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Criminal Justice

The Male as the Victim

The idea of domestic violence, for most people, is that it is a crime committed by men against women that involves physical abuse. Many people are quite aware of the fact that domestic violence results in severe injury and even death for millions of women  around the world.  Also common knowledge is the fact that the criminal justice system in the United States often proves to be inefficient in dealing with the rampant occurrences of domestic violence that are so numerous that specific domestic violence courts have been created in some districts in an effort to stem the tide of abuse. The reality of domestic violence is that it is both extremely damaging to individuals and families and also extremely common. One of the lesser understood aspects of domestic violence is that it quite often involves abuse of men by women. In fact, such a cultural stigma is attached to the idea of female on male domestic violence that many men who are abused are too ashamed and afraid to come forward with their stories and even more reluctant to share their experiences with law enforcement or the court system.

The wall of silence that permeates female on male domestic abuse is one of the main reasons that the impact of the crime is not widely acknowledged. It is also a reason, along with notions of gender-based identity, that men who are victims of domestic violence face potential insensitivity and even ridicule from people at large. The lack of reporting of the crime along with social stereotypes about gender roles means that domestic violence by women against men is not only unknown to most people but widely misunderstood in regard to both its scope and potential for societal damage even by those who are aware of its existence. Of course, these factors mean that the full range of damage that is caused by domestic violence against men is something that is not even knowable. For example, the recent increases in  reported incidents of female against male domestic violence is demonstrable but the underlying cause for the increase is unclear.

One factor is fairly certain and that is that men who are victims of domestic abuse are more likely to come forward about their experiences if they are certain that coming forward will result in pragmatic solutions to their problems. Also true is the fact that men, like women, are often deeply concerned about the consequences of coming forward about their abusive relationships when they believe that coming forward may result in negative consequences for their significant other or their children. Men who suffer domestic abuse are generally disinterested in having their abuser punished. Instead, they are interested in stopping the abusive behavior and repairing the dysfunctional relationship. To the extent that men belive such a process is achievable in regard to official social resources, they are likely to seek out authorities or organizations that can help to repair their relationships and end the abuse.

According to Henning and Holdford’s article “I Did Not Do It, But If I Did, I had a Good Reason: Minimization, Denial, and Attributions of Blame Among Male and Female Domestic Violence Offenders” (2005), the rise of reported incidents of domestic violence by women against men in the state of California over the years from 1988 to 1998 increased by nearly three-hundred percent. Starting with the low number of 6%, the number reached 17% in 1998. Whether or not the increase is due to there being more actual violence directed against men by women or simply that more men are reporting crimes of domestic violence is unclear. The authors of the article note that the specific characteristics of female batterers and the manner in which treatment can be used to reduce domestic violence that is committed by women are both radically under-explored areas of the mental heath and judicial systems. (Henning & Holdford, 2005, p. 131).

The underreporting of female on male domestic violence obscures the process of understanding the nature of the crime. In particular, the crime is not understood in regard to whether or not domestic violence that is committed by women against men is fundamentally different in orientation and origination than domestic violence that is committed by men against women. In other words, the social indifference and neglect that is evidenced toward battered men results in a murky picture of the “whys” and “hows” of female offenders. While much is known and understood by mental health professionals and law enforcement about the nature of male violence against women, it is impossible to say the same thing in terms of violence that is done by women against men.

As Henning & Holdford point out in their article, there is good reason to suspect that the dynamics of female batterers are very different from their male counterparts. For one thing, law enforcement has established the fact that women who commit domestic violence against their male partners are far less likely to have previous arrest or criminal records than male batterers. The authors also mention that female batterers are more likely to be suicidal and to suffer from chronic psychological illnesses. Because of these facts, the authors note that it may be the case that women who commit domestic violence against men are better off being treated individually in regard to counseling and therapy, rather than in a group environment. In terms of treatment for men who commit domestic violence against women, group counseling has frequently been viewed by mental health specialists as keenly effective.  (Henning & Holdford, 2005, p. 132).

Another complication in understanding the nature of domestic violence that is perpetuated against men by women is the fact that, in many cases, the behavior of abusive women is actually, itself, a response to their own victimization by their male partner. Henning & Holdford point out that recent studies of women offenders have concluded that the majority of women who are implicated in the crime of domestic violence against men are actual victims of domestic violence themselves. This means that any form of treatment, counseling, or punishment of female perpetrators of domestic violence must include dealing with the women in question as both perpetrators adn victims simultaneously.

Obviously, this presents a considerable degree of challenge to law enforcement, the judicial system, and mental health experts because it is difficult to separate the realities of being victimized from the reality of committing battery or other form,s of domestic violence. Add to this the fact that many women exhibit the same kind of denial and rationalization for their violence that is frequently found in men, adn the picture becomes so complicated that, as Henning and Holdford insist, there is really no easy way to determine just how the crime of domestic violence by women against men differs from domestic violence that is committed by men against women. (Henning & Holdford, 2005, p. 132-133).

Because there is no easy way to draw a clear and actionable distinction between the two types of domestic violence, Henning & Holdford devised an experiment through which the issue could be more closely studied from a statistical standpoint. The study involved the use of questionnaires and evaluation by trained counselors at the Domestic Violence Assessment Center in Shelby County, Tennessee. In the study, over twelve-hundred men were tested and interviewed and just over one-hundred and fifty women were tested and interviewed. Variables in the study included factors of age and race as well as the particular nature of the relationships betwen perpetrators and victims. The basic thrust of the study was to develop a scale, comprised of sixteen items, to make a determination as to whether perpetrators of domestic violence, both male and female, blamed themselves or their victims for the occurrences of domestic violence.  (Henning & Holdford, 2005, p. 133-134).  By comparing the answers and interviews given by men and women in the study, the researchers hoped to determine what, if any, similarities could be deduced in regard to the pathology of domestic violence.

At the same time, the study was also devised in such a way as to determine whether or not accepting responsibility for acts of domestic violence was more common in one gender or the other. This is a significant factor because it helps researchers to understand the way in which perpetrators of domestic violence view themselves, their victims, and their actions. The results of the study showed, roughly, that women scored higher in the area of blaming their victims for incidents of domestic violence, but remained basically similar in the area of self-blame. The most common reasons that were cited by those who acknowledged self-blame were, lack of commitment to the victim, poor anger management skills, and jealousy.

These factors tended to remain stable across the genre line. The study also shoed that more than 65 % of the women who were sampled expressed the belief that they were acting in self-defense, compared to only 50% of men who made this claim. The fact that women seemed more likely than men to suggest that there was no other choice but to act violently in regard to their particular circumstance was also cited in the study. Taken altogther, the study seemed to corroborate the idea that women who are involved in domestic violence incidents are more likely to claim self-defense and see themselves as victims rather than batterers. (Henning & Holdford, 2005, p. 135-136).

This position is somewhat corroborated by the study that is referenced by Henning and Holdford. For example, in many cases of female on male domestic violence there are issues of confrontation that come into play such as the woman asking her significant other about his drinking habits, possible infidelities, and whereabouts. In these cases, what begins as a verbal confrontation can escalate into physical violence. According to the study cited by Henning and Holdford, the emphasis placed by researchers and law enforcement on male offenders rather than female offenders is justified given the fact that many more men are arrested and prosecuted for crimes of domestic violence. However, the authors also note that as reports of domestic violence committed by women continue to rise, this position may necessarily have to change.

Taken as a whole, the study and the article tend to support the idea that women, for the most part, engage in acts of domestic violence as acts of self-defense. This conclusion is, however, made less easy to support by the fact that perpetrators of domestic violence, whether male or female, tend to lie about their behaviors and motivations and blame the victim for the crime. The inability of many offenders to accept responsibility for their criminal behavior must be regarded as an underlying pathology of the cycle of domestic abuse. It can also be considered an avenue of potential rehabilitation due to the fact that both victims and offenders can be educated to understand that the responsibility for domestic abuse lies with the perpetrator and not with the victim. Therefore, women who abuse men in intimate relationships can ultimately be educated to take responsibility for their actions. They can also be educated to understand that men who are victims do not “deserve” abusive treatment and therefore that abusive behavior, rather than being justifiable, is a crime.    (Henning & Holdford, 2005, p. 137-138).

The study and article bring to mind specific ideas about the nature of domestic violence that is committed by women against men. For example, after referencing the article, additional reasons for the lack of reportage about domestic violence that is experienced by men are evident. Men may choose not to report acts of domestic violence that are committed against them due to the previously mentioned social stigmas about gender identification. They may choose not to report incidents due to a perceived lack of interest or compassion on behalf of law enforcement and the judicial system.

However, they may also choose not to report incidents of domestic violence due to the fact that they are reluctant to expose their own tendencies toward battery. Additionally, in cases where infidelity and drinking or drug abuse are indicated, many men would be reluctant to report domestic abuse due to underlying factors which are, themselves, criminal or at the very least perceived at large as being immoral. The idea that so much of the domestic violence that is committed by women against men is the result of self-defense places the onus for responsibility on the male victim in a way that is difficult to reconcile with reporting incidents to law enforcement.

Lack of reporting, complications in regard to motivation, and underlying criminal or unethical behaviors all play a role in making the crime of female against male domestic violence difficult to address and understand.However, based on formal studies such as the one cited by Henning and Holder, as well as an extensive body of similar scholarship and investigation a composite description of the issue is possible to derive. One useful tool in understanding the problem is to attempt to view the issue of female on male domestic violence from the point of view of the victim. With this perspective, it becomes easier to fathom the dynamics of the crime and also to understand what ways in which society might intervene to help prevent the spread of domestic violence. The experience of male victims not only elucidates the issue of female on male domestic violence, but also helps to inform the discussion and investigation of domestic violence in general.

This is due not only to the fact that it is evident that many cases of female on male domestic violence actually are rooted in male on female domestic violence, but that many cases of female on male domestic violence divulge underlying causes such as substance abuse and infidelity.By understanding which issues and behaviors seem to initiate acts of domestic violence by women against men, it becomes much more possible to address the motivating factors and intervene at a level that is capable of preventing further acts of violence. Certain facts about the nature of domestic violence seem to remain unchanged whether the crime is committed by men or by women.

These facts, as previously mentioned, include the idea that most people who commit acts of domestic violence blame the victims for their actions, that most perpetrators of domestic violence suffer from anger management issues, and that many offenders are also consumed by jealousy and are capable of lying to themselves and others about the reality of their behaviors. These ideas seem to suggest that similar kinds of treatments and counseling might be applicable to help rehabilitate offenders despite gender differences and they also indicate that certain similarities exist in the victims’ experience of domestic violence despite the issue of gender. The male experience of domestic violence may carry with it certain factors of gender-based fear adn shame due to the fact that men are socially conditioned to belive that they should, at all times, be “stronger” than women. However, the emotional, psychological,, and even physical reality behind the experience of domestic abuse is the same for men as women in regard to the way that it undermines their self-esteem and brings them into a position of being under the control of their intimate partner in a way that diminishes their humanity.

Another important dimension to the issue is that domestic violence, while generally understood as being based in physical violence, is actually comprised of many behaviors including but not limited to emotional, economic, verbal, adn sexual abuse. Just as conceptions of domestic violence must be changed in terms of how gender-identity is perceived, misconceptions about the full scale of actions and behaviors that are part of the domestic violence cycle must be changed in order to arrive at a more complete understanding of the crime.  A recent article from the Evening Gazette in the U.K., entitled “Male Victims of Abuse Set for Support” (2012), remarks that domestic abuse actually can take many different forms. The act of being shamed or humiliated, controlled, criticized, or shouted at repeatedly are all forms of domestic violence. Additionally, according to the article, sexual abuse and with-holding intimacy in a relationship can also be considered as forms of domestic abuse.  (“Male Victims of Abuse,” 2012, p. 10)

As the aforementioned ideas suggest, patterns of domestic abuse that are experienced by men are likely to take many forms, most of which are overlooked in the general conception of domestic violence. The question then is: how do men react and feel when they are victims of domestic violence? What is the experience of being a man who is physically, emotionally, sexually, or psychologically abused by his intimate partner? To answer those questions it is necessary to deal with the actual responses of men who have experienced domestic abuse. Their stories and testimony is helpful in shedding light on the real-world impact of the crime. For example, when the average person hears that criticism and emotional abuse, without physical abuse can be considered to be a serious crime, they are more apt to believe this statement is true when the scenario involves a man as an abuser and a woman as a victim. However, if the scenario involves a man who is emotionally abused or mentally abused, many observers simply feel indifference to his plight.

An article in the Liverpool Daily Post recounts an example of how emotional and psychological abuse carry potentially lethal consequences. The article, titled “Helpline Support for Men Suffering Domestic Abuse; Dedicated Help for All Victims Round the Clock” (2012), recounts one man’s story about how his intimate partner slowly drove him to the brink of suicide. The fact that the man was a rugby player made it more difficult for him to recognize and admit that he was a victim of domestic abuse. The man expressed his feelings in an interview by saying that he had purchased enough sleeping pills to kill himself because his wife had been habitually telling him he was worthless. Although he managed to avoid using the pills to kill himself, he later drove his car to the edge of a cliff near the sea and cam very close to driving himself over the cliff to commit suicide.

This article is extremely germane to the topic of male victims of domestic violence because it shows that men are as vulnerable to emotional and psychological as women. Also, that the impact of sustained emotional adn psychological abuse can lead to attempted suicide and death. The consequences of domestic abuse are generally tragic and corrosive to society at large. Even when an abused man does not feel an urge toward suicide, he may feel so diminished that   he disengages from his familial responsibilities. He may take solace in drug abuse or alcoholism. Even more damaging, he may lose his interest and confidence in life altogther and become introverted, impotent, and socially ostracized. These realities are important not only for the way they impact individual men but how their impact spreads beyond the individual, to the family, and then out through society as a whole. (“Helpline Support for Men,” 2012, p. 10)

Basically, the fact that a man who is socially identified as “strong” or even “tough” has little to do with whether or not that same man is a victim of domestic abuse or domestic violence. One reason that this fact may be difficult for some people to understand is because the root-problem of domestic violence and domestic abuse is not necessarily based on physical strength or intimidation, but on control. In other words, physical violence is a manifestation in domestic abuse cases of the offender’s need to control and dominate the victim. While physical violence and intimidation can certainly be a part of the manner in which the abuser attempts to control the victim, many other means of coercion and control are not only possible in cases of domestic abuse, but actually quite common.

In fact, even in cases where domestic abuse eventually leads to murder or suicide, it is the aspect of control rather than mere physical coercion that provides the impetus for extreme violence. The article ” Now Domestic Violence Will Include Mental Torment Too” (2012) observes that an intense need by the perpetrator to control the victim is almost always the reason for homicide and extreme violence in cases of domestic abuse. The article suggests that it is possible for an abusive partner to reach a level of murderous violence without having had  a previous history of violence. This suggests that it is the will to control others, and not merely a capacity for violence, that forms the underlying psychology of abusers. In cases where men are controlled by their female partners, the manifestation of control can take myriad forms, including sexual and emotional “blackmail” and emotional intimidation.  So, the experience of a male victim who is locked in an abusive relationship may be empty of physical violence but still lead, eventually, to catastrophic physical injury or death.  (“Now Domestic Violence Will,” 2012, p. 11)

This means that the fact of domestic violence with men as victims indicates that men, as a whole, are much more susceptible to emotional adn psychological damage than is generally conceded by society at large. For the most part, men are expected to be physically strong and capable by social standards and this expectation often carries the associated belief that men should also remain invulnerable to emotional and psychological abuse. Of course, these ideas are specious, but the continued social ideal that men are “stronger” both physically and emotionally than women is a contributing factor to why domestic abuse by women is largely ignored and misunderstood. The article “The Shame Factor; Domestic Violence Is Not Solely a Female Issue – Men Can Be Victims Too, Explains MEP Liz Lynne” (2009) cites the idea of social shame as a reason why domestic abuse against men is an urgent problem that requires drastic reinterpretation of gender-specific social mores. The article specifically states that men often endure abuse due to the fact that they feel even admitting that they are victims diminishes their manhood.   (“The Shame Factor; Domestic,” 2009, p. 24)

The secrecy of domestic abuse committed by women is a contributing factor to its widespread escalation. Since many abusive women know that their victims will be reluctant to report abuse due to social stigmas, the abusers have a basis of power over their victims. Additionally, an abused man has little or no recourse to social programs, community resources, or judicial relief for their situation. An article titled “Why Do Some Men Have to Live in Fear? There Are Nearly as Many Male Victims of Domestic Violence as There Are Female, but Their Pleas for Help Often Go Ignored” (2011) cites the reality that, in the United Kingdom, just under 50% of all domestic violence cases involve men as victims.

The article goes on to lament the fact that there are scarce resources available to men who are victims of domestic abuse. Taken altogther, the man who is a victim of domestic abuse can expect: social ridicule or indifference, as well as a lack of support-groups or intervention organizations, including law-enforcement. Although many more women are being arrested for domestic abuse than has been the case in the past, the prosectorial urgency toward women perpetrators is much less than that which is shown toward men who commit domestic abuse.  (“Why Do Some Men,” 2011, p. 38)

Although statistics show both an increase in the number of women who are being prosecuted for domestic violence and in the number of men who are reporting cases of domestic violence, the reality is that domestic violence against men is a near-epidemic that is largely unknown or dealt with through official mens. A man who finds himself in an abusive relationship with a woman is placed in a solitary position where shame,ignorance, and prejudice are nearly always evident rather than compassion and understanding. This means that while cases of domestic violence against men continue to increase, remedies for these situations and the resources for male victims are simply not available. Even when women are prosecuted for domestic abuse, the end-result is that the male victim is left pretty much isolated and must fend for themselves in terms of healing from the abuse and continuing on with their lives. (“Are More Men Abused,” 2011, p. 8)

The article “Give a Man a Slap – and Everyone Else a Good Laugh” (2007) recounts the fact that domestic violence is often a two-way street in many relationships. This means that although a man may be victimized by a woman, even physically victimized, it is entirely possible for the man to also be an abuser. The origin of abuse in domestic relationships comes from the need of one partner to control the other. The response from the victim of domestic abuse, whether male or female, may be to become abusive in their own right, not merely as a way of exerting self-defense at a physical level, but as a way of refusing to be controlled by an abusive partner. This means that it is also possible for a man to become physically abusive toward a female abuser, after being, himself, abused. In these cases, the woman can level a threat against the man that she will inform the authorities about his abuse and he will be arrested and prosecuted. This despite the fact that the woman may be an abuser and the party in the relationship who initiated the abuse. (Hensher, 2007, p. 30)

To complicate matters even further, the societal response to rampant domestic abuse in countries like the U.S. and Great Britain has been to mandate more arrests and prosecutions for the crime. This is, however, a dubious strategy because some of the incidents of domestic violence and abuse are, as mentioned, defensive responses by the abused partner. So, if police are mandated to make an arrest in any case of domestic abuse or violence, it is sometimes likely that the victim of abuse, rather than the abuser will be the one who is arrested. This is particularly true for men. In the case of male victims of domestic abuse it is entirely possible for their female abuser to threaten them with calling law enforcement and accusing the man of abuse. The man will then be arrested even though he may be the victim of domestic abuse.  (Henning & Renauer, 2005)

These mandatory arrest policies, in effect, give abusers an additional tool by which to control their victims. This is because if a victim decides to fight back, particularly a male victim, the abusive partner can threaten to call law enforcement and claim that she is being abused by the man. The irony is, of course, that mandatory arrest laws were put into place with the idea of providing help to abused women. Little thought was given to the reality that these same laws empower abusive women with even greater capacity to silence and control their victims. So, the male victim of domestic abuse faces many hurdles in attempting to find any way out of the abusive relationship. First, the male victim must admit that they are a victim and then they mist find a way to convince somebody in authority that the abuse, whether physical or emotional and psychological, is actual. (MacDowell, 2011)

Basically, the prospects for a man seeking help as a victim of domestic abuse are very slim. At best a man can hope that his abusive partner will be arrested and prosecuted for their crime. At worst, the male victim can anticipate having the tables turned on him and being arrested for domestic abuse himself. In either case, the male victim is better off not expecting to find sympathy, support, or understanding from social institutions and community organizations. Add tot his that a man who is a victim of domestic abuse and who has decided to try to escape their abusive relationship faces the same emotional and economic challenges as a woman who leaves an abusive relationship. If there are children in the relationship, the man also faces the prospect not only of losing custody of his children when he ;eaves and abuser, but of leaving those children in the custody of the abusive partner. (Peters, Trepal, de Vries, Day, & Leeth, 2009)

This fact acts as a further deterrent for many men in terms of reporting their experience of abuse. It also acts as a barrier to many men from leaving dysfunctional relationships. Because child-rearing is heavily weighted, in society, toward women care-givers, it may be the case that many men are reluctant to report their abusive partners due to the need to preserve a mother for their children. However,it has been shown conclusively through various studies that abusive relationship exert an extremely negative impact on children and that children who are raised in abusive homes are much more likely to become abusers themselves. Being exposed to violence is often a precursor to becoming a violent partner. In this regard, women who commit domestic abuse against their male partners and who also have children must be regarded as continuing a chain of abuse and teaching their children to follow destructive relationship patterns. (Goldenson, Geffner, Foster, & Clipson, 2007)

The preceding discussion shows conclusively that domestic abuse by women against men is a profound sociological problem. The question as to how the problem should be dealt with remains open. Some strategies for alleviating the problem include this steps which encourage men to feel more secure in reporting their experiences.  Many studies have shown that when legal avenues of relief are available, victims of domestic abuse are more likely to report the crime. This means that the more that law enforcement and the criminal courts respond to male victims of domestic violence, the more likely it is that additional victims will come forward. (Carey, 2011)

The fact that remedies, when made available, encourage the divulgence of domestic abuse by victims is an important consideration in regard to female domestic abuse that is directed against men. As previously detailed, men are reluctant to report their experiences of domestic abuse  not only because of the social prejudices that are often directed against them, but because they perceive little or no recourse in the judicial system or in social organizations that might support them or offer advice and counseling. To the extent that such programs are made available, many men are more liable to avail themselves of the opportunity to make a positive step toward ending or healing their abusive relationships. This is an important consideration because the impact of domestic violence extends far beyond the way that it effects intimate partners and, in fact, permeates into society at large, weakening family units and bringing the potential for more social dysfunction in the children adn other relatives and friends of those who are engaged in domestic abuse.

For example, a single couple that is mired in a relationship that is based in domestic abuse places a potential strain on law enforcement, on the court system, on social organizations, schools, and even the labor force due to its damaging and destructive influence. If a mother is arrested and jailed for committing domestic abuse, her absence from free society influences the way her children will be raised, and how much she is contributing economically to her family and to society as  whole.   Additionally, legal resources as well as jail or prison facilities will be used for her specific crime, depriving the criminal justice system of space and resources that might be needed for even more serious criminal offenders. The breaking up of families due to domestic violence can therefore rightly be regarded as a negative consequence for society and not just for the individuals who directly impacted by the abuse.

The fact remains that domestic violence is one of the most pervasive and serious problems faced in any society. Men, women, and children all endure the consequences of an abusive domestic relationship. When men are silenced by shame and social stigmas and women are left free to engage in abusive behavior a cycle is carried over to the children who then become likely to also enter into abusive relationships. Many couples are unable to break the cycle due to ignorance and a lack of social provisions and education about the nature of abusive relationships. When people are exposed to domestic violence at any level there are few positive steps that can be readily taken to change the relationship while at the same time preserving the family. (Rivers, Maze, Hannah, & Lederman, 2007)

The reason that it is so important to find social remedies that preserve the family structure while simultaneously dealing with the crime of domestic violence is because the disintegration of breaking of a family unit due to domestic abuse is likely to consolidate the chance of children becoming indoctrinated into abusive relationships themselves. Children who witness and experience domestic violence are, as previously mentioned, more likely than those who are not exposed to domestic violence, to enter into abusive relationships. Preserving a family is one way to diminish the potential that children will replicate the abusive behavior patterns that were evidenced by their  parents. In many ways, breaking the cycle of domestic violence is connected to the maintenance of strong family structures. This is in large part due to the fact that children often blame themselves for the disruption or disintegration of a family.

In final analysis, the best prospect for ending the  spread of domestic violence committed by women against men is to address the issue of domestic violence as a whole. That is to say, education and social awareness about the nature of domestic abuse may prove, in the long run, to be more beneficial than arrests and prosecutions. The fact that many perpetrators and victims of domestic abuse have been helped through the use of counseling is quite encouraging. It may be the case that addressing the issue openly and ridding society of prejudices against men who are victims of domestic abuse might prove to be effective at breaking the cycle of domestic violence beyond all boundaries of gender. (Craven, 2012, p. 13)

The experience of men who are victims of domestic abuse is steeped in isolation, shame, confusion and a feeling of helplessness. The consequence of society continuing to turn a blind eye to men who are victims of domestic abuse is that families and social institutions are weakened or even destroyed by the patterns of abusive behavior. The only real solution to the crime of domestic violence directed by women against men is to bring to light all the information and statistical analysis that can be mustered in order to educate people about the nature of abuse and to develop specific treatments and strategies to rehabilitate offenders and bring closure and healing to victims. Obviously, educating people about the realities of domestic abuse will not provide an absolute panacea to the epidemic of domestic abuse, but it will prove to be quite effective in creating a social structure and climate where the patterns of abuse or no longer ignored or tacitly tolerated.

References

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Henning, K., & Renauer, B. (2005). Prosecution of Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Abuse. Violence and Victims, 20(3), 361+.

Hensher, P. (2007, November 2). Give a Man a Slap – and Everyone Else a Good Laugh. The Independent (London, England), p. 30.

MacDowell, E. L. (2011). When Courts Collide: Integrated Domestic Violence Courts and Court Pluralism. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 20(2), 95+.

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Now Domestic Violence Will Include Mental Torment Too. (2012, September 18). Daily Mail (London), p. 11.

Peters, S. W., Trepal, H. C., De Vries, S. M., Day, S. W., & Leeth, C. (2009). Victims of Domestic Violence and Front-Line Workers: A Helping Paradigm. Michigan Journal of Counseling, 36(2), 8+.

Rivers, J. E., Maze, C. L., Hannah, S. A., & Lederman, C. S. (2007). Domestic Violence Screening and Service Acceptance among Adult Victims in a Dependency Court Setting. Child Welfare, 86(1), 123+.

The Shame Factor; Domestic Violence Is Not Solely a Female Issue – Men Can Be Victims Too, Explains MEP Liz Lynne. (2009, April 30). The Birmingham Post (England), p. 24.

Why Do Some Men Have to Live in Fear? There Are Nearly as Many Male Victims of Domestic Violence as There Are Female, but Their Pleas for Help Often Go Ignored. Louise Baty Asks Why There Are So Few Places in Refuges for Men – Just 72, Compared to 7,500 for Women – and What’s Being Done to Help. (2011, March 17). The Mirror (London, England), p. 38.