recent years and have been investigated in terms of the long-term impacts of these injuries and how they impact athletes over a period of many years. This is a challenging and important concern of many athletes and coaches and demonstrates the influence of continuous impact on health and wellbeing over time, including the development of research methods to examine this phenomenon more closely and to facilitate improved outcomes for this group. It is expected that there will be moral and ethical concerns to consider with the development of protocols to better manage the risks associated with traumatic brain injury for this population.


Information Security awareness of graduate students using information system


The goal of this paper is to show how graduate students level of awareness using information systems and where does information security lies. This research proposal is intent on showing an understanding of course objectives in computer information systems, and understanding of security awareness. Graduate students are taught how to use information systems, but not taught how to successfully navigate through the internet framework without the risks of data intrusion, virus, or identity theft.

This research proposal proposes an approach which systematically introduces methodologies in order to accurately assess the level of awareness of information security in the use of Information Systems from graduate students. The benefit of this approach is to create an understanding of Graduate students’ usage of information systems, their awareness of information security, and what types of programs or training is needed to raise awareness of Information Security. The research can be used in universities nation-wide to enable them to access the proper training, programs, and protocols for information security awareness on all education levels.

Information Security awareness of graduate students using the information system


Universities are sources of relevant information by the very nature of business they conduct. Thousands of students, undergraduate and graduate, and countless members of their staff utilize the university network for significant personal information for the institution, and for employment purposes within and outside the university. Universities have the responsibility to secure their information, among the unique need to provide systems with open access to for use by staff, students, visitors, and other personnel. While research and policies points at the need for open access for intellectual freedom, the need to ensure information security cannot be compromised.

In this research proposal, we will try to take a deep look at the information security level of awareness within Graduate students’ use of information systems. Using the aid of the knowledge of the concepts of information security as well as published literature, past research, and case studies on the levels of information system usages among graduate students. This research proposal will come to the conclusion that substantial challenges exposed by other studies of both universities and the corporate institutions policies, organization culture, user awareness, staffing, and management support are challenges that universities must address in order to protect the users. The findings of this research proposal contribute to the existing research and literature on information security implementation and management, as well as the fundamental levels of awareness in the higher education sector.

Research Problem

To understand the importance of information security awareness the concept of Information Technology must first be defined. ‚ÄúInformation technology systems have increasingly become beneficial for various organizations. Information technology systems are used in a variety of ways including data processing, storage, and transmission.‚ÄĚ(Mahabi, 2010) Information technology covers the area of managing technology and expands to other areas that include computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages but are not limited to things such as processes, and data constructs.(Igosun, n.d) ¬†To summarize, information technology‚ÄĚ is anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the Information Technology (IT) domain‚ÄĚ (Igosun, n.d). Computer security is utilized to prevent or detect unauthorized actions by users of the system. The protection of data (information security) is the most important. The protection of networks is necessary to prevent loss of server resources as well as to protect the network from being used for illegal purposes.

In today’s society information is readily available for access from any location. People is used to being able to access data at anytime and anywhere through the usage of a wide range of computer devices. However, as information is readily accessible, security will continue to be compromised, and resources will be hindered from in terms of security and control of which computers to permit access.

Information security has the tasks of involving the safeguarding of resources for computing technology, responsibility of ensuring that data is secure and confidential, and limit access to prevent unauthorized users. When information security is effectively implemented within information systems, it involves taking physical security measures to ensure hardware and data are not stolen through physical and virtual prevention. Ability to minimize the risks for error, due to outages, or other implications that result in data loss, by providing a backup strategy.

Research Objectives

The research objective of this research proposal is to know the level of awareness and utilization of Graduate students in terms information systems and awareness of information security that covers computer viruses, unauthorized access, and hardware failure and theft. As the Internet expands, and graduate students continue to access computer networks, there will continually be a need for new improvements to security protocols in order to reduce potential threats and challenges characteristic from these new technologies and software applications and other network devices.

Graduate students’ level of awareness about information security measures are used a big aid in helping to acquire the correct knowledge about protecting their identity, research, and technology. When Graduate students acquire knowledge on how to navigate on the internet from their obtained knowledge of information security, they are able to successfully prevent measures that will inhibit their computer systems. Due to the evolution of technology and computer, this proposal want to implement the importance of knowing information security so that graduate students are better capable of handling data and other computer problems in the future.

This study was anchored on the by using the concept of Dynamic Awareness theory (DAT) that offers the alternative explanation of trying to create awareness within the distributed work groups. Dynamic Awareness Theory brings attention to the pivotal role of the end users, and the social norms practiced in the awareness creation. The DAT theory further explains that to the dynamic nature of awareness creation: as the awareness increases over time and decreases when end users are not actively attentive of the creation. The person’s awareness is not a static state which can be arbitrarily turned on and off. It is rather a slow build-up of information about his surroundings (Kai Riemer, Russel Haines, 2008). This theory of awareness is use to Conceptualize each individual of their daily awareness about what happen in their community because awareness requires active maintenance because it diminishes over time.

Literature Review

In, Tshou‚Äôs et. Al Analyzing Information Security Awareness through Networks of Association, the group researches the different approaches to raising awareness of information security. They approach the topic but first defining what information systems are and their reliance to the organization, for collecting and processing information.(Tshou,, 2010) With the continuance of the increasing flow of information through computer networks has increased the necessary needs for security measures to be implemented in organizations. The level of awareness is a priority that must be properly executed within organizations. In the race of between protecting information systems and information security, ‚Äúhumans and their interactions with information and communication technologies play a fundamental role and is frequently regarded as the weakest link of security.‚ÄĚ(Tshou,, 2010) The different approaches to communicate security messages are categorized by promotional, informational, and enforcing. It proposes the framework for understanding and analyzing the implementation of security awareness activities.

Studies from other universities have been conducted in order to access security awareness in Information Systems when dealing with the perspective of the end-user, (students and faculty). In, Information Security Awareness: System Administrators and End-users Perspectives at Florida State, Mahabi, conducts a two part research study that studies the technical, and non-technical approaches of analyzing the level of awareness within the university. ‚ÄúSpecifically focusing on system administrator and user perception of information security practices and user awareness.‚ÄĚ (Mahabi, 2010) She collected her research by a detailed survey and interviews, research documents, policies, and other methods. This part of the research concluded that the system administrators were more than aware of information security for information systems. However when conducting the second part, when evaluating end users. The level of awareness was significantly lower. Her study is used in aiding the proposal due to its results on the understanding of problems that hinder the approaches to information security awareness. (Mahabi, 2010)

Scholarly use of information: graduate students’ information seeking behavior, Carole George,, researches the questions of graduate students’ information behavior related to their process of inquiry and scholarly activities. When using this literature knowing Graduate students typical internet behavior is essential when defining what Information Systems they rely on the most. ‚ÄúGraduate students help to shape their research activities, and university library personnel provide guidance in finding resources. The Internet plays a vital role, although students continue to use print resources. Convenience, lack of sophistication in finding and using resources and course requirements affect their information behavior. Findings vary across disciplines and between programs‚ÄĚ (George,, 2006) their methods include research, interviews, and surveys. In knowing what influences, and where do they typical research more security awareness needs to know in order to avoid potential security risks.

A comparative study of information security and ethics awareness in diverse university another piece of research literature that tackles the academia world in accessing the importance of information security within the university. The research iterates ‚Äúpeople involved in management information systems face several challenges, especially when it comes to securing their information systems.‚ÄĚ (North, 2010) It is clearly made evident in academic institutions. When the university provides the resources of computer technology to students, there is the belief that the students are aware of the information security risks. ‚ÄúThere is a common belief that students who attend technology universities have more awareness of security and ethics than those who do not. ‚Äú(North, 2010) This study was conducted in order to accurately compare the levels of information security and ethics awareness of students in diverse university environments. Using data collecting from surveys by to different universities. The results of this research showed that the technology driven college were aware than the Liberal centric university. ¬†Based on the study‚Äôs analysis they also made several recommendations help increase the awareness of computer security and ethics in different university environments.

Research Questions

In order to get an accurate assessment of Graduate awareness a series of questions in the research study needs to be asked and adequately answered for correct results. The variables of this study will be the independent variables of the levels of awareness from, information security programs, courses, prior knowledge, or training. The dependent variable remains to be the graduate student’s level of awareness and utilization of information security measures for Information systems that consist of the possible risks of viruses, unauthorized access, hardware failure, and theft.  The levels of awareness and security risks depends on the experiences Graduate students encountered in their information system usage, in which it is the basis of the reasons for the awareness of the students. The following are short-list of research questions be asked in order to get a qualitative measurement of awareness levels.

  1. What is the level of awareness of the students about computer security measures against the following threats?
  2. Virus
  3. Unauthorized access
  4. Hardware failure
  5. What is the level of utilization of the students on computer security measures?
  6. Are the students able to tell if their computer has been hacked?
  7. If a problem where to occur does the student know who to contact within the university?
  8. What is the most practiced computer security measure by the student?
  9. opening online documents
  10. opening emails; attached documents
  11. going on unrecognizable websites; other countries
  12. scanning computer for viruses
  13. What is the least practiced computer security measure by the respondents?
  14. Is there a significant difference between the level of awareness and utilization of the computer security measures by the respondents?
  15. Did the respondents have prior knowledge of Information Security procedures?
  16. courses
  17. programs
  18. prior knowledge from other sources; including internet, IT book, or word of mouth.

The most common computer security measures used throughout organizations and colleges are anti-virus, firewall, and other spyware detection and prevention methods.

Research Method

For this research proposal,  the research methods will be used are a qualitative approach to surveying graduate students, and security personnel in order to conduct  this type of research in order to obtain certain information about the computer security measures. The researchers will use a descriptive assessment method in order to meet the objective of the study. Which is to gather the data in order to be collected and analyzed for proper conclusions.

Research Design

For the research to be properly measure to determine the graduate students’ level of information security awareness and their utilization of computer security on information systems, the descriptive assessment method of research is used. This is used by the researches because the objective of this study is to determine the level of awareness and utilization within the Graduate students without affecting them in any way. Descriptive research design exhibits specific subject and as a precursor to more quantitative studies. The actual questionnaire will be conducted throughout both school semesters, in order or to obtain in any increases in knowledge of security measures. The procedure used is carefully, analyzed in order to obtain accurate information.

Research Environment

The researchers conducted a research within the school’s technology department. The

Respondents of the study will be the graduate student and also have the security personnel, and system administrations as participants of the study.

Research Instruments

For this proposal, the research will utilize a questionnaire as the research instrument. It is the most common instrument or tool of research for obtaining data beyond the physical reach of the observer. The questionnaire will evaluate the level of awareness of Graduate students towards computer security measures in terms of potential security risks. In the second half of the questionnaire, it will try to analyze the level of utilization of all Graduate Students, behavior, and types of Information systems, towards computer security measures.

Data Gathering Procedures for the research, the gathering data procedure, will include the results from the questionnaires, interviews, and data analyzes from potential evaluation of information systems. The results gathered throughout this research hope to find the level of awareness that is needed in order to know the correct protocol to be implemented in information security, to protect graduate students, and others of the university against any potential threat to their computing activities. This research will aid others on exploring a deeper analysis of the topic at hand.


Bogart, Kelley. Information Security Awareness: How to Get Users Asking for More.(n.d) Shaping the Future of IT. Retrieved from

Delone, William, McLean, Ephraim. Information Systems Success: The Quest for the Dependent Variable. (1992).Retrieved from

 Firewalls and Internet Security РThe Internet Protocol (n.d.). Retrieved from

George, Carole, (2006). Scholarly use of information: graduate students’ information seeking behavior. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved from

Hentea, Marian. A Perspective on Achieving Information Security Awareness. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology. (2005). Southwestern Oklahoma State University, Retrieved from

Mahabi, Victoria. Information Security Awareness: System Administrators and End-users Perspectives at Florida State, (2010). Florida State University. Retrieved from

North, Max, A comparative study of information security and ethics awareness in diverse university environments. (2010) Journal of Computing Sciences. Retrieved from

Rosenthal, Dr. Paul  Does IS Education Address Enterprise IT User Concerns? The Business Forum.(n,d) retrieved from

Simon, Judith, Increasing Information Security Awareness in Non-security Courses: A Virtual Team Approach. (2010) University of Memphis. Retrieved from

Security awareness Survey. (n.d) Retrieved from

Taylor, Shirley, Todd, Peter A.Understanding Information Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models. (1995) Information Systems Research. Retrieved from

The Need for Information Security Awareness Training Is Growing. (n.d) Information Security Awareness Training: Villanova University. Retrieved from

Tshou, Aggleki, Analyzing Information Security Awareness through Networks of Association. (2010). Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Retrieved from

Users and Practices. (n.d) Retrieved from

Welcome To Igosun World Of Technology. (n.d.). Igosun. Retrieved from


‚ÄúA Clean, Well-Lighted Place‚ÄĚ by Ernest Hemingway . Research Proposal

This research will examine the work of Ernest Hemingway through the short story ‚ÄúA Clean, Well-Lighted Place‚ÄĚ by employing a formative analytical perspective.¬† The primary focus will be to explore the concepts of absolutism and nothingness simultaneously alliterated throughout the dialogue between the two waiters and through the interjections of the one elderly patron in the restaurant¬†(Hemingway).¬†¬† The discussion will include an exploration of absolutism through the use of the term ‚ÄúNothing‚ÄĚ as it is used throughout the text, such as when one waiter attempts to describe the reasons for the elderly man‚Äôs perpetual drunkenness as well as his suicide attempt, both of which seem to be absolutes in the story¬†(Hemingway).¬† This paper employs a case-study approach to examine the use of story-telling and how the method undertaken impacts literary comprehension through the deliberate disorganization of the dialogue between the two waiters.¬† The research will utilize literary resources to augment the argument of absolutism and explore the use nothingness as well as non-linear dialogue to demonstrate the concepts.


On Possible Limitations of Hume’s Concept of the Miracle


In his text ¬ĽOf Miracles¬ę, Hume proposes a critique of the concept of miracle based upon the notion that a miracle is a form of ¬Ľviolation¬ę of the laws of nature. Accordingly, a miracle can only be said to appear against the backdrop of consistent laws of nature: if this were not the case, the miracle could never be experienced as a miracle. But if the miracle is dependent upon the law of nature, how can this be reconciled with the notion that the miracle is essentially dependent upon God by definition, i.e, the miracle is a sign of the existence of God? By thinking about miracles in terms of the divine, perhaps Hume’s concept of miracle becomes too limited, and therefore his critique of miracle also fails to address the divine aspect of miracle. In other words, he only approaches the miracle from the perspective of the human obserever, and thereby misses the crucial divine aspect of the miracle.


Information Security Awareness of High School Students Using Social Networks: A Case Study in Denton High School

Problem Statement

Today, information systems play an important role in facilitating exchange of information across the globe. They facilitate not only processing, storage, and sharing of information, but also social interactions and business processes. Despite these benefits, the interconnectedness of information systems results in increased security threats to both public and private information. Consequently, much of the research in information systems concentrates on identifying ways and technologies to ensure information security and privacy (Aytes and Connolly, 2004). In addition to security policies and technologies, research emphasizes the need of information security awareness. This awareness refers to efforts, such as training, taken to make users capable of behaving responsibly in application of information systems (Hansche, 2001). It enhances the ability of users to understand insecure practices and ways to protect their information against cybersecurity attacks, such as identity theft, malicious software, and phishing. The current study will investigate influence of information security awareness on behaviors of high school students in use of social networks.




One of the most relevant and controversial social issues of the 21st Century is abortion. Although abortion is legal as noted by the Supreme Court of the United States, it is nonetheless one of the most heated and contentious issues that exists in America today. Many people argue that abortion involves the killing of an innocent human being and is often grounded in religious roots and beliefs. This issue is largely politicized across party lines, but it is evident that it is highly individualized choice of whether or not to have an abortion or to support another individual’s decision to have an abortion. Regardless of the whether or not an individual supports or is against abortion, it is nonetheless a personal belief and a personal choice. In evaluating abortion as a social and a political issue, there are many layers to consider, as many people may argue that abortion is never appropriate, appropriate under specific conditions, or is appropriate when an individual deems it necessary. With any of these perspectives, it is important to address all sides of the issue, including stigma and the emotional factors involved with this issue so that all perspectives are better understood and appreciated. The following discussion will address the abortion issue in greater detail from a number of perspectives so that all sides of the argument are considered. Regardless of preference, individual perspectives must be respected and the law of the land should be taken seriously. It is important to recognize the challenges surrounding this issue and to take it seriously and without preconceived notions or judgments which could lead to negative perceptions and behaviors. In essence, the abortion argument will never be solved; however, constructive and meaningful discussions are possible regarding this issue under the semblance of mutual respect and understanding.

Political Science

Why has there been a major conflict between the Islamic and the western world in the last 20 years?

Causes of Conflict between Islamic and Western Worlds

Over the past two decades, the world has experienced a growing intensity in strife between the Islamic and western nations. Such strife-filled situations became more evident during the Gulf wars in the 1990’s and the Iraq war of 2003 (Hafez 27). These two instances represented the peak of conflict between the two parties. Over these two decades, stakeholders have propagated various theories and ideologies suggested to be the root causes of the conflict. Distant perspective on the issue proposes rational causes like the clash in civilization, power vacuum and varied cosmopolitan views on human rights between the fighting parties (Huntington 57). Empirical evidence from practical situations serves the purpose of backing up these claims postulated by objective analysts of international conflicts (Hafez 32). Interested parties in the conflict, especially western nations and the US adopt realist theory as a mechanism of developing a coherent understanding on the justification behind their engagement.