According to Emile Durkheim, deviance serves a number of functional purposes in society, and is in fact both an important and necessary part of how society functions. In essence, Durkheim asserts that deviance provides a means by which the rest of society can measure its own norms. Deviance serves to affirm cultural values and norms, and helps to define moral boundaries (Macionis, 2012). Responses to deviance also help society bond together in their affirmation of the norms that restrict deviant behavior, while also helping to promote social change as some deviant behavior becomes acceptable through societal evolution (Macionis). Durkheim’s theory takes a largely structural-functional approach to understanding deviance, while other theories examine deviance through different perspectives. This paper will examine the use of marijuana and the ways that society is changing its views on the subject.
Dear Dr. King,
I am writing to respond to the letter you wrote while incarcerated in Birmingham in April 1963. In that letter you addressed a number of issues related to your fight for freedom and equality for yourself and your fellow Negroes. Today, citizens of the United States who are of African decent are no longer referred to as Negroes; the term most commonly used now is “African-American.” Much has changed for African-Americans since the day you wrote that letter. Some things have gotten much better, but unfortunately some things have gotten far worse than you could imagine. The fight for civil rights that you fought for so valiantly was won, and legislation was passed that ended segregation in the United States. The new laws were not enough to change people’s attitudes, however, and the end of segregation did not mean the end of racism. Even those with the best of intentions sometimes created circumstances that presented new challenges and obstacles for African-Americans. Despite the achievements of the civil rights movement, America still has a significant race problem.
Chapter 11: Political and Economic System
Canada’s political system is embedded in democracy linking a federal system of parliamentary government with these strong democratic traditions. Importantly, this country is considered a constitutional monarchy. The monarch functions as the head of state and dispenses authority. Politically, it is designed within the confines of a multi-party system since many of its legislative practices were derived from the conventions written under the precedents established by Great Britain’s Westminster Parliament (Bickerton, 2009).
Both race and ethnicity seem to go hand in hand, but in reality, it is these two that qualities that tear people apart and put up walls between nations. In Massey and Denton’s “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass”, the impact of the social injustice against Africans-Americans, Latinos and Puerto Ricans hits afresh.
Race Relations in the United States
For a country that was supposedly founded on principles of freedom and equality for all, the United States has a very long, complicated, and very often dirty past when it comes to the social, political, and economic factors on race relations. For a country that considers itself forward thinking, progressive, and equal, the United States has shown very conflicting views and policies dealing with issues of race relations overall–not even limited to any particular minority. The United States, as a country founded on people attempting to escape oppression, seems to actually revert back to ethnocentrism when confronted with the new and unfamiliar, perhaps as a defense tactic against the oppression the “melting pot” of immigration has felt since before this country was considered its own country at all.
The book “More Than Just Race” by William Julius Wilson addresses some of the most important issues associated with racial inequality that exist in modern society. In the United States, racial inequality continues to prevail, in spite of the legal support against this practice. Racial inequality is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon which conveys the importance of addressing the causes of this inequality and why there is a significant divide between races in the modern era. The author’s perspective is practical and socially driven because it conveys the importance of social classes and status in the context of observing new forms of racial inequality throughout society. These efforts demonstrate that is important to address racial inequality in a social context in order to observe how this practice is socially unsettling in many ways and limits progress in fighting poverty and segregation in many communities. Wilson’s perspective and approach to this issue will be described in the following paragraphs in an effort to shed some light regarding the different dimensions of racial inequality as they impact not only relations between races, but also social classes and communities.
Social stratification involves classification of people into classes’ bases on their shared social economic features. Social stratification is mainly found in the inequalities in these features, and results in greater power privileges and status among individuals higher in the stratification hierarchy. The core principles of stratification are that stratification is global, but varies in degree, carries over from generation to generation, a trait of society and not entirely reliant of the individual beliefs but also involves these beliefs. Social classes result from stratification in the lower class, the middle class, and the upper class.
1.The article entitled “The Waning of American Apartheid?” by Reynolds Farley addresses some of the most important and integral components of segregation in the United States and how it has shaped outcomes for many people in different ways. Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton demonstrated that although the United States had taken many steps to reduce segregation and to integrate people from different races and ethnicities into the same areas, many communities remain racially divided and segregated, thereby driving racial injustice in different forms (Farley, 2011). In essence, many African Americans have been afforded opportunities to pursue the American dream, just like their White counterparts; however, they have faced considerable challenges and difficulties in their efforts to achieve equality, and in many cases, this desire for equality is never fully realized (Farley, 2011). From the perspective of the African American seeking to purchase a home or rent an apartment, for example, there are often many steps that are required and loopholes that must be jumped through in order to achieve this outcome (Farley, 2011). These expectations are not only unrealistic, but they are also unethical on the basis of discrimination (Farley, 2011). Nonetheless, they continue to exist and to thrive in many communities, particularly in large metropolitan areas (Farley, 2011). Furthermore, in spite of the changes in attitudes towards African Americans throughout the United States, many Whites continue to discriminate in different ways, whether it is through surveys or other perspectives that indicate their preference for environments that are more “vanilla” rather than “vanilla and chocolate” (Farley, 2011). These differences are important because they convey the relevant nature of persistent attitudes and beliefs regarding African Americans as they are expressed by many Whites and those of other ethnicities (Farley, 2011).
The media is a very powerful tool used by a wide number of people and organizations to reshape the minds of the general public. Musical groups, political figures, actors, comedians and even everyday people utilize outlets like the press, YouTube and other media channels to deliver a message to a large number of people. Recently, musical artists Brad Paisley and LL Cool J attempted to do just that- whether they succeeded or not has turned into a country wide heated debate over racism.
This discussion embraces references from Greg Mortenson’s (2006) ‘Three Cups of Tea’ novel and how these concepts could be applied towards resolving conflicts in the work environment. Mortenson’s (2006) philosophy encompasses three steps in establishing a relationship while drinking three cups of tea to understands another’s culture, the process moving from stranger to honored guest, then family.
Divorces are becoming increasingly common in modern America. Most often these painful ordeals are filled with emotion that leads to problems between the individuals. Sometimes the issues get brought into the court system, which makes the situation worse for all the people involved, both directly and indirectly. Children can end up having to take the stand at trial, or even being faced with “choosing” between parents. Making that kind of choice at an early age can affect their lives and become a detrimental to their growth as well as development.
This research papers looks at the various studies and research done to analyze the relation of juvenile delinquency due the failures of intact marriages. Marriage is viewed as strong institution and the lack of has shown to contribute to the criminal behavior of children from the broken homes. There are many factors that can contribute to juvenile delinquency. Of the most popular factor has been the role the family plays in juvenile behavior. It is obvious that a child’s family can have a significant impact on the child’s level of delinquency. The goal of this paper is to tie the two interdisciplinary fields of Sociology and Psychology in order to give support to the main ideas that children raised outside of intact marriages has an increased risk for crime and delinquency. This research paper uses the research methods of literary studies, articles, qualitative, and quantitative data to provide relevant analysis. This research will provide useful and valuable information that will contribute to the growing study on familial and juvenile behavior.
Poverty in today’s society is a very challenging and difficult set of circumstances that are derived from a number of different sources. Poverty is a social problem that impacts individuals and families in many communities and mandates corrective action and further analysis. Capability deprivation is a more powerful approach for finding ways to fight poverty than a focus on raising the incomes of the poor alone; because capability deprivation is not solely related to income, as other factors are relevant. Some of these factors include age, location, gender and social status, all of which contribute to the capability deprivation approach (Sen, p.1). It is important to acknowledge that there are many variables within individual communities, and that conditions are not universal for all impoverished persons (Sen, p.1). Direct experience with individuals who face poverty and providing assistance to these individuals is a critical component of their ability to succeed in a given environment, even when income is not changed significantly. However, income is a significant factor and limitations on capability such as disability, are likely contributors to the level of income that an individual might earn (Sen, p.1.). In this manner, the capability approach is a more powerful sentiment than the income approach because there is significant potential which exists in many individuals that is never fully developed due to lack of opportunity and focus. Therefore, many people do not bring their vision to the world and earn the respect and income that they deserve. Nussbaum’s ten capabilities enhance Sen’s argument in promoting trust in the talents and abilities of individuals from different social classes and income levels.