Empowerment through Marginalization: The Trajectory Of Gay Identity and Rights in the U.S.


Throughout history there have been several mandates and laws that have been passed on human rights including the U.S Constitution adoption of the Bill of Rights that gave laws to individuals and states protected within the Constitution,. The 14th amendment which prohibited slavery and put in the Equal Protection Clause, and the 19th amendment that prohibited and discrimination against women. From these amendments have bred movements in Civil Rights for African Americans and other minorities, rights for the disabled, rights for gender equality, and presently the rights of gay individuals. Since their passages they have each spawned movements in the 50’s-80’s that have rocked the nation and have changed the political, legal, and social landscape of the United States. The movement for equal human rights has not waned. The issue at hand that is currently being decided by Supreme Court is on the marriage rights of gay individuals. The gay rights movements have roots back in the early 50’s as they have fought alongside others for equal rights as well.


Pacific Gas and Electric

Calculating the Revenue Requirement (Cost of Service) and Rate Base of the utility.

Basic Calculation: Rate Base x Allowed Rate of Return = Required Return + Operating Expenses = Revenue Requirement


In order to get the Rate Base= Gross Plant -Accumulated Depreciation = Net Plant -Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes +Working Capital


$54,166 (GP)-$ 16,643(AD) =$ 37,523 (NP)-$6,748=$30,775 + ($5,121CA-$6,256CL) =$ -1135=Working Capital= $29,640

Rate of Return=Debt/Equity (46%/52%) =8.79% ROR =$2653 (thousands)

OE= ($13,340 + D=$2,272) =$4214 (thousands) Revenue Required.

As a note, PG&E pushed for $6829 (thousands) in 2013 and $8111 (thousands) in 2014.


Evaluation and Morale

The relationship between employee morale and job performance is essential to the fluidity of operations within that job. In the nursing industry, nurse staff morale is pertinent in responding to emergencies and critically catching any errors in particular situations. In the case study provided about the low morale of the nurse staff, it is due in part with the negative working relationship with the nursing manager in the unit that typically evaluates job performances, not on the entire body of work but on one case incident. The nurse staff felt that the comments made by the nursing manager during her performance evaluation were ‘out of the blue’ and that the nursing manager evaluated her based on one time behavior that she felt completely blindsided by. Her demeanor and communication were guarded due to high levels of anxiety and stress associated with their bad working relationship. Not only do these problems raise a red flag in the communication of the entire working unit, but also of the behaviors and ethics of the nurse manager.

One of the first problems to address within this case study is the problem with the performance evaluation and the behaviors of both participants. The purpose of performance appraisal systems are to benefit the nurses, patients, and the organization in order to provide feedback and opportunities for improvement, resolving problems, and identifying those read for advancement. (Grohar-Murray, DiCroce, Langan, 2011) As easy as it is to side with the nurse staff perspective, the nurse manager is tasked with grading and critiquing the nurse’s behavior and performance based on nurse standards that serves the framework for the system. If the nurse manager felt that the “one-time” incident was important enough, she has the right to question the behavior and performance of the nurse staff. Where the problem lies is the lack of communication of the nurse manager that made the nurse staff feel as if she was being blindsided. This could lead to grievances felt by the nurse staff that could have legal, financial, and professional repercussions to the organization. In order to avoid these situations the nurse managers has to provide a different method than the one presented in the case study. “Feedback should be accurate, timely, and constructive.” (Vasset, Marnburg, Furnues, 2011) Grohar-Murray et al. explains that in evaluation communication between the staff and the manager is essential in maintaining a high standards of performance, and professional accountability. In light of the case of the nurse staff, “a developing professional person assumes responsibility and accountability for personal growth in the ability to assess, plan, and evaluate skills……” (Grohar-Murray, et. al, 2011) Instead of being guarded the nurse staff should have respond in a manner where she was knowledgeable of her strengths and weaknesses, and actively communicated in showing her professional behavior in her overall job performance. The nurse manager should have also given the nurse staff adequate knowledge about the evaluation in order to encourage communication and active participation. Within the evaluation the nurse manger, should have presented a balanced view of the nurse staff performance instead of dwelling on one instance. The evaluation should have presented new goals and to clarify expectations of the job.

Recommendations are for there to be more than one person given the responsibility of performance evaluation in order to prevent any bias or problems with specific staff members. It will also ensure the integrity and enforce the purposes of the performance appraisal system and the organizational goals. The nurse manager should actively communicate with the staff in given them knowledge about the evaluation, what the criteria they would be graded on, and the disciplinary actions for bad behavior/performances. On both parts, the purpose of the evaluation should be clear as well as the goals, the mission, and the principles of the organization and job description. When the nurse manager has to give a nurse staff a poor evaluation certain methods will solve the problem that the case study presented including, identifying the poor behavior, summarize the relevant conduct and policy codes, describe how to manage the poor performance, provide an action plan, and identify barriers to managing performance.” (Keegal, 2013) Once these steps are followed both can leave the evaluation feeling as if they were able to communicate any problems or improvements needed by the nurse staff and within the organization.


Grohar-Murray, Mary Ellen, Helen R. DiCroce, Joanne C. Langan. (2011). Leadership and Management in Nursing, 4th Edition. Publisher: Prentice Hall


Keegal, T. (2013) “Poor performance: managing the first informal stages.” Primary Health Care.

23, 4, 32-39.


Vasset, Frøydis, Einar Marnburg, Trude Furunes. (2011). “Dyadic Relationships and Exchanges

In Performance Appraisals.” VÅRD I NORDEN. PUBL. NO. 103 (VOL). 32 NO. 1 PP 4–9.






Criminal Justice

September 11th Autobiography – Submission

The concept of war at home was almost non-existent to me before 9/11. I used to believe U.S. is almost invulnerable but the events of 9/11 changed my opinion. That was also the first time I realized that that the nature of enemy has changed and instead of wars between sovereign states, the new battles will be between two sets of ideologies. As I saw the twin towers collapsing on the television screen as well as the expressions of shock on the faces of bystanders, it seemed as if it was Middle East and not America. Even before 9/11, I was used to seeing images of violence in the media but never before had images such a powerful emotional impact on me. I found myself surprised at this fact and as I thought more about it, I realized that most of us usually display a greater degree of insensitivity to events that do not personally affect us or those related to us.

The events of 9/11 also inspired me to become more engaged with national and global politics. I even thought of joining the military in the future because I knew we couldn’t take the security of our people for granted for which our ancestors had worked so hard. It was probably for the first time I was motivated to put the interests of the country over my own interests. But more than anything else, it changed my views about America. I saw a display of patriotism among Americans that I had never seen before. America didn’t seem like United States of America but instead ‘United America’ as if all fifty states had forsaken their geographical and cultural boundaries to become one single nation. There was no Texan, Virginian, or Alaskan etc. but only American. It is ironical how tragedies unite a nation better than anything else.


Criminal Justice

Social Learning Theory and Cybercrime

Internet as a communication tool has played a greater role in transforming human lives in the contemporary world. The device has become part of the human culture in the present world, for some people in the society; the tool has not only become a communication device but a source of livelihood. The following are some of the common benefits that are associated with the internet technology in the world: internet has become the fastest mode of communication that allows faster transmission from one point to another, for instance people can communicate over Skype regardless of their geographical locations (Britz, 2009). Internet technology has also enabled people to handle their banking transactions online, for instance most banks send account details to their clients through the internet. People can also sell and buy goods and services online. Researchers rely on internet as a good research tool that supplies adequate and reliable information for research. Internet technology has played a great role ensuring the development of E-commerce which has greatly transformed the state of online business in the society (Rowland, 2010).


Personnel in Technology


An organization needs commitment and dedication from all of its employees to stay ahead of the competition. There are several strategies an organization may implement to achieve and maintain a successful position within the industry. This paper discusses the requirements to build an effective technology support team. It also discusses how different personalities may affect the relationships among technical staff members. Today, organizations are faced with increasingly intense competitive environment, thus, they have to continuously seek ways to improve their competitive position. Organizations should implement changes wherever and whenever they are needed and should respond to changes in the competitive environment on a priority basis. Each team member should be able to work together with his teammates to successfully complete assigned tasks (Castka, Bamber, Sharp, & Belohoubek, 2001).


The Necessity of Foreign Language

Debates over which subject areas should be made mandatory on college curriculums is clearly a decisive issue, in so far as with this decision the society demonstrates, firstly, what are its ethical commitments in the sense that it praises a particular educational value, and, secondly, what kind of society it wishes to create in the future. In this regard, making the study of a foreign language necessary throughout one’s college career clearly reflects these two points, showing an openness to other cultures that is both ethical, in the respect to other cultures, and indicative of an open society itself, in that knowledge of foreign cultures is required.

This requirement is especially pertinent in the American context, because of the hegemonic political and economic power America possesses in the world. By showing a commitment to studying a language that is not English, the U.S. demonstrates that it does not merely wish to unilaterally dominate the world, but wants to create a multi-polar and truly democratic world.

Furthermore, the United States ideologically emphasizes its multi-cultural origins, being a country created by immigrants from all over the world. A commitment to such multi-culturalism would be clearly shown in the mandatory of foreign language study: instead of forcing all citizens to conform to a “lingua franca” of English, with this decision the value of all cultural traditions are maintained, thus showing a clear commitment to cultural pluralism and thus democracy.

Lastly, there is a practical dimension to studying foreign languages, and this addresses the continuing globalization of the world. Certainly, it can be argued that most of the world speaks English, therefore a foreign language is not needed for such global communication. But this approach is a sign of cultural hegemony and can even be interpreted as a form of imperialism: communication becomes a monologue as opposed to a dialogue. By making studying foreign languages mandatory, this commitment to dialogue is clearly demonstrated.

Accordingly, the reasons for making the studying of a foreign language mandatory are profound. They include economic, ethical, and political reasons. This is because studying a foreign language demonstrates a commitment to cultural multi-polarity, which is at once an ethical commitment against hegemony and monologue, and a political commitment in favor of democracy and the respect of plurality.

Criminal Justice

Due Process in police system

The subject of Due process is very vital in the judiciary system to ensure transparency and accountability. It is in the light of this fact that police officers should have the same due process as the citizens to ensure that their practices enhance trust and confidence of the public. Police officers just like other workers need a proper labor entity that provides a suitable ground to promote elements of collective bargaining, good compensation criteria and representation of the officers in various groups that deal with their affairs (Ring, 2009).

The Due process in the judicial system should enable the police officers to acquire a public hearing, the officers should be able to assess their bosses during the presentation of evidence to ensure that all the facts pertaining to the evidence are covered. A police officer should be granted the opportunity to provide witnesses and the accompanying evidences to defend their case in a court of law. Due process also requires that all the rights of criminal justice such as right to a free and fair hearing, and legal representation should be made accessible to every person in the society regardless of their profession, police officers are therefore not an exemption when it comes to this. The ruling by the court on a case against a police officer should be entirely based on the evidenced produced during the court proceedings (Ring, 2009).

The element of due process traverses other issues that are job related such as promotion and demotion. It also finds its place when an officer obtains a personal property through ways that are questionable and therefore proper investigations are deemed necessary to determine the actual facts behind the case (Yoshino, 2006)


Ring, K. (2009). Scalia Dissents: Writings of the Supreme Court’s Wittiest, Most Outspoken Justice.            Washington: Regnery. ISBN 0-89526-053-0.

Yoshino, K. (2006). “The Pressure to Cover: The New Civil Rights”. The New York Times Magazine.           Retrieved 2010-05-01. Discussing potential of liberty rights to overtake equality rights.

Criminal Justice

Different types of budgets

Financial administration is a very important tool in the criminal justice system to ensure that the department is able to carry its financial operations with greater effectiveness and efficiency. A budget is therefore the most important tool for ensuring proper financial administration. The different types of budgets that can be used by the department in financial administration are program based budgets that are used when determining cost units to be part of the operations in an organization. The approach enables financial managers to treat cost units as separate elements and not as units and their subcategories in the whole company (Sullivan, 2009).

The next category of budgets are performance based budgets which are used to show the volume of operations associated with the allocated financial resources, for instance in the criminal judicial system if the number of criminal investigations in a year are expected to be 1000, then the method enables the section to allocate sufficient resources for the identified number of investigations (Cliche, 2012).


The last category of budgets are the Line-item budgeting approach where by all activities in the organization are properly planned to ensure cost advantages to the organization. The method identifies the activities and ranks them according to level of cost efficiency and priority. When adopting this approach, issues such as emergencies and unexpected changes are taken into account to reduce disruptions with normal operations. The criminal justice system can apply this method of budgeting for all the activities of the organization and ensure priority is given to those areas that are deemed urgent, for instance hiring of new recruits may be given priority in situations of high case of insecurity in the society (Cliche, 2012).


Sullivan, A. (2009). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 502. ISBN 0-13-063085-3.

Cliche, P. (2012). “Budget,” in L. Côté and J.-F. Savard (eds.), Encyclopedic Dictionary of       Public Administration, [online],

Criminal Justice

What are some of the high tech crimes now being committed in the United States?


Technology is impacting every aspect of the world we live in. This includes how we conduct business, interact with our families and pursue day to day activities in both work and play. Technological advances also provide multiple and agile ways for criminals to conduct their illegal activities. As these activities take place there is an increasing need for the proper authorities and court systems to also implement policies, procedures and tactics that leverage the technological advancement that is occurring. There is an ever increasing need to maintain a high level of technological sophistication in policing activities to not only keep up with the criminal activity but to also provide the tools necessary for the justice system to serve and protect the community. High tech crimes are being committed in the United States on a daily basis and include online fraud, identity theft and money laundering just to name a few of the intricate schemes that are facilitated by technology. A gap analysis would show that the policing activities that are occurring to detect, prevent and prosecute criminals are not necessarily in the proactive stance that the authorities would like to be in. It is important to recruit talent and invest in the tools required to keep the technological edge in crime detection and prevention before the criminals devise ways to thwart the efforts of traditional criminal justice practices.


Week 3 Discussion Question 1

Why is a certain type of information more difficult to process and remember compared to another type of information? Be specific in your description.

Certain types of information are easier for the human brain to process than others. For example, aspects of the working memory can be tainted when multi-tasking is attempted. With regards to Week 3 Online Lecture Notes, the central executive component of the working memory is “responsible for controlling attention and coordinating information..” with both the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad, the other components of the working memory. In short, what is heard, seen, and perceived can be mixed up within the central executive component, resulting in information difficult to move from the short-term to the long-term (Online Lectures).


How do beliefs and ideologies influence image making?


An interesting relationship exists between ideologies and imagery, and it is one essentially exponential. The belief system or ideology must in some way influence the images associated with it, yet it is equally important that the images promote, or even shape, the ideology as it evolves. Regarding the former element, there is the inescapable matter of inspiration; an ideology is usually a complex and psychologically powerful force, so it is ordinary for it to generate efforts to present it in a visual form. This is the human – and sometimes political – impulse to literally reveal to others symbolic representations of the thinking or belief, which in turn further validates the ideology for the creators of the images. This accomplished, there is then the process of how the images affect the minds and emotions of those coming in contact with them. Persuasion is typically an agenda here, but it is by no means the only reason such images are made. Depending on the meaning of the ideology, the demand it creates in the believer to offer it visually may be the sole impetus, just as the desire to share the ideology may be the primary motive. In most cases, it seems that all these components play a part in how and why cultures have traditionally created images to reflect their belief systems.

This array of motivations may be seen in how Christianity has been represented in images over the long centuries of its existence and evolution. Certainly inspired by devotion, yet also produced for social and political purposes, the images of the faith exist as a multifaceted example of how a single ideology relies upon imagery, and is also vastly influenced by its own interpretations of itself. Christian imagery has gone through an immense number of shifts over time, sometimes adapting to reflect important changes in the ideology itself, but it nonetheless remains a potent element of both influence and inspiration throughout the faith’s long history.

Early Christian Images

Perhaps the most significant aspect of the earliest forms of Christian imagery lies in how

it employed the forms of other belief systems. The worship of Christ, in no uncertain terms, arose within a vast culture in which polytheistic devotions were commonly expressed in art. The Roman Empire, borrowing extensively from Greek traditions of aesthetics, fused the human and divine to render more accessible and pleasing the tenets of its ideology. Museums around the world display the striking art created to glorify the gods and goddesses, typically portraying them as highly stylized, and usually beautiful, humans. The divine existed within the human form, or the imagery relied upon such a translation, and this same process may be seen in the first images created to reflect Christ and Christianity. For centuries, Christian art was developed in competition with the images made to represent the older ideologies, and the inevitable blending of styles is a hallmark of it. There is, in fact, no strictly Christian art identified as such prior to 200 C.E., so subject to multiple interpretations is the imagery (Johnson, 2004, p. 619). Only the final demise of Romanism would enable a flourishing of indisputably Christian imagery, after 500 C.E.

Several points are important in regard to the development of early Christian imagery, and the first relates to the subject’s being developed from Roman traditions. More exactly, and the essential differences in the faiths notwithstanding, Christian art appears to have very much been swayed by the same cultural forces or inclinations that influenced polytheistic art. The earliest known pictures of Christ, for example, reveal Him as youthful and attractive. He is essentially portrayed, not as God, but as a god often depicted in the Roman lexicon: young, vibrant, and compelling. By the Middle Ages, there would arise alternate representations showing Christ as older and bearded. As both styles intended to portray Christ as divine, it has been speculated that the differing images merely reflect the differing appeals of ancient gods. Young, Christ has the energy and allure of Apollo; older and bearded, He is the more powerful father figure of Zeus (Cormack, 2007, p. 27). That Byzantine and Roman influences shaped the early images of Christ is further supported by the history of the statue of Zeus at Constantinople in the 5th century C.E., which was created by Pheidias in the 5th century B.C.E. There is evidence that Constantine the Great, promoting Christianity, desired that the classic Chryselephantine work representing Zeus be used as the template for representations of Christ (Cormack, 2007, p. 28). It is inescapably clear that such images of Christ at this time, in statuary or painting, reflect a masculine, forceful, handsome presence reminiscent of Greek and Roman images of Zeus. Put another way, it seems that the evolution of Christ in imagery was very much reliant upon employing models established as eliciting admiration, if not veneration.

There is as well the critical element of how even the earliest Christian imagery was reconciled to Christian beliefs. In plain terms, the second commandment prohibits Christians from engaging in any idolatrous worship, which equates to creating and revering art and imagery honoring God. This dilemma is held, in fact, to account for many early Christian images having been seen as incorrectly interpreted works of polytheistic influences. There is some foundation for this, in that early Christian art is not predominantly of portrait form. It may be that Judeo-Christian concerns over indulging idolatry impeded such imagery simply because, in addition to the commandment, other devotional cults greatly used the portrait form to exalt deities (Jensen, 2013, p. 105).   However, it is now accepted that such concerns never effectively prevented Christians from creating images of iconography. The commandment precept precludes the celebrating of false gods, after all, and it is more likely that only the current cultural and social shifts of the eras influenced the evolution of Christian imagery as such (Johnson, 2004, p. 619).

That Christian imagery grew over the centuries then only emphasizes how the work was deemed necessary to promulgate the faith, inspiration notwithstanding.

Evolutions in Imagery

By the Middle Ages, images in and of Christianity were taking on an identity which, while still borrowing from older traditions, was increasingly its own. This was directed related to the power that the Church was accumulating in these centuries. The faith was spreading and, as its influence expanded, the Church developed what has been termed an iconographic scheme or agenda. On one level by these years Christian scholars had reconciled the conflicting ideologies of the Old and New Testament, so there was less fragmentation in belief. On another, the dominance of the Church as a political and social authority called for an emphasizing in imagery of its presence. Essentially, Christian images were being designed to reflect the power of the ideology, and there was a clear direction to follow. All aspects of creation, including natural and spiritual law, were to be represented in images, and as widely as possible (Didron, 2003, p. 189).

Given the extent of this commitment, it is inevitable that a variety of interests and agendas are reflected in it. There was, first and foremost, an effort to create Christian images that would be perceived as fully authentic, in terms of the appearances of the characters. The “true likeness” was the goal because this would establish a basis in reality for the divine worship. To that end, descriptions of Christ, Mary, and the apostles, which do not exist in the Old or New Testament, were developed by 6th century Christian scholars and used as templates. St. Peter, for example, was old, pale, of medium height, and with a receding hairline (Nees, 2002, p. 142), and artists were strongly encouraged to remain faithful to this description provided by Ioannes Malalas, the 6th century chronicler. Christ, it was settled upon, was to consistently appear slender, bearded, and not too young. It is then tempting to speculate as to the strength of the political component in the many images based on these descriptions. If the people see the same likeness, they will be more inclined to accept it as a truthful representation of an individual, and thus attach more weight to the integrity of the ideology. At the same time, however, there exists also the likelihood that those sponsoring and/or creating the images merely sought to reflect a truth to which they themselves adhered.

A decidedly social or political aspect may be more readily seen in the way the representations of the the Virgin Mary evolved. These images, almost always incorporating the Christ baby, were the most frequently repeated Christian themes in the Middle Ages, and going into the Renaissance. What is particularly interesting is how the backgrounds change. In the earlier images, there is a stark simplicity; the Madonna is usually gazing at the baby in a simple setting, and she is unadorned. This type contrasts strongly with the highly stylized settings soon to appear. One of the most celebrated panels depicting the Virgin and Child is dated from 609 C.E., and reveals Mary on a jeweled throne. The angels surrounding her stare in absolute awe, and there is clearly a sense of majesty conveyed (Nees, 2002, p. 142). In these years, Christian imagery was very much concerned with promoting the cult of the Virgin, so presenting her as a glorious queen, cradling the infant king, had immense effect. This is imagery serving multiple purposes, and expertly so. On one level, the belief system is fully supported by the aspect of reverence shown to the mother of God. On another, the ornate settings certainly resonated with cultures inevitably attaching respect to wealth and power. It may be argued that, in seeking to promote the worship of Christ through imagery, the Church took advantage of the power of the human, or maternal, element in the divine. If some took issue with Christianity, motherhood was a chord to which all viewers could respond.

Nearly as pervasive as images of Mary were those depicting the suffering of Christ. Christian art here took its cue from all writings on the Passion, which went into excruciating detail as to the physical torment Christ endured (Campbell, 1986, p. 149). Here too is imagery as evolving, however. In the earlier centuries of the Middle Ages, Christ is usually pictured on the cross as tranquil. He is serene, triumphing over the pain of the body and His enemies. Later, there would be an intense emphasis on pain. Christ’s body was altered to reflect starvation and torture, as He would be rendered dead instead of alive. By the 1oth century, Gero of Cologne commissioned for his cathedral a life-sized crucifix in painted wood which stands as a model for centuries to come. Here, Christ is not divine, nor a young and valiant hero. He is an emaciated, miserable martyr (Couchman, 2010, p. 93). It is then reasonable to conclude that the Church was simultaneously affirming its faith in the facts of the execution and seeking to emphasize to the people the sacrificial scope of Christ’s death. The severity of such images sends a clear message: this is a belief based on the very human murder of the semi-mortal son of God, which message also more directly relates the pain of the sacrifice to human suffering. When the people are presented with images portraying God Himself as an object of pain and scorn, the essential foundation of Christianity, in that Christ died for them, is rendered all the more potent.

Reformation and Alteration

The history of Christianity is such that it is difficult, if not impossible, to identify any single point within it as best reflecting how images conveyed specific intent or meaning. Nonetheless, there exists in the Reformation years a striking instance of how Christian images, for centuries based upon a strictly Catholic premise, were revised to accommodate the rising Protestant faith. Moreover, and inevitably, social and political concerns here were certainly as emphatic as the spiritual. If such factors influenced Christian images in the past, they were inescapably relevant to the agendas of the new Christianity of Protestantism.

In simple terms, the rejection of the Catholic Church giving rise to the Protestant faith carried with it a complete dismissal of what was perceived as idolatry, and this inevitably included the Christian art glorifying the tenets of Catholicism and papal authority. A large part of this entailed the Catholic glorification of saints, which typically were variations in art and imagery on the physical suffering endured by Christ. This was to the Protestant Christian a form of pagan belief, in which myths and fables were employed to reinforce a vastly flawed interpretation of Scripture (Hamrick, 2009, p. 57). All images that were based on Catholic concepts were viewed as unnatural, if not evil, and the new faith emphasized simplicity above all. Idolatry was the great sin and, as existing Christian images were based on veneration and ornate glorification, there was no place for them in the reformed faith.

This new ideology would spread rapidly throughout all of Europe, but it is particularly interesting to note its effect in England, which was the most powerful Protestant state under Elizabeth I. Simply put, a dilemma soon became apparent. The people, long accustomed to perceiving images as representations of belief essential to their ideas of it, were frustrated, as even Elizabeth held to observing certain forms of Catholic ritual. What occurred, and remarkably so, was a kind of Protestant variation on the cult of the Virgin Mary. As Elizabeth frequently and vigorously emphasized her desire to remain an unwed virgin, and as the nation prospered under her rule, a divine quality was attached to Elizabeth that very much reflected the Catholic worship of Mary. An absence of Christian images coincided with a growing public appetite to see an image of the queen, and the former actually became infused within the latter. As the reign went on, portraits of Elizabeth increasingly revealed emblems of virginity, such as pearls, ermines, and the moon.

Historians have extensively noted specific contrasts within the iconography inspired by Elizabeth; while certainly celebrating her virgin status, it is nonetheless held that these were images more in traditions of classical majesty (Montrose, 2006, p. 104). There were also plain references in the images to Elizabeth as a Grecian or Roman goddess, on the order of Diana. However, the various interpretations only support that this process of imagery development was spontaneous, and created as the culture required it to be created. Certainly, political patronage and individual ambitions generated a great deal of the worship of “Gloriana.” There is nonetheless the inescapable factor of the impact of the royal images on a public hungry for devotional representations, and it is powerfully argued that images of Elizabeth fulfilled this need: “The cult of Gloriana was skillfully created…to replace the pre-Reformation

cult of the Virgin and saints with their attendant images, processions, ceremonies” (Montrose, 2006, p. 106). Put another way, even the pageantry and excess of the royal portraits was filling the void left by the abandoned Catholic imagery. If Elizabeth was hailed as the “Virgin of the state,” she served to satisfy the cultural demand for an object of Christian worship.


As even the brief review of imagery in Christianity reveals, there is no absolute means of identifying where the influence of images ends and the motivations creating them begins. When images are in place to promote or express a belief system, the process is intrinsically exponential. In early Christian images, for example, there may be seen simultaneous distancing from polytheistic traditions and an employment of those same traditions, as in mythological presentations of Christ. Then, the immense and growing power of Christianity translated to gradual shifts in content, in that it was felt that humanizing the actual suffering of Christ would more firmly entrench the ideology within the people. The extraordinary transference of a state leader into a symbol of Christian devotion, as in the case of Elizabeth and the Reformation, only underscores the complex relationship between culture, ideology, and images. Christian imagery has undergone an immense number of shifts over the centuries, and sometimes adapting to reflect important changes in the ideology itself. What is consistent, however, is that it remains a powerful element of both influence and inspiration throughout the faith’s long history.

How do beliefs and ideologies influence image making? References

Campbell, J. (1986). Popular Culture in the Middle Ages. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State        University Press.

Cormack, R. (2007). Icons. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Couchman, J. (2010). The Mystery of the Cross: Bringing Ancient Christian Images to Life.          Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.

Didron, M. (2003). Christian Iconography or: The History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages,    Part 2. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing.

Hamrick, J. (2009). The Catholic Imaginary and the Cults of Elizabeth: 1558 – 1582. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.

Johnson, S. L. (2004). Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Boston: Harvard University           Press.

Jensen, R. M. (2013). Understanding Early Christian Art. New York: Routledge.

Montrose, L. (2006). The Subject of Elizabeth: Authority, Gender, and Representation. Chicago:         University of Chicago Press.

Nees, L. (2002). Early Medi


Autism Controversy in Developmental Psychology

The neurodevelopmental disorder known as autism can appear in a variety of manifestations. This diversity has caused regular shifts in diagnostic methods as medical science struggles to keep up with new understandings of the disease, which was once thought to have emotional origins. Many controversies have arisen from the progression of autism research, from the publically explosive but fundamentally flawed claims that vaccines are related to the disorder to the more reasonable concerns raised over increasing rates of positive diagnoses. Among the main areas of contention are the validity of evaluation tools for use with children that have yet to achieve a standardized minimum level of development and the influence of diagnostic methods alone in determining the likelihood of autism being identified on a case to case basis. The latter point is the focus of the article discussed below, which suggests that much of the rise in autism diagnoses rates can be attributed to changes in diagnostic frameworks.


The Mexican War of 1846-1848


The Mexican-American War of 1846 until 1848 had profound effects on the future geographical and political make-up of both the United States of America and Mexico, with its reverberations still felt to this day. The war was provoked by President James Polk as a way of furthering his aims of American expansion in North America. Two important factors in the success of the US forces in the conflict were their advantage in artillery, and the way that they were able to utilise the US Navy to help General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City. This paper will analyse the impact on the war of those two particular advantages, as well as examine the results and consequences of the war.