Lowering Drinking Age

The topic of the drinking age limit in the United States has always been a heated debate. Some want to lower the age limit to 18 years old while some want to keep the age limit at 21 years old. The truth is, most people under the age of 21 are often exposed to and periodically consume alcoholic beverages. Often, this type of drinking can lead to a behavior known as binge drinking- a serious and life threatening condition. I personally have witnessed how binge drinking and the current drinking laws have negatively affected people around me. However, despite the fact that underage drinkers may drink irresponsibly, the legal drinking age could be to blame for the high-risk behavior and the responsibility of drinking appropriately should be up to the individual and not the courts. I personally have witnessed how binge drinking and the current drinking laws have negatively affected people around me. This is why I believe the legal drinking age should be lowered to 18 years old in the United States.

Despite having laws that prohibit persons under the age of 21 to consume alcoholic beverages,“underage drinking is allowed in 29 states if done on private premises with parental consent, 25 states if for religious purposes, and 7 states if for educational purposes.” (Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), Underage drinking is very common at high schools and college dormitories. When I was in high school, drinking was a right of a passage- and the illegality of alcohol made it even more alluring than if it were legal. As a matter of fact, studies show that allowing persons between the age of 18 and 20 to consume alcohol in regulated environments would decrease unsafe drinking activities.

Risk taking is another thrill of underage drinking. Lowering the legal drinking age from 21 years old to 18 years old would reduce the thrill of breaking the law to get a drink. The normalization of alcohol consumption as an activity done responsibly and in moderation will make alcohol consumption less of a taboo for young adults entering college and the workforce. Alcohol will no longer be seen as a “forbidden fruit.” I know that when I was 18, much of the reason why my friends and I engaged in excessive drinking was because we were not supposed to, because it was against the law. Legalizing alcohol for people 18 and over would remove the temptation and urge that comes with the risk taking associated with drinking.

In the United States, citizens as young as 18 years old can legally vote and serve in armed forces. The government and the people agree to and accept the fact that at the age of 18 years old a citizen is mature enough to elect the future leader of their country- responsible enough to carry arms to fight and die for their country, but they are not old enough to decide whether or not they can have an alcoholic beverage. I thoroughly believe that if a person is old enough to make a decision to serve their country with their life, they are responsible enough to make the decision as to whether or not they can have a drink or two.

In my opinion, I think the legal drinking age of 21 years old in the United States should be lowered to 18 years old because it could decrease binge drinking in people under 21, lower the rate of drunk driving accidents, and eliminate the “risk” that lures so many underage drinkers into drinking. From my own personal experiences, lowering the drinking age would have eliminated many problems people in my life have experienced because of alcohol. Legalizing alcoholic consumption for citizens 18 years or older can potentially eradicate a large quantity of problems caused by only allowing citizens over the age of 21 to drink.




Criminal Justice

Male Socialization and the Excesses of Male Crime

Gender as Factor in Crime

Crime Issue

A wide variety of evidence consistently supports one factor in regard to crime, in that men commit it more often, and in larger numbers, than do women. This uniformity of gender difference is, in fact, highly disproportionate. In cases of violent persona assault, over 80 percent of assailants are male. Men also account for over 70 percent of all serious property crimes, and the ratio of male to female convicted murderers is eight to one (Siegel, 2009, p. 72).   The gender differences are apparent in virtually all arenas of crime, as more men invariably commit burglary and other offenses than women. This is known as the “gender gap” in crime, and it has long intrigued theorists, the judicial system, and the society itself. Then, the greater amount of male crime also promotes a vicious cycle of a kind; as many male crimes are violent assaults upon women, the victims in turn are driven to criminality of their own in response (Warner, 2012, p. 122). Despite certain fluctuations to be noted, there is no escaping that fact that men are far more likely to perpetrate crime, and of types ranging from petty robbery to murder.


Managerial Finances Homework Problem

Page 161.

  1. The appropriate coupon bond rate is based on an assessment of market risk.
  2. Yes; the investor might be concerned with the nominal return if the nominal return is
  3. Although bond issuers are not obligated (regulated) to have their bonds rated, they do as a means to signal value to the investor. That is, they want to have a “stamp of approval” regarding the quality of the bond offering for investors.


Pages 162-165


  • What is the price of a 15 year zero coupon bond priced at

A 15 year zero coupon bond is a bond that receives no coupon bond at the end and is thus priced below par

  1. Bond price= M/(1+i)^15

= 1000/(1.05)^15= $481.0

  1. Bond price= M/(1+i)^15

= 1000/(1.10)^15= $239.39

  1. Bond price= M/(1+i)^15

= 1000/ (1.15)^15= $122.49



Watters Umbrella Company

N= 13 years remaining

Coupon rate= 7.8%

Semiannual payments

Current market price= 105%

= 78+ 1000-1050/ 13/ 1000+1050/2

= 3.60%


13.5 years to maturity

YTM= 7.3%

Current price= $1080

Semiannual rate

CR= 2

[(1080 – 1000 (1+.073)^25 ) / (1000{ 1 – (1+.073)^-25 } / .073 ) ]

= $91.77



Par payment= $1,000

25 years to maturity

Coupon rate= 6.4 percent

YTM= 7.6

64* 1-1/(1+.064)^25/.064+ 1000 (1.064)^25


= $867.40


  • The approximate rate of return is 2.4 percent; the exact rate of return is 2.35 percent. This is because the real rate is the nominal rate minus the rate of inflation.


Bond Rate= 4.7%-2.3% (inflation)= approximate real rate of 2.4


13) There are two bonds in this example. In the first example, the bond is paying more than the YTM meaning the price will have to increase over the life of the bond. In the second example, the bond is paying less than the YTM meaning that the interest rate will increase over time as the price of the bond decreases.




15) If interest rates increase by 2%, there is a substantial difference on the lower-rated bond versus the higher rated bond. If interest rates decrease by 2%, there is a substantial difference on the higher-rated bond versus the lower-rated bond. Thus, the higher rating gives the bond issuer more flexibility.


Harada Book Report

“The Harada Method – The Spirit of Self Reliance” was written by Takashi Harada and Norman Bodek in order to teach people how to be effective leaders and managers. It provides helpful information on how to motivate others, gives reasons and methods on how to help others develop and pursue goals, and allows people to determine how they are progressing on their own. This book sets out a very precise way to do this, which includes identifying a goal, determining the reason behind this goal and why success will be advantageous, in addition to determining why past attempts have failed or succeeded. The book specifies that the way to achieve success is to figure out 64 tasks or steps that are needed to achieve an individual goal and that 10 of these tasks should be selected at the beginning of the process. It also recommends that we add 10 new routines to our daily habits, keep a journal to track our progress, and seek a mentor for help and advice.

The main purpose of this book is how to foster the development of an effective and an efficient team based on an individual’s leadership. I believe that while team dynamics and the work ethic of the individual are important factors in running a successful business, good leaders are typically able to build upon the skills that good employees currently have or motivate mediocre employees to perform well. This book provides steps that will allow managers from all walks of life to achieve this. The concept of the book itself is interesting because Norman Bodek was inspired by the low cost of labor in third world countries like China and India, and wanted to find ways to compete with these nations according to the standards of our country. The Harada Method could be used in the lean manufacturing industry in combination with current methods to increase productivity and ensure accuracy. The book emphasized overall improvement in the workplace and especially focuses on the issue of self-reliance; if an employee becomes truly self-reliant, they will be an invaluable asset to their company.


“The Harada Method – the spirit of self reliance” Book Report

Some books are meant to tell a story and some books are meant to inspire others. Books meant to inspire are those that are generally described as “self-help”, but they are those small minorities where those “self-help” books can transform lives and businesses. Self Help books have the intention to motivate, instruct, and inspire those to do better. For this book review, The Harada Method the Spirit of Self-Reliance by Takashi Harada, Norman Bodek, is meant to inspire not only individuals but also inspire corporations, businesses, and entities. Within this book review, an overview will be given on the book with the aid of quotes, and chapter analysis of the purpose of the book that has been endorsed by major corporations such as The Cumberland Group, The Toyota Company, and The Coca-Cola Company.

Norman Bodek created the book when got interns from Utah and Portland State colleges, he then contacted a friend in Japan, Shigheiro Nakamura, to teach his interns about the 38 MAP method, according to Bodek was an instrument that teaches them cost, delivery, set-up improvements, equipment management, automation, first class skills, etc. On one of Nakamura’s last weeks of his Skype lesson, he discussed Takashi Harada and the Harada Method. After listening to him explain the Harada Method, Bodek jumped at the opportunity to contact Harada and meet him. Once flying to Japan, Harada agreed to come back to America with him. They agreed to co-author a new book with him on Harada Method that he wrote over two years. Since then, Bodek has been doing seminars, conferences and teaching the Harada Method to his students at Portland State. During his conferences and seminars he was able to certify a number of executives and managers that were trained in the Harada Method that they were able to bring back to their corporations and trained their employees.

“The Harada Method” provides a systematic step by step guide, which teaches employees to take responsibilities for making their self of importance to their business. The employees will find their own self-reliance that leads them to become more accomplished and reaching higher levels of professional and personal performances. “The Harada Method” is also used as a motivational tool for managers to help their employees bring out the best in them in order to achieve corporate and personal goals. However, “The Harada Method” is not just for employees, Harada also used it in schools.

“By promoting educational efforts and sports programs, I could help them understand the importance of having dreams and clear goals in life. Having dreams and goals helps guide people in the right direction. It helps them build great character and it eventually helps them succeed in their lives.” (Bodek, Harada, 2012)


When he taught these students and coaches the “The Harada Method” they were significantly transformed. Within years, they were winning medals, becoming the number one in their sports field, students that were once considered underachievers had received scholarships to colleges, and transformed that school.

According to Bodek self-reliance is the main feature of the method. “Self-reliance is the ability of each person to become so skilled at something that they become artisans in disciplines they choose that serve their future and also the success of their organization.” (Bodek, Harada, 2012) Bodek throughout his book emphasizes the concepts of self-reliance, self-improvement, and making goals to achieve. “The Harada Method” is broken down into chapters, but it focuses on the five forms of the method which include, “33 Questions for Self-Reliance” that measures how self-reliant the person views themselves. Second, was the “Long-Term Goal Form” which is the main factor of the “The Harada Method.” It focuses on an instrument used to organize their purposes and goals, and a self-analysis that is transformed into an action plan. This form is divided into multiple sections that allows people to set their goals at different levels. It helps to keep the individual encouraged, on track, motivated, and the option to find someone to help them coach them along the way to help reach their goals. The third form is the, “Open Window 64 Chart” which is a particular framework that allows the individual to create tasks and routines that will help them accomplish their goals. The fourth form, “Routine Check Sheet” is just for people to create daily checklists that keeps them on track and makes them stronger in their routines. The last form is, “Daily Diary” which is used as a tool for planning that helps people be organized and improve on their productivity skills. The individuals create to-do lists that allows them to write out their tasks and also reflect on how far they have come.

Within the chapters of the books, he provides readers with systematic steps that are first for individuals to become self-reliant in order to become a winner. They then select the goals that they feel they want to succeed in life. These goals help to define their values in purposes within their lives. They are then instructed to analyze their past failures, opportunities, and success that they then are instructed to provide countermeasures that will help with their future goals. The next step is them creating their 64 tasks and actions charts, and they begin with 10 select tasks, pick out their routines, and create new habits. The other chapters provide the last steps which coincide with the five forms explained earlier.

Overall, Bodek gives not only individuals their encouragement that they are beneficial not only in their lives, in the lives of those around them, and invaluable to their company. The book helps to take people to their full capacity, and learn their full capability in and outside the workplace. Unlike other self-help guides, Bodek also encourages leaders to be motivators, coaches, and mentors to their employees in efforts for them to realize their full potential in helping the company be more successful, and working towards individual successes. These methods help companies compete on a local, national, and global level with other companies by teaching to be more lean, productive, and prioritized.


Bodek, Norman, Harada, Takashi. (2012). The Harada Method the Spirit of Self-Reliance. PCS Press.


Brics and Mitsk (PPT)

Brics and Mitsk

Social Issues

Designing Healthy Communities is a well-designed website. It was easy to answer the health questions I had about my community because the site features easy to use tabs that break down information into categories such as “health”, “transportation”, and “food”. In addition, the videos are easy to find and its featured articles are well placed. Information about Dr. Jackson was also very easy to find; there is a tab that provides his background information on the top of the page. I learned that he was the chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health, served on the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Architects, and has won many awards including the Sedgwick Memorial Medal. He created this TV series and wrote the textbook because he is extremely interested in health and the environment, which likely resulted from his involvement with epidemiology, government health efforts, and history as a teacher.

The last time this website was updated was seemingly at the beginning of May because the front page advertises shows that begin on May 4th; if the site was regularly maintained, this information would have been gone by now. Although I do feel that the information presented is valid and easy to understand, I don’t feel that it is up to date. If any major changes in the health community have occurred between the beginning of May and now, the website wouldn’t reflect this.

The website offers a lot of information about public health that is related to obesity and chemical poisoning. It does give some information on how public heath can be characterized and measured, such as using BMI to measure obesity. It cites the common hazards that we can be exposed to due to our locations, careers, and environment. The site offers information about the nature of communities based on their setting, wealth, and ethnic makeup. It gives tips and advice on how these communities can improve their health. Although there was a lot of mention about obesity and diet, there weren’t many suggestions on how to exercise properly to become healthier. I believe that the page will be more effective once this information is added.


PBS. (2013). Designing Healthy Communities. Retrieved from


A Review of ‘The Harada Method’ by Norman Bodek and Takashi Harada

In many respects, books are meant to tell a story, create a fantasy, motivate, inspire, and overall change lives. Millions of individuals flocked to bookstores (online or physical), libraries, and seminars in order to pick up the latest in ‘self-help” books. Self-help books are meant to guide individuals and give them to the tools to make a change in their life. In the case of The Harada Method: The Spirit of Self Reliance, Norman Bodek and Takashi Harada provided a guide that not only transformed the lives of individuals but businesses large and small. Backed with endorsements from major executives and companies such as the Kirin Brewery and Uniqlo Clothing manufacturers, Coca-Cola Company, and several other, this book is an instrument meant to change the way in which individuals operate. The purpose of this book review is to give insightful analysis and information from the book that details why this is not an ordinary self-help guide.

Norman Bodek initially came up with the idea of writing this book through the string of events of gaining interns, to contacting his dear friend, Shigheiro Nakamura in order to teach his interns about the 38 MAP method which consists invaluable skills within the industry. Upon reaching the end of his weekly Skype lesson to the interns, Nakamura discussed “The Harada Method” by Takashi Harada. As Bodek listened intently, he became intrigued and flew to Japan in order to meet the men who started it all. The two formed a variable relationship where Bodek convinced Harada to come back to the states with him and co-write an Americanize version of “The Harada Method” in order to share the gospel with U.S companies and individuals. After two years of creating, they finalized their book and embarked on a literary motivation whirlwind tour where they taught at conferences, seminars, and to his very own students the concepts and principles of “The Harada Method.” Throughout the book Bodek reiterates the importance of self-reliance as it is essential in the process and “The Harada Method.” The principles of self-reliance are as follows: goals, purpose, analysis, action, and routine. These steps help in creating individuals who are self-reliant, goal oriented, developed to their fullest potential. The systematic approach is broken down into easy to implement steps within the work place. The steps are laid out not only for individuals but for managers and executives to use as motivational instruments in leading their staff.

There are essentially five forms within “The Harada Method” that Bodek explains, combined with his own analysis and tools that include steps to long-term goal setting, and making actions plans to reach those goals. The first steps in beginning the process are for the individual to make a list of past failures, in doing, so the individual is able to provide counter solutions to these problems that will help in achieving their future goals. The next steps include the individuals defining goals long-term and short term that are valuable in succeeding in life. The “Long-Term Goal Form” which is the framework of the “The Harada Method.” mainly draws on the individuals needs to be self-sufficient in thinking long-term for their future. Once these have been completed, written down with a thorough self-analysis completed the individual can then proceed to formulate their action plans This form is broken down into multiple parts that permit individuals to set goals at different levels of achievement, importance, and duration. The flexibility for this book to be used within a corporate setting is notable in his inclusion of the importance of a coach that is able to motivate, encourage, and keep their employees on track alongside the form to help reach their goals. These goals are valuable in and outside the workplace.

Bodek proceeds to detail “The Harada Method” tools which are pertinent in the success of the individual. These tools include the “33 Questions for Self-Reliance” that measures the self-reliance from the perspective of the individual. The “Open Window 64 Chart” these actions charts, ask that individuals select 10 tasks, pick out routines, and create new habits that will help them accomplish their goals. The “Routine Check Sheet” allows people to create daily checklists in order to keep them on track and build stronger routine. “Daily Diary” is one of the last forms and is a useful planning tool that keeps people not only organize but expounds on productivity skills that are key in their career and managing their day to day activities. Creating to-do lists help people look back on past accomplishments that help them reflect on how far they’ve come. Along with the guided steps and forms, Bodek also draws on the experiences, stories, and analysis of athletes, scholars, and executives, whom he interviews, on the importance of individuals understanding their invaluableness to themselves and the company. Managers are able to bring out the best in the employees by helping them set goals and achieve them which reflects back on their leadership and their organization. Drawing from sports analogies readers are able to set out goals in order to become champions in life and to those around them.

The tone of the book is positive and provides models for improved motivation and focused goal-setting that works on a basic level, but a somewhat simplistic psychological approach. Overall, the analysis is the human potential of self-reliance and self-improvement can be nurtured through the development of self-analysis and goal setting. This book is an essential tool in creating a work environment of encouragement, productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness for the long-term success of the organization. Bodek and Harada have utilized the “The Harada Method” by including a step-by-step guide in leaving past failures behind and creating ways to prevent future ones. In this context individuals are able to reach their goals at steady and manageable pace where they can set their own deadlines, manage their success, and mirror it in their daily activities.


Works Cited

Harada, Takashi; Bodek, Norman. Harada Method: The Spirit of Self Reliance. 2012. Vancouver, WA: PCS Press



What would I like to grow in my life and why ?

Growing Money


  • Most of us try to find a purpose in life so that life has meaning
    • My purpose in life is to grow money


  • Thesis: Growing money will help me with personal issues as well as make difference in the world


  1. Money will help me meet estimated healthcare costs
    1. Need at least $500,000 for surgery, medications, and rehabilitation


  1. Money will help me build a physical exercise health studio
    1. Source of income
    2. Employment for several individuals
    3. Positive change in the society through promotion of exercise lifestyle


  1. Money will also enable me to market my business
    1. Marketing is especially needed in early stages
      1. Create brand awareness
      2. Build customer base



  • I want to grow money
    • It will help me take care of medical expenses
    • Start a business
    • Make a positive difference in society

Coca Cola 2012 Annual report

Coca Cola 2012 10-K

The annual report is usually divided into several sections to make it easier for the reader to access the desirable information. Coca-Cola’s (Coke) annual report for the fiscal year has been divided into four main parts, with each part containing different sections. The first part covers sections which provide us with basic introduction to the company. The first section gives us general overview of the business such as scale of operations, geographical concentration, financial strength, products, and marketing strategies. Other sections include risk factors that could have material negative impact on the business, legal issues currently facing the company or that may arise in the near future, and the leadership of the company. The second part of the annual report primarily deals with financial data and analysis. The sections covered in this part include capital structure, financial statements such as income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement, accounting principles used in preparing the financial statements, and company’s control mechanisms. The third part primarily deals with sections such as management and leadership of the company, executive compensation, and board of directors etc. The fourth and final part is the shortest component of the annual report and contains such information such as a list of important sections within the annual report, and definitions/explanations that may help the reader better understand the annual report (Coca-Cola, 2013).

Even though the company’s sales and net income figures during 2012 were better than 2011, the performance was quite disappointing as compared to the year 2010. Coke’s net income was higher in 2010 than 2012 even though the sales revenue in 2010 was about three-fourth the 2012 level. A closer study reveals that both cost of goods sold as well as marketing expenditure has significantly increased over the last few years which may be a sign of economic recovery as well as more intense competition with Pepsi. This may also be why we note in the balance sheet that there was a significant decline in cash reserves between 2011 and 2012. We also note a notable increase in loans and notes payable during the same period which also explains declining profitability as compared to 2010. Despite growing competition, the company took steps to further expand its scales of operations as evident by higher levels of capital investment during 2012 as compared to previous two years. This is especially evident in the investing section of the cash flow statement.

As far as primary assets are concerned, Coke’s largest long-term assets are property, plant, and equipment at about $14.48 billion and goodwill at a little over $12.2 billion. This is not surprising because Coke has one of the most valuable brands in the world and the nature of company’s operations requires huge capital investments in buildings and manufacturing equipment. In addition, the company also owns part of its global distribution network. The company’s largest short-term assets are cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments at a little over $13.4 billion. This may be due to the fact that the company requires significant short-term liquidity to conduct its day-to-day operations.

As far as company’s internal control system is concerned, the management reports its regularly conducts internal audits and management reviews and also carefully selects and trains qualified personnel. But the management also states that no internal control system can prevent all instances of unethical behavior or misstatements and there is also a possibility that the severity of risks exceed the effectiveness of the internal control system.





Coca-Cola. (2013). Form 10-K. Atlanta, Georgia: The Coca-Cola Company.







Borderline Personality Disorder


The main causal factor for Borderline Personality Disorder is temperament. This is described as the disposition of child from the instance of birth. These are the absolute aspects of a person’s personality that will stay with them for the rest of their lives. In many cases this is directly linked to an imbalance in certain brain neurotransmitters: specifically Dopamine, Serotonin, GABA, as well as Norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters are directly responsible for affecting mood, as well as emotion, and should this imbalance run genetically down the line of a patient, they are easily much more predisposed to developing a borderline personality disorder. Other environmental factors can include child abuse and emotional neglect.

Therapists find borderline personality disorder particularly difficult to treat because of the nature of the disorder in general. The symptoms that usually present with borderline personality disorder in and of itself makes it very hard to treat. Specific symptoms that make the disease particularly hard to treat for therapists is the manipulation and prone to lying that these patients present with. They generally are not receptive to treatment, and are often successful in manipulating mental health professionals into believing they are indeed complying with treatment. The inability of many of these patients to see the proverbial “gray area” makes them very hard to treat, even with psychotherapy. As a result of the symptoms that surround borderline personality disorder, therapists tend to walk on eggshells with their patients, not sure what exactly to believe and what is a product of manipulation. These often-intelligent patients are some of the most difficult to treat in the entire mental health community.


The Effect of Cost of Capital on Corporate Profitability

The objective of this report is to study the effect of the cost of capital on corporate profitability. Since business enterprises are motivated by the incentive of profit cost, capital is one of the major determinants that quantify the extent and the volume of the profit. There are several approaches to calculate the cost of capital. This paper has applied the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) model to the construction industry of the United Arab Emirates. The results show there is no significant relationship between WAAC and ROE (return on equity).

In the construction industry- under the assumption that scale of operation and managerial efficiency in all the firms operating in the industry remains the samethe cost of capital towards firm’s profitability for a sample of seven listed companies in Dubai’s financial market between 2005 to 2007. The result of the study shows no significant relationships exists between costs of capital and profitability.



In this report, my objective was to do an empirical research on the effects of cost of capital using the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC) approach on profitability from the viewpoints of listed companies within the Dubai Financial Market & Abu Dhabi’s Financial Market. The study used cost of capital measure of WACC along with other independent variables for 21 listed companies between 2005 and 2007. Based on this research, it can be concluded that there is no significant relationship between the cost of capital and the profitability for the listed companies in Dubai’s Financial Market & Abu Dhabi’s Financial Market.


The study, however, does not recommend that the forecasting validity of the model can be improved if some relevant quantitative factors affecting corporate profitability such as investments, inflation, foreign exchange rate and qualitative factors such as management style, affect the investment decisions or the interest of shareholders involved.




Are Processed Foods Good for our Health?

Due to the new food and health culture introduced in the modern society, processed foods are becoming a common element in the long list of choices of food for the people at present. Processed foods are considered to be an easier and better choice for many individuals especially those who are living specifically busy lives. Since they are easy to buy in the supermarkets and almost any kind of food store, they are easily accessed by consumers at present. Given this, they also require less preparation hence making it easier for the buyers to consume them with full convenience. Nevertheless, because of current release of research results, it has been realized that somehow, eating too much processed food has caused several anomalies in human health often resulting to problems like diabetes, obesity and other ailments connected to the said conditions.

I personally feel connected to this topic, as I do desire to be much healthier. However, my food culture is more dependent on consuming processed foods. Relatively, researching on this matter I think would give me a better sense of purpose in continuing my desire of indulging in a much healthier choice of food rather than settling for what is most convenient for me to eat.

To complete my study on the matter, I plan to involve researching on references dedicated to discussing both the pros and cons of processed foods and what specific alternatives that could provide a good indication on food choices that humans ought to give attention to at present. I do think that through using these references, I would be able to collect relative data that would support my idea of better health provided through non-processed food selections in the market. At this point, I do hope that my study would not only help me personally but also other individuals who may have the same concerns in health issues as I do.

Works Cited:

Jalonick, Mary Clare (17 May 2010). “Food companies agree to remove 15 trillion calories from foods to reduce childhood obesity”. Business News. Associated Pres

Sweet, Lynn (11 May 2010). “Michelle Obama Unveils Anti-Childhood Obesity Action Plan“. Politics Daily.

Shapiro, Laura (March 29, 2005). Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America. New York: Penguin.



African-American Studies

“Letter from Birmingham Jail”

In his famed “Letter from Birmingham Jail”, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was able to continue to express his views and his messages while behind bars. Dr. King was a rallying point for the Civil Rights Movement as a whole, and he was well aware of the injustices going on outside his prison cell. It was very important Dr. King maintain his communication with the outside world to continue to perpetuate his message of a peaceful and passive resistance. In many ways this letter was also intended to speak to Dr. King’s critics who questioned his nonviolent methods, and to reaffirm the peaceful message he saw for the direction of the Movement as a whole.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in his piece “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” directly named and discussed steps necessary for the necessity of a campaign of passive resistance. This is a very important part of the text, as it directly states that the black population was given no other alternative. This was a very important and powerful message coming from a public figure such as Dr. King, who was largely respected by men and women of both races (by comparison to someone like Malcolm X).

The first step Dr. King mentions specifically is the presentation of the facts that a true injustice does largely exist within an area. Right within the text of the speech he states himself Birmingham’s infamous reputation for being segregated, as well as being a hotbed for racial tension, mentioning home and church bombings in the area.

Next, he names the necessity for an attempt at negotiation to solve the problem. Again, he cites where this went wrong in Birmingham–where the local government directly lied to the black community about change. When negotiation proves itself to be ineffective in resolving the conflict, and in his speech specifically Birmingham, Dr. King cites the very internal process of self-purification.

As Dr. King explains in the text, self-purification is a process by which nonviolent protesters are trained to resist the urge to give in to impulses. Through a series of workshops taught on nonviolence, Dr. King and his associates prepared, and help others prepare for questions such as:’ “Are you able to accept blows without retaliating?”‘, as well as whether they are able, or ready, to endure the real possibility of jail.

The final step in completing the steps toward nonviolent protest as named by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is what he called “direct action”. This refers to the carrying out of various means of nonviolent protest, such as sit-ins and peaceful rallies.

I think that passive resistance can be extremely effective to a certain extent. It certainly should be attempted first, before a violent protest–and taking nothing away from the amazing work of Dr, King–eventually a violent aspect is bound to be necessary. A perfect example is the peaceful demonstrations going on in Tibet for many years–and yet their problem remains.

There are many positive aspects of peaceful resistance. The number one positive aspect, that can be used to the passive sides’ advantage in many cases, is the media. When people see images of violence inflicted on peace, it pulls on heartstrings. It gives an adult, clear and coherent message to go along with the movement.

The negative–it is rarely very effective.