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Criminal Justice

Origins of American Criminal Law

Though the US Constitution has always served as the basic document guiding the US legal system, it was designed as a complex of general provisions that needed clarification and specification. Therefore, in the course of the US history, 27 amendments to the US Constitution have been designed to specify certain legal aspects of the country’s functioning.

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Other

Gun Control

The unfortunate shooting incident in a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado led some to hope that the state and federal governments may finally pursue stricter gun control regulations but the nation soon forgot the incident to carry on with its regular affairs. It would eventually take the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut to initiate serious dialogue in both public and political arena that should have followed the Colorado incident. The Connecticut tragedy was a stark reminder of how ill-prepared the nation is to protect its citizens against gun violence if even the children in school are not safe. As expected, the opponents of gun control wasted to time in repeating their old rhetoric and even accused supporters of gun control like Piers Morgan of attacking the Second Amendment (Acuna) but the opponents of gun control are only engaged in misleading information campaign. Gun control regulations should be pursued because the benefits of doing so will outweigh the costs.

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Other

Comparison Chart

Listing Agreement

TYPE

SUMMARY

Open Listing

Any sales agent may compete for the commission, or the seller may find a buyer on their own and pay no sales commission. The seller may withdraw the listing at any time.

Exclusive Agency

Listing

Listing contract is made with one agent and a sales commission is paid if that agent or a cooperating agent finds an acceptable buyer. Seller can also find a buyer on their own and  pay no sales commission.

Exclusive Right to

Sell Listing

Listing agent has 100% control of the transaction and will earn the sales commission no matter who finds the buyer. Commission may be split between cooperating agents. Listing typically lasts 90 or 120 days and the seller may cancel after the stated time.

Multiple Listing

Marketing tool called the MLS that includes listing information and photos for view by agents and buyers on the internet. Members submit exclusive agency and exclusive right to sell listings.

Net Listing

A listing agreement where the seller lays down the net price they want for their home, leaving the agent to add their desired commission on when presenting to buyers. If the house sells for a  price high above the sellers net earning the agent a very high commission the seller may feel cheated. Net listings are illegal in some states.

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Business Other

Expected Conclusions and Recommendations

Improving Management in Manufacturing Companies

Conclusion and Recommendation

Customer satisfaction is a vital factor of extensive organizational growth. What the clients assume to be fully responsive of their desire to be satisfied with the services and products they receive from the companies they get to engage with. In the activity that has been completed, the components of the Six Sigma principles of business fairly improves the condition of thinking and operation that companies tend to get accustomed to as they try to establish a new culture that would define their reputation in the industry and in the market that they serve as a whole.

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History

Foundations of Western Civilization 10

The mystery building contained in the History Unbound exercise is the so-called Roman Pantheon, constructed in approximately 31 BC by Agrippa, with the dome roof added by Hadrian in approximately 130 BC. (History Unbound) The logic for this decision is based upon the columns at the front of the building, as well as the dome located behind the columns. The primary difficulty in discerning the work’s origin is largely because of the columns, since columns were also incorporated in Greek art. (History Unbound) The logic behind making the choice for the Roman origin of the Pantheon can be said to lie in two features. If one could examine the structure in person, one would notice the concrete materials in use, a Roman innovation (History Unbound). Obviously, another clear factor in the unearthing of the structure would be its location, that it was uncovered in Rome. However, if we bracket out the actual physical examination of the structure itself, and proceed based merely on the evidence given in the History Unbound exercise, our task is more complicated, since the clear influence on Greek and Roman architecture. This makes the choice somewhat difficult, especially for the amateur historian.

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History

Foundations of Western Civilization 9

In contrast to other Greek city-states, such as Sparta with its explicit militarism, it appears that the basic philosophical and civilizational values of the city-state of Athens most resemble a type of system that is currently embodied in the modern West, insofar as a democratic system defined Athenian life. Taking the relationship of Athens to democracy as the defining characteristic of this particular city-state, when comparing two historical sources, that of the Melian Debate and  Pericles’ Funeral Oration, it would seem that the latter most closely reaches to the essence of Athenian existence.

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American Literature Other

Modernism Discussion post

Robert Frost’s poem “Fire and ICe” is a serious take on the idea of apocalypse. Frost expresses a philosophical view of the idea of the world coming to an end whether by human violence and stupidity or by an act of nature or fate.Frost indicates that human “desire” is one of the aspects of the world that might lead to its eventual destruction. The image of ice, however, is also used to show that human indifference or even the “coldness” of human rationality could lead to destruction. The rhyme scheme of the poem evokes a kind of sing-song feeling that might lead some readers to believe that the poem is semi-humorous or even tongue-in-cheek, but in actuality the rhyme scheme of the poem is used ironically to show that the simplistic reasons for the destruction of humanity or the world are rooted in humanity’s collective inability to rise above or grow beyond childish ambitions and needs.  There is really nothing playful or humorous about the poem. It stands as a cautionary statement about the delicacy of human life and the need for human beings to develop their emotional empathy while also diminishing their tendencies toward embracing selfish passions and ambitions.

            Much of Frost’s work deals with the interplay of individualism and collective society. This is a major theme in modernist literature. His poem  “Mending Wall” for example makes an ironic commentary on the fragmentation of community in modern life. The poem “The Road not Taken” explores the idea of solitude as it contrasts with the need to be part of society. One of the main concerns of Modernist writing is to explore the simultaneous need for social protection and the need for individual freedom. This conflict is shown in Susan Glaspell’s play “Trifles” where the needs of women are described as being overlooked by the men who design adn run society. It is also evident in Sherwood Anderson’s story “Hands” where an innocent teacher is accused of sexually fondling students. The central concern of Modernism is to explore both the positive and negative impacts of human scoiety and also to explore the psychological demands and influences that are part of existing in a collective space. The Modernist writers made an appeal to the idea of freedom and individuality while also recognizing the need for social structures and constraints on individual behavior. 

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Sociology

Causes and Effects of Child abuse in the UAE

INTRODUCTION

This paper examines the concept of child abuse in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In specific terms the paper provides an overview of the problems for this region.  Looking at the correlations that exist between the 7 countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the shortcomings and difficulties from a sociological perspective. Examination of a range of subject matter indicates the children have been subject to a wide range of child abuse and neglect.  Much of this has been accepted in society as a matter of religious tolerance and discipline. It is considered that such acts are not fitting for a modern world and that there is a need to confront these realities in order to bring about sociological change.   (Al-Mahroos, F. 2007)

CHILD ABUSE IN THE ARAB PENINSULA

            A study conducted by Dr. Al-Mahroos and reproduced in the 2007 Saudi Medical Journal has indicated wide-spread acts of child abuse carried out across the countries of the United Arab Emirates. Table 1 illustrates a summary of these findings.

Child Abuse Statistics in the Arab Peninsula – Source 2007 Saudi Medical Journal
Study Location Study Sample Results of Sample Outcome
Kuwait 27 22-Physical Abuse 3 – Sexual Abuse 2 – Munchausen’s Syndrome   3 deaths
Saudi Arabia 11 case reports 40 abused children 24 physical abuse 6  Sexual abuse 4 – MSP 6 – Chronic neglect 5 deaths
Oman & Bahrain 5 reported cases of MSP 150 hospital cases Inc. 50 from Bahrain with physical abuse, 87 with sexual abuse and 10 with both Unidentified
Yemen Wide spread reports of child and sexual abuse Not specific Unidentified

Table 1 Child Abuse Statistics 2007. (Al-Mahroos, 2007).

Although the results may have lacked in certain detailed specificity, nevertheless they provide some conclusive evidence of the range of these activities across different UAE countries.

The concept of violence has been an integral part of human behavioural patterns throughout the long history of mankind. This has resulted in a long trail of misery and destruction through the different human races and cultures.  The Arabic nations are not exempt and the more stringent laws of fundamentalist Islamic laws have perpetuated this.  The aspect of cruelty to children is perhaps the worst example of man’s inhumanity to his fellow man. Children are the most vulnerable members of society and as such perhaps require the safeguard of human rights more than anyone else. 

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES

All of the UAE countries have ratified the UN Charter on Human Rights and as such are bound by these articles. These protect the children from both physical and sexual abuse (Articles 19-24). Further, they should not be subject to inhumane or degrading acts of punishment. Despite this none of the courtiers identified have in place a legal framework that protects the children from abuse, other than the Yemen. This provides an imbalance in the signed agreements of the UN Charters and the legal frameworks that should enforce them.

REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

The children of the Arab Peninsula (Inc. UAE) are subject to many different forms of child abuse, as in many other regions of the world.  Because of the relative affluence of the region this is somewhat shielded from the media and general populace opinion. As such the formal message projected by the authorities is that the incidence is low.  The assumption is based upon the lack of evidential data to support child abuse, however the assertion that there is insufficient data is a false conclusion to the fact that abuse is low.  No country really likes to confront this reality but equally recognition of the problem is the starting point in order to take remedial action. Most of the factual data is obtained from hospital records and as such this is not to gain a true perspective of the amount of child abuse taking place in society.

CAUSATIVE FACTORS

Many of the reasons that have transpired for child abuse in the area have related to socio-economic reasons including that of poverty, social circumstances of the children and marital discord. Equally, cases of polygamy and large age discrepancies between young girls and the fathers.  In Dubai the concept of child sexual abuse and physical abuse has been somewhat of a taboo subject. It is only recently that this topic has come into the open for discussion purposes. The Dubai Foundation for Women and Children stated that there are no real statistics or information available to really understand the true magnitude of the problem. (McMeans, A. 2012).

The foundation states that one of the most common occurences of abuse in this area is that of child rape and sexual harrasment.  A Doctor attached to the foundation stated that such abuse normally affects a childs condition for life. The trauma can bring upon a range of both pschological and sociological problems for the victim.  Early statistics indicate children in the 8-12 year age group are amongst the most vulnerable  and that 40% of the abuse is carried out by relatives and another 50% by so called trusted adults e.g. Teachers. Because of the stigma attached to this many children attempt to hide their experiences (McMeans, A. 2012)

Dubai is making attempts to address this by the introduction of a new Child Protection Law and this Federal law embraces the child making the protective responsibility inclusive of parents, teachers, and others with social responsibility for the child’s welfare.  It is intended to be a holistic policy that provides the very broadest range of protection for the child. (Shahbandari, S. 2012). The objective of the new policy is aimed at projecting `zero tolerance`towards child abuse in Dubai. The have put together a team of 12 social workers that are on a 24/7 work regime in order to investigate all reported cases.

He use of Social Workers in the UAE is a relatively new concept and still at an early developmental stage. The actual formal training and development for social workers is still at a very formative stage and is inadequate, in terms of resources, to deal with the large amount of responses required.  (Crabtree, S.A. 2006).

CASE STUDY | BAHRAIN

A study carried out in Bahrain, an archipelego of 33 Islands within the Western Arabian Gulf, has shown a substative number of children being treated in hospitals for a range of different child abuse problems. A research team  examined over 150 cases with a specific hospital setting  and the data represented was from a diverse range of demographics. Statistics illustrated of the 150 reported cases being treated at the hospital the children were in 3-11 year age group. 53% were male victims and 47% females. Sexual abuse was present in some 87 patients and physical abuse in 50

Fig 1 as illustrated below illustratyes the different types of injuries that resulted from a sample of 60 children suffering neglect and child abuse at the hospital.  A large range of injury types but a high incidence of bruises as a result of beatings and violence against the children.  There were also 7% fatalities as a result of the abuse.  Statistics were also prepared for sexual abuse in both boy and girl sample patients.  (Al-Mahroos, F. 2005)

Figure 1: Types of injuries in 60 children  

Early reports of child abuse in the region date back to the 1980’s but the extent of the data and information was relatively limited.  Since this time there has been much more attention being paid to this in the Arabic and Gulf states.  As such many more research studies have been carried out. The legal system has been one of the key setbacks as there has been no mandatory system to report cases and as such a large % of the abuse remained both undetected and unreported. Low socio-economic status has been reported as one causative factor but equally tribal customs and beliefs from the less educated rural areas.  The legal system in Bahrain is also skewed more in favour of girls. Sexual abuse of a girl under 14 could lead to a death sentence whereas as mistreatment of a boy is only punishable by 10 years in prison. (Al-Mahroos, F. 2007).

CASE STUDY | SAUDI ARABIA

Fig 2 illustrates the cases of child abuse in Saudi Arabia between 2000-2008 illustrating the large rise in substantiated case in 2007-2008.  Increased recognition of Child Abuse and neglect in the Kingdom has given rise to more data and information becoming available. (Almuneef, M. 2010).

Saudi Arabia has set up child protection centres at all of the major hospitals throughout the country. Within the confines of the Family National Safety Program a number of distinct initiatives have been made that include:

  • The accreditation of 38 hospitals as specialist centres for treating child abuse victims;
  • Advanced training being provided for the child protection teams;
  • 24/7 call line or help system for victims via a multi-disciplined child protection team;
  • Formation of an Abuse and Neglect registry;
  • Case Reports on Victims and the perpetrators, shows investigation results, types of abuse and follow-up action (Almuneef, M. 2010).

UAE’s STRATEGY TO COMBAT CHILD ABUSE

The Ministry of the Interior in Abu Dhabi has been approaching other UAE Ministries to adopt a joint strategy for the combatting of child abuse in the emirates. This resulted in the Wudeema Law being passed between the UAE Ministries. This aimed at protecting the rights of children and ensuring them a safe future free from molestation, discrimination or deprivation of human rights. It is intended to support other laws on child protection including that of human trafficking. It is an important start in consolidating the legal framework in order to provide a wider regional protection to the child abuse problem.  (Taher, N. 2013).

The Dubai Police, in April 2012, were reporting significant improvements in child abuse and a reduction in the number of cases being handled.  Much of this being attributed to the increased number of surveillance cameras being introduced at schools. The police have increased their levels of surveillance and support lines for victims.  The main aim has been focused on prevention and educating parents  in the responsibilities for child protection.  This includes responsible parents keeping improved levels of surveilance and monitoring of their children. Equally to stop the children watching violent TV programmes that incite them to violent behavior.  (Agarib, A. 2012).

PREVENTION OF CHILD ABUSE AND PEDOPHILA

 This really has to be separated into the two forms.  The concept of child abuse and domestic violence has a strong link to poverty and abusive parents, often who have drug related or alcohol problems.  This becomes a social problem where Education and treatment of the parents becomes a priority.  Intervention may mean the child being taken into care and removed from the abusive environment.  Pedophilia has been described by health practitioners as a mental disorder, however the US Department of Justice defines it as a criminal act.  As to date there has been no identified gene for pedophilia but undoubtedly this form of activity has been carried out for centuries.  Only in recent years through advances in communications and technology has this been more actively been made public. 

CONCLUSIONS

The UAE, similar to many other regions in the world, suffers from an inadequate record of human rights and child abuse cases.  There is however recognition of the problem throughout the UAE and changes are being put forward in an attempt to remediate the problem.  This is unlikely to fully resolve in the short term but it is encouraging to see a co-ordinated effort being made between the different emirate countries.

References

Agarib, A. (2012, 4 28). Child abuse cases near to nil in Dubai. Retrieved from Khaleej Times: http://khaleejtimes.ae/kt-article-display-1.asp?xfile=/data/crime/2012/April/crime_April40.xml&section=crime

Al-Mahroos, F. (2007). Child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula. Saudi Medical Journal Vol 28(2), 241-248.

Almuneef, M. A. (2010). Child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of recognition to implementation of national prevention strategies. Child Abuse and Neglect Vol 34, 28-33.

Crabtree, S. (2006). A comparative analysis of social work responses to child abuse in the UAE. International Journal of Child and Family Welfare Vol 9(4), 226-235.

F. Al-Mahroos, F. A.-A. (2005). Child abuse: Bahrains experience. Child abuse and neglect Vol 29, 187-193.

McMeans, A. (2012). Dubai campaign against child abuse launches. The National.

Shahbandari, S. (2012, 11 20). Zero tol;erance for child abuse in the UAE. Retrieved from Gulf New: http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/society/zero-tolerance-for-child-abuse-in-uae-1.1107692

Taher, N. A. (2013, 1 2). UAE’s efforts to combat child abuse commended. Retrieved from Glulf News: http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/society/uae-s-efforts-to-combat-child-abuse-commended-1.1108288

Figure 1: Types of injuries in 60 children. 5

Figure 2: Cases in Saudi Arabia. 5