In consideration to the learning curves that have strongly been addressed in the lesson plan that has been created, there are some focus points that define the viability and practicality of the lesson itself. To note these focus points, several questions shall be used as the foundation of the discussion to be presented herein. The said questions [followed by the responses of reflection] are noted as follows:
In his book Vocational Education: Purposes, Traditions and Prospects, author Stephen Billet examines the nature of vocational education, and provides both a conceptual framework for understanding what the term means, and how it is manifested both in academic and occupational settings. Billet differentiates between the term “occupation” and “vocation,” and devotes significant discussion to understanding the different forms that vocational education takes in real-world settings. By differentiating between the type of vocational education found in academic settings and that which is found in occupational settings, Billett helps readers better understand how vocational education serves the needs of individuals who are involved in such education and how it serves the larger needs of the societies in which individuals function.
From an historical standpoint, vocational education arose from the traditions of apprenticeship that have long been used to transfer knowledge both between and among individuals and on an intergenerational basis. Such apprenticeships were historically served in a number of occupations, from blacksmiths to barbers to craftsmen and builders. In one sense, such apprenticeships served as a less-formal form of education than that which was found in the academic arena; concurrently, however, apprenticeships served a vital role in preparing individuals to fill the needs of the societies in which they functioned.
With such considerations in mind, Billett examines the nature of vocational education as comprising two distinct components. The first is the vocational education that is offered in schools and other formal settings; the second is that which is offered in on-the-job and other occupational settings (Billett, 2011). Each of these components complements the other, and many individuals who are involved in vocational education will avail themselves of the opportunities available in each of these sectors. Vocational education serves a number of functions both at the individual and societal levels (Billett). In primary and secondary schools, for example, vocational education can help individuals determine which sector of employment they are best suited for and further determine what course they will take in preparing to fill their later roles. Once established, vocational education in the school setting helps individuals garner the specific skill sets they will need in their future occupations. As individuals become ensconced in their vocational roles, ongoing vocational education can ensure that they keep up with the new skills and reinforcement training needed to ensure competency in their chosen fields. Finally, vocational education can assist individuals who are seeking to make a transition from one vocation to another, whether through academic training or in an occupational setting.
It is helpful when considering the nature of vocational education to draw a distinction between the terms “occupation” and “vocation.” In short, the term “occupation” refers to the various roles that have developed over time to fill the needs of a larger society. “Vocation,” by contrast, refers to the pursuits of individuals who are developing and learning about their own interests, or who hear a “calling” to pursue such interests (Billett). As such, vocations may be individual pursuits that are not necessarily followed to serve the needs of societies, while occupations are largely social constructs. Where the two areas intersect, then, are in those vocations that serve the needs of society as well as the individual. It is at this intersection that the realm of vocational education is typically applicable.
Vocational education in the academic setting can take several forms. Primary and secondary schools offer a range of programs aimed at developing the skills individuals will need once they enter the job market. Some vocations require more training and education than can be provided in the primary and secondary school settings; post-secondary schools aimed at filling these requirements exist for a wide array of different vocations. Schools that teach computer skills, electronics, and other technical training are just some of the more common forms of post-secondary vocational schools (Nata, 2003). A number of other different areas of educational facilities –such as business schools, for example- can also be considered as vocational education schools.
Not all students at the primary and secondary levels who could potentially benefit from vocational education will necessarily pursue such courses at those levels. The same post-secondary schools that serve the needs of students who were enrolled in vocational education at the secondary level often also serve the needs of those students who begin their vocational education only after completing secondary school. Adult students who are already involved in the job market also find that post-secondary education can be useful and beneficial; this is especially true of adults who are interested in leaving behind one occupation as they enter another (Clarke and Winch, 2003).
Billett notes that the arena of vocational education is an inherently diverse world. Students engaged in vocational education come from all manner of demographic backgrounds. Adolescents and teens in primary and secondary schools who are involved in vocational education often enter post-secondary institutions alongside adults of various ages, including those who are transitioning from one occupation to another, those who are entering the world of education for the first time, and those who are returning to the workforce after retirement (Billett). This diversity represents both challenges and opportunities to educators and students alike. While it may be difficult to prepare educational programs that serve the needs of such a diverse constituency, the real-world diversity that most individuals will face once they enter the job market means that preparation for such diversity can be crucial for success.
Specific programs found on the post-secondary arena of academia cover a broad range of employment sectors. Among these are medical sciences, such as medical assistant and nursing training; building and construction training; mechanical and automotive training; service occupations training related to hotel and restaurant management, and a variety of other job-sector related offerings (Clarke and Winch). The schools that provide such training offer courses of varying lengths, with curricula and schedules adapted to serve the needs of the demographically-diverse field of potential applicants and students. These schools ostensibly teach students the skills and competencies requisite to the vocations they intend to pursue upon completion of the vocational education programs (Nata). Depending on the vocational sector, entry into the job market may require licensing or credentialing; most vocational education schools that serve the needs of this constituency provide the necessary testing for students to attain such credentials after completing their educations (Clarke and Winch).
Bridging the gap between the arena of academic vocational education and occupational-setting vocational training are schools that allow students to serve internships or avail themselves of other on-the-job training programs. In some instances it is necessary for students to serve a specific number of hours in the field in the context of such internships or training programs before licenses or credentials can be obtained (Clarke and Winch). It is not unusual, for example, to see such programs in the fields of medical sciences and other such occupations, where competency is literally a matter of life or death (Clarke and Winch). As the demands of individual job sectors become more rigorous the need for highly-trained graduates becomes ever greater, placing increasing pressure on academic institutions to develop vocational education programs that ensure their graduates have mastered the core competencies of their chosen fields.
Separate from, but inextricably linked to, the academic arena of vocational education is the sector of such education that takes place entirely, or at least largely, in the workplace (Billett). There are a number of occupations for which apprenticeships and on-the-job-training programs best serve the needs of vocational students. One obvious area in which this is often true is in the arena of building and construction trades. While it is typically necessary for building contractors to attain licensing or other credentials that can make academic vocational training an imperative, there are a number of occupations within the arena of the building and constriction trade where requisite skills are primarily learned on the job (Clarke and Winch). There are many different levels of licensing applicable to various sectors of the building and construction trade, but such licenses do not always require the sort of intensive training and educational background as are required for contractors.
Vocational education can often take forms that are less obvious or familiar, but that still fit within the parameters of vocational education. Employers who wish to assist their employees in developing skills and competencies needed to remain current with evolving work sectors or changing regulations may offer vocational education programs in-house, or may provide for these employees to attend the necessary training at schools or other institutions (Billett). Such programs may be brief and informal, or may require employees to invest significant time and effort into their ongoing vocational education. These types of programs further illuminate the position that the arena of vocational education encompasses a broad and diverse set of institutions and provides an array of different resources and opportunities to students.
The changing nature of national and international economic systems is having significant effects on the arena of vocational education (Clarke ands Winch). As economies change, the societal needs that underpin various occupations change with them. Some job sectors shrink during times of economic uncertainty; the construction sector for retail housing, for example, may be adversely affected by a shrinking economy (Billett). Such changes may prompt those in this sector to seek new or –retraining in other vocations to ensure they remain viable members of the job market and can fill other or different roles. Other changes to economic systems may open up new job-market possibilities; advances in recent decades in the technology sector have meant there is now an array of jobs that did not exist before the technological revolution. Such changes in economic systems mean can make vocational training vital for those who wish to capitalize on those changes.
As societies grow more complex, there is a concurrent growth of involvement of both the public and private sectors in terms of vocational education. Organizations in both sectors have a stake in the continued economic success of those nations in which they function, and recent trends in vocational education have see increasing investment from the public and private sector in vocational education programs (Clarke and Winch). As technology continues to evolve and to permeate virtually all economic and employment sectors the need for such involvement is likely to grow commensurately.
The future for vocational education seems likely to continue developing and evolving in coming decades. As occupations in all sectors become more specialized, the challenges for students and educators alike to keep up with this evolution will place greater demands and greater emphasis on vocational education. As Billett describes it, the most valuable lesson for future educators is that “all education should be vocational.” It will no longer be sufficient to offer students the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic; preparing students for the future will mean preparing them to fill the needs of society in ways that are only now becoming apparent.
Billett, Stephen. Vocational Education: Purposes, Traditions and Prospects. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2011. Print.
Clarke, Linda, and Christopher Winch. Vocational Education: International Approaches, Developments and Systems. London, UK: Routledge, 2007. Print.
Nata, R. Vocational Education: Current Issues and Prospects. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2003. Print.
The students with special needs may apply to the vocational schools of their choice to be equipped with skills of trade. The student counselors in vocational schools work hard to find a suitable placement depending on the interest of the student. The development of special education in the vocational schools can be traced to the elementary schools system even before the introduction of the comprehensive school system (Jorgensen, 2008). In the beginning, the special education concentrated on providing instructions for the pupils who had sensory disabilities. Some of the first schools to be established to provide for special education were catering for people with visual impairments, motor impairments and the hearing impairments. There was a period in which fork education was said to be the responsibilities of the local authorities, the consequence was that a lot of children with disability were excluded from schools during the period the system was undergoing reforms. As a result, the education for the people with disability was provided through philanthropic initiatives of charitable individuals and organizations (Rainforth & York-Barr, 2005).
Rank Advancement report
Considerably, due to the requirement by the professor rank advancement association and all the required schedules and procedures for 2013, here is my advancement report. The essay literally covers my level of education, two specialties, and experience.
There was once a time that I had to face the devastation of having a family member that is terminally ill. This brought out many feelings and aspects of my personality that often stay hidden. I found out that my uncle had lung cancer. This is a glimpse of that moment in time. My uncle had cancer and I had many mixed emotions about the situation. It is important to reflect on important life events.
I remember when a family member called to inform of my uncle’s illness. “He has lung cancer, and it has spread to his liver and his bones,” I was told. My initial reaction was thinking, “Oh, I am sorry.” Simply that. But why do we apologize when bad things happen, and who exactly are we apologizing to. I started thinking a lot that day.
My uncle was always a strong man. One who takes care of his family and always is willing to help others out. He is a loving man. He was always my favorite uncle.
The memories started to flood back. All the aspects of our relationship that had been lost over the years. I grew up close to this particular uncle. Memories included the time he went hunting when I was four and brought home a dead bunny, then told me it was the Easter Bunny. This incessant teasing is something I remember fondly. It sounds cruel, but it was not.
Other memories include, the family barbeques at his house, him letting me drive the lawnmower, and threatening my mother that he was going to teach me drive his car. His smile that was always present in these situations.
I remembered his wife, his children, and thought about them and their pain in dealing with this harsh situation. The thought that he may soon die and how would they feel? What is he feeling?
I remember thinking of his siblings. One was lost to cancer previously and now another. How are they? Are they scared for their brother, scared for themselves? The disease must be partially genetic, or was it caused by all his bad habits?
But then, the feelings of guilt set in. We moved from the area when I was young. From here I lost touch with many family members. This particular family member I had not spoken to in years. I cared a lot about him, but how could I show this now? I could not possibly call only because he was sick. I had seen him at family gatherings, but it was not that same as when I was a child.
I felt guilty for letting this relationship slide, only to be brought this terrible news. I saw a picture of him, a couple days after he found out. He looked broken, sad, depressed. I wanted to reach out to him, but did not know how.
Then there was sadness. Sadness for lost relationships. Sadness that I did not keep in touch. Sadness that I may never see this man again. We now live fourteen hours apart, so I could not just stop by his house. A phone call was the best that I could do, and would that be good enough?
So I didn’t call. I thought a lot about this. What would I say? I am sorry that your dying. I am sorry that you have cancer. It didn’t seem like a conversation that I wanted to have. It would be awkward and uncomfortable.
There was also anger involved. Anger that this was happening to him. Anger that the prior the doctors had found a spot on his lungs, but he was unwilling to have the testing down to find out what it was. Why wasn’t this taken care of earlier? Would it have even helped? Probably not and why question it now? What is done is done.
There was also some hope. Could the doctors fix it? Hopefully chemotherapy will help. If not, I sincerely hoped that he would live the rest of his life to the fullest. Do the things that he wants to do. Spend the rest of his days being as happy as possible. But is happiness possible when you are terminally ill?
Then there was acceptance. My uncle has lung cancer. There is nothing I can do. Chemotherapy may help, but the doctors have not made this determination at this time. I will call him, but not today.
He has many important aspects of his life to deal with right now. He has to tell family members. He has to listen to them and feel what they feel. Because if we take a look at sickness, we as people often make it a selfish thing. Though he is the one who is sick, we are grieving and at this time we think more about our grief, then the pain that the sick person feels.
These underlying tones of my personality are things that I reflect about. I care about people, but often do not show it. I feel guilty about aspects of my life that I could have changed, but bury it inside myself. I feel anger, but try my best to control it.
These are not things that I am willing to admit. I like to hide the more sensitive side of my personality. As a man, these aspects of myself make me feel weak. Feel like less of a man. So I bury it. I seem cool, calm, and collective even in the worst situations. This is the way it should be.
It is sad really, that our culture leads us to think in such a manner. We should be able to show our feelings without the thought of being judged, but this is not the way of our world, the way of our society.
So, I will continue to do as do. I will act as if nothing breaks my exterior. I will be strong. This is how it is. Even if inside it hurts. Feelings are pushed aside, so that I can feel good about myself, so that I will not be judged.
This was a glimpse of a moment in time. A moment in my life that was devastating. But a moment in my life in which I realized many things about myself. A moment in which I felt guilt, anger, sadness, hope, and grief. There are often many of these moments in a lifetime.
This manual is created to serve as a guide for a teacher in education who is dedicated to serving the needs of young children. In consideration to the role that a teacher plays in a young child’s life, the guidelines listed herein are supposed to provide the teacher [s] with a proper vision on what to do in the event that certain expected and unexpected situations arise in the process of teaching the children.
Diane Lasren-Freeman’s book ‘Teaching Language’ discusses the challenging conceptions of grammar and the three dimensions applied to language in communication. Chapter 2 focuses on the way teachers comprehend the concept of language. In the chapter, Lasren-Freeman challenges the practical conventions of grammar. First she describes grammar as an area of knowledge, rather than a set of rigid rules.
Learning is a process that confides with all the different approaches that define the specificity on how the brain responds to the environment that a person is involved with. When it comes to issues of learning a new language, it is most often than not real that the same aspect of learning is involved. The environment is assumed to create an impact on the capacity of a student to absorb the different aspects of learning presented to him in every class session he engages with. In this case, it is then fully agreed upon that defining the environment that a learner thrives impacts both the being and the learning condition of the student, even those who are trying to master the English language.
Children with Asperger’s Syndrome need an inclusive setting and one-on-one sessions at the same time. This can help students with their Social Development on an individual basis. The social-cognitive skills, affective-emotional development are improved through the setting. This has been confirmed by many researchers, (Brodin & Lindstrand 2007 and Bond & Castagna, 2006).
In the 1996 article “The Case Against Grammar Correction in L2 Writing Classes,” John Truscott of the National Tsing Hua University argues that correcting grammar errors and mistakes in papers written by ESL (English as a Second Language) students in L2 writing classes is a waste of time and should be abandoned for three specific reasons–1), the body of evidence demonstrates that correcting grammar errors is ineffective and that “none of it shows it to be helpful in any interesting sense;” 2), that because of “theoretical and practical reasons, one can expect it to be ineffective;” and 3), the correction of grammar errors and mistakes can result in harmful effects (327).
How would you rate yourself at…
- Organizing classroom space (e.g., seating, resources, technology, decoration) to ensure safety, maximize learning, and meet your overall goals and objectives?
- ₃₃ Novice (1) ₃₃ Developing (2) ₃₃ Proficient (3) ₃₃ Expert (4) ₃₃ NA
To the teaching of a child, there are many approaches. Ever since the development of the modern era, teaching children has been viewed in several different directions. The reason for such diversity in teaching lies in the manner by which each learner grasps and understands lessons in very different manners. Nevertheless, what constitutes new ways of learning are the modern researches that are handled by professionals through time. The amalgamation of both observations and ideas create new methods of teaching that are more effective than in the past ways of instructing young students.
In early childhood education, it is important to give children a chance to choose various learning activities. Giving children choices in class will benefit them in many ways. It is considered an integral aspect of quality early childhood education (Deiner, 2010). The teacher should be capable of understanding the urgency of choices and have a ready mind to allow the freedom of behavioral patterns in class. The aim is to have a learning approach that is focuses more on the child than the teacher. In early childhood psychological development, children have to develop autonomy or else they will grapple with shame and doubt (Gestwicki & Bertrand, 2011). Failure to develop autonomy will make a child to remain heavily dependent on adults. Such a child is also easily influenced through their peers (Grotewell & Burton, 2008). He or she will not be capable of handling the risks associated with real learning. When children are offered choices, they get to practice abilities focused on self-determination and dependability (Gestwicki & Bertrand, 2011).
Several changes need to be made to the teaching schedule as provided. First, as the children arrive in the morning, they should put away their belongings and then select a play activity to engage in until everyone arrives. This should be followed by group time, where they sit together, sing some songs, and have some group conversations. After that, they should be presented with the day’s activity options. Each child is allowed to choose the activity that most appeals to them. Throughout the whole morning, the children will be free to move from one center to another, talk and laugh with each other. Giving children some autonomy builds their self-esteem and helps in cognitive development (Deiner, 2010). The children also learn self-regulation and how to take responsibility for their own choices. This is important for their moral development (Grotewell & Burton, 2008).
Proposed Daily Plan
|8:05 to 8:55||Entry Routines: Songs, Shared Reading, Calendar and Date recitation|
|8:55 to 9:45||Creativity through random art||Storytelling and Narration||Random art|
|9:45 to 10:15||Snack|
|10:15 to 11:05||Gym||Gym||Gym||Gym||Gym|
|11:05 to 11:55||Simple Reading and writing|
|11:55 to 12:55||Lunch & Recess|
|12:55 to 1:45||Brainstorming for the next class|
|1:45 to 2:15||Rest|
|2:15 to 2:30
Deiner, P. L. (2010). Inclusive early childhood education: Development, resources, and practice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Gestwicki, C., & Bertrand, J. (2011). Essentials of early childhood education. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Grotewell, P. G., & Burton, Y. R. (2008). Early childhood education: Issues and developments. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
- The most important and relevant performance factors that are associated with effective, high quality teaching include the following:
1) The teacher’s ability to create an environment that is comfortable and conducive to effective learning while maintaining control of the students and the classroom setting itself: this is accomplished when the teacher has a positive attitude from the beginning of the course and is effectively prepared to support his or her students to promote their learning and academic growth, as well as their personal growth. The teacher must provide an environment that is comfortable for students because comfort is likely to increase student interest in the material and keep them interested for longer periods of time. This may include physical changes to the classroom as well as psychological behaviors (i.e. smiles, jokes, change in voice tone, voice animation, etc.) that will promote student growth and learning effectively. Furthermore, the teacher must demonstrate the ability to maintain control over the student population and all discussions by demonstrating authority as needed and promoting successful dialogue between students in the classroom setting. He or she must also direct the flow of the topic in the appropriate manner and also the conversation that ensues in the desired direction at all times to maintain student focus and interest.