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Theology

Theology of Suffering Worksheets 2

Worksheet #2—1: Death of humans and livestock—by fire of God (1:16), by the sword (1:17), and by wind (1:18); theft of livestock—raiders (1:17). Painful sores—Satan (2:7). All: caused by Satan, with God’s permission.

  1. While I’ve never exactly prayed a prayer like the one Job prays, I’ve certainly felt that way sometimes. I think when faced with circumstances of very profound loss (and I’ve been there a couple times in my life), it’s natural to think this way, and wish one was never born.
  2. Firstly, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar all consistently aver that Job is at fault: he has sinned in some way, no matter how righteous he may seem, and God is doing all of this to punish him. However, Elihu maintains that they are wrong: God is absolutely righteous and just, and there is no reason to believe He is punishing Job. On the other hand, Job is wrong for thinking that God is being unjust, because God cannot be unjust.
  3. Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar counsel Job to repent of his sins in order to be relieved of his suffering—theirs is a very simplistic theodicy. Elihu, however, urges Job to trust in God’s sovereignty and righteousness, and praise Him.
  4. Against the three, Job maintains that he cannot repent of sins he has not committed. He bitterly laments what he perceives as injustice. However, he does not get a chance to respond to Elihu, because God interjects to challenge him.
  5. I guess if I’m being honest, it’s a little hard to read about what Job went through, and then to see God challenge him on top of all of that in 38:1-40:2, and then again from 40:6 on. That said, I understand the context and why God did it.
  6. God’s challenge to Job is whether Job can truly presume to discredit God’s justice, given that Job cannot carry out justice in the way that God can because he lacks the power.
  7. The book of Job teaches the reader that suffering can come to good people, and it is not simply and necessarily a punishment for sins. It also teaches the reader that God’s justice is absolute, and we should always trust in God and always praise Him.
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Theology

Career in the Theological Field

Your name * Your address * Your phone number * Your email address

Objection

I am seeking to continue my current career in the theological field and serve the parishioners at my parish to my fullest capabilities. I have been working in the same field for over twenty years and enjoy serving my community. I have worked both as a pastor of a church and as an administrator behind the scenes and enjoy the field of work to which I have been called.

Categories
Theology

Theology of Suffering Worksheets

Worksheet #6: Sickness and Natural Disasters

  1. 1: Biblically speaking, the Scripture is very clear that God can, and does, provide healing to those whom He chooses. Biblical accounts of God healing people are common throughout the Bible: whether healing Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:5), or healing the Israelites from the venomous serpents that He had sent to punish them (Numbers 21:8-9), to say nothing of the many healings performed by Christ, the Scripture is clear that God is active in providing healing. However, this does not mean that one cannot or should not also seek healing through natural means. Nowhere in the Bible does God condemn anyone for this, and it is presumptuous to suppose that it is the will of God for all healing to be by faith and prayer alone (Williams 373-374).
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Theology

The Charitable Works of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine

Churches in the United States and throughout the world have a long history of providing charitable services for the needy. The Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City is no exception. Construction on the cathedral began in 1892, though the actual construction of the cathedral took many decades and is still considered to be unfinished. Its current Gothic design was not established until 1969, and the original Gothic-themed plans include a tower and a number of other features that have never been completed. Throughout the process of designing and building the cathedral, however, the church undertook a wide range of charitable activities, and continues to do so to this day. In recent decades the church’s charitable efforts have been combined under one umbrella organization, called Cathedral Community Cares (CCC). The local efforts of CCC are undertake independently of the national Episcopalian Church’s charity work, which is organized as the Episcopalian Charities Foundation (ECF). While the CCC operates autonomously, St. John’s also coordinates with ECF to provide services to the needy at local, regional, and national levels. This paper will examine a number of CCC’s programs and provide an overview of St. John’s charitable efforts.

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Theology

Christian Theological Traditions through the Years: A Focus on the Belief of God and Jesus and the Church

Through time, the basis of Christianity and its belief has already incurred several developments in relation to the society that it exists with. For instance, God and Jesus and the Church are among the most prominent personas that define the basic foundation of Christianity. Through time, the understanding of Christians with regards their existence and their qualities have changed relatively. In the discussion that follows, a distinctive discussion on how the elements mentioned and understanding of Christians about them has changed through time shall be given particular attention to.

The theological understanding of an existing supreme being has been proven essential in the establishment of the foundations of the proper understanding of Christianity. In Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, he questioned the existed of a higher force, God. His three questions of God existence, his self-evidence, is he demonstrable, and does he exist. Through the years, the term “God” has specifically been used to define someone of a higher force. The consistency of such belief has opened up several ways by which the context surrounding the distinction on who and how God is being reviewed and accepted by Christians coming from different factions of the said belief. To note though there are several points of commonality among groups who claim to be Christian and how they actually accept and understand the being of God. For instance, an unchanging God is considered a foundation of what God is and how he deals with matters from the origin of time to the chances of the changing tides in the society. Many that do not believe questioned if God is real, why does terrible things continue to happen. Aquinas believed that, “since God is the supreme good he would permit no evil in his works unless he were so omnipotent and good that he could produce good even out of evil.”(Aquinas, 1273) This however has been contested by those groups who desire to make some changes in the way certain matters are considered both legal and acceptable in the realms of Christian belief.

One example of the said situation is that of the fact that the relative understanding of how God defines love and how love defines him as an individual. In the past, love is considered as the very being of God as referred to the bible’s distinction of the said characteristic of God. This then entails the idea that he does everything in love and decides upon the matters using the same matter as a basis of his final judgments. In relation to love is the acceptance of its value and how it defines human emotion in an overall context. Note that in the past, the occurrence of same sex marriage is being strongly avoided by the Christian Church. Considering the act as vile and a direct insult to the words of God, the relationship between people belonging to the same marriage are strictly being prohibited. Nevertheless, through time, as the society began to embrace the principles of liberty and freedom, new thinking over the idea of God prohibiting same sex marriage has been developed. Contesting that there is nothing wrong with love and the act of loving, groups that have consistently supported the third gender community imposed that God does change and that his rules about love and relationship between humans could be interpreted the other way around compared to the traditional way of understanding it.

In a way, using logical explanations, these groups have convinced the majority of the church to believe that since God is love, he would not stand in the way of people presenting themselves under the said condition of emotion. Paul wrote, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”(Paul’s Letter to Galations, n.d) The high respect for the value of love and how it is recognized by humans to complete them as individuals [regardless of their gender] has been an argument that was strongly pursued by the third genders. Relatively, the different churches enjoined in the group of Christianity began to adjust to the matter and slowly, one by one, they are beginning to embrace the possibility of accepting same sex marriage as something acceptable to God. Whether this thinking is right or wrong is still contested by the main churches that define themselves as the pillars of Christianity. Nevertheless, the condition of difference between the opinion and belief of the traditional versus the modern way of recognizing God’s characteristics and his possible decisions on matters concerning human relationships have been more of a source of debate than a source of equality in the field of the developing assumptions of theological traditions believed then and now.

Another aspect about Godly belief that Christians strongly cling to is that he exists amidst the non-visual presence that he is known for. Utilizing the idea of God being seen through his creation has kept the Christian belief over a Supreme Being more effective and more relatively dependable. Aquinas said that the idea of God existed in the minds. He exists to them. “I am the way, the truth and the life” (Jn. 14:6), therefore it is self-evident that God exists.” (Aquinas, 1273) The attributes of God have been strongly described through this understanding as an individual who knows the best for human kind. Nevertheless, some others who have a hard time understanding the condition of an existing God without seeing him through their eyes have been lead to believe that God exists through them as persons ‘within their hearts’ and his being real depends on how much they are ready to accept his being.

On the other end, Christ, being the God and the Son of God is still contested as a crucial point of ‘traditional Christianity’. Jesus Christ and the Church are indispensable in ironing out the Laws of the bible, and dedication to believing he was the Son of God. Paul saw the Church as a holy temple for Christians, and was angered at the lack of respect that the Galations showed it. His letter was meant as not only chastisement, but the direction of the importance of Jesus Christ and the Church, to follow the laws, and keep faith in Jesus. Following the principles of trinity, Christ is considered as the Son of God or God the Son. According to the Documents of Council of Tenet, believe that Jesus Christ is, “the true God, true man.” Although considered by some as relatively the same, the said terms have huge distinguishable differences. Take for example the grammatical makeup of each term as each suggests who Christ truly is. The first term Son of God simply states the position of Christ in relation to the father who is considered as the Supreme Being. The utilization of the article ‘of’ simply implicates that he came from his father and that he shares a relationship with him therefore imposing that he is a different person from the other. Paul lamented the importance of the Son of God in his letter, “God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law.”(Paul’s Letter to the Galations, n.d)

However, when it comes to the understanding over the term God the Son the meaning changes. The utilization of ‘God’ at the premise of the title sets the position of Christ as the God. Utilizing the article ‘the’ introduces the connection of being a God to being a Son; whereas if explained further imposes the idea that Christ in himself is the son, and yet he is also considered as a God. Within the Church of Christ, Jesus is worshiped and revered, Christians believed that Jesus gave his body as a sacrifice for their sins. During Passover, his blood was used as wine and his body as bread or referred as transubstantiation. The Catholic Church hold Jesus as their highly Sacred Eucharist, “which our Savior left in His Church as a symbol of that unity and charity with which He wished all Christians to be mutually bound and united.” (Doc. Council of Tenet, 1551) Not necessarily as the supreme God yet he also shares a specific position and power in being called and recognized as a God who is able to make things happen. Recognizing that he is God son, he is believed as, “our Savior sits always at the right hand of the Father in heaven.”(Doc. Council of Tenet, 1551)

The difference between Christ and God has been a strong source of argument in the field of Christianity and the way it imposes on the existence of personalities that are not being visually seen by humans at present. The Church serves as a place of worship of Jesus Christ. Relatively, it could be understood that these arguments have become a source of disunity in some churches thus breaking the bonds separating one group of believers from another. Instantiating whom God is, what he is, who he is and how different or the same he is from Christ is still being clarified by theologians. Utilizing both human philosophy and the guidance of the Gospel, several groups of bible researchers intend to establish the basic foundation of the belief that could identify the condition of thinking that the members of the religious groups under the umbrella of Christianity should depend upon. It should be remembered though that it, each individual has the right and the responsibility to search for what is true, understand what is real and become acquainted with the realities that are defined under the conditions of Christianity and the beliefs established under its wing.

 

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Theology

Un-reached people group –Ad Dharmis

Abstract

Ad Dharmi people are a large tribe in India with a low literacy rate. The Ad Dharmis speak Panjabi, a western Indian dialect. Ad Dharmi people have been a boiling cauldron for various social and political movements, drawing in missionaries from all over the world. The paper will show how its history is rich with innumerable instances of people’s upsurge against the tyrannical systems. However, what makes the case of Punjab and the Ad Dharm people unique is that its tirades against the system of oppression and violence remained always progressive and secular. They were not against a particular caste or community but against systems of tyranny and oppression. The Ad Dharm people have suffered for a long time because of their beliefs, but their strength in their faith and beliefs has kept the Ad Dharm people strong and tight-knit. This paper aims to show that Ad Dharmis are unreached people and they the thesis for the paper is the benefits and consequences of ministry outreach to the Ad Dharmi people- weigh the benefits of aiding the Ad Dharmi people against the dangers of missionary work in India, particularly where the Ad Dharmi people are located.

 

Contents

Un-reached people group –Ad Dharmis 1

Abstract 2

Background information. 4

A survey of missions work. 7

Proposed strategy. 9

Conclusion. 12

Notes 13

Background information

 

Ad Dharmi people are one among many Hindu subgroups found in India and is considered as backwards community and hence granted the status of Scheduled Caste. Ad Dharmis are concentrated mainly in Doaba region of Punjab[1]. Majority people of Ad Dharmi are found in Punjab state and they form Ravidassia community. Scheduled castes in Punjab is at present divided into two segments, Chamars and Chuhars. Ad Dharmis form predominant community among Chamars and are mainly occupied in leather works traditionally. But with the passage of time Ad Dharmi’s began to occupy themselves as agricultural labourers for making a living[2]. Ad Dharmis gained a distinct religious and social existence when the demand of leaders of Ad Dharmi movement to consider them as a separate caste in the Census was approved by the government in 1931[3].

 

An Ad Dharmi movement started during 1920’s and the main aim of the movement was to get the status of a distinct community. It was Mangoo Ram and B L Gherra who started the movement. Meaning of Ad Dharam is “original faith in Sanskrit”. It was a group of Chamars who were reformists of Ravidassia community that joined Ad Dharam Mandal and claimed themselves as Ad Dharmis. This sect with time evolved as a caste and it was these people who leaded Ad Dharmi movement[4]. Though the movement consisted of Chura, Chamar and other dalits, Chamars dominated Ad Dharam movement both ideologically and numerically. It was Chamars who led the movement and hence it helped them to establish a social space. It was due to domination of Ad Dharams to the movement that it was known by their name itself.[5]

Though there are only 1,325,000 people as Ad Dharmis in whole India, they are found in various regions like Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan, Chandigarh, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Of this Punjab alone has the largest number of Ad Dharmis counting to 1,289,000[6]. Migration among Ad Dharmis is more than any other scheduled tribes in India. Their greater upward mobility has helped them to settle in cities and towns helping them to get educated and find blue collar and white collar jobs. This migration helped a significant majority of Ad Dharmis to get education than any other scheduled tribe[7].

Though they are very less in comparison to the total population of India, it can be seen that these people follow strict rules of endogamy and they marry people within their community. It is very rare even to marry people from members of Charmar community. The Ad-Dharmi across the country is further divided into major communities like Suman, Bangur, Sund, Chokhria, Sandhu, Chandar, Sidhu, Bhardwaj, Rai, Chumar, Por, Hohe, Rattu, Bhargu, Chakhu, Soniara, Pharias and Thind and Shergill is forming various exogamous clans. Though the primary language of all these clans is Punjabi (Western), these clans speak more than tewlve different secondary languages like Churahi, Marwari, Punjabi (Eastern), Mewari, Chambeali, Hindi, Mandeali, Kangri, Mahasu, Bagri and Pahari[8]. Though majority follows Hinduism as their religion, it can be seen that there was some conversion to Buddhism during second half of the 19th Century[9].

Of the total population of scheduled castes in Punjab three fourth is constituted by Mazhabhis and Chamars and Ad Dharmis and Ramdasias together form Chamars. Chamars alone constitute 26.2% of the total population of schedules caste and the majority of them are Ad Dharmis constituting 14.9% of Chamar population according to 2001 Census. According to Census data 76.4% AD Dharmis are literate and hence they occupy high position among scheduled caste in Punjab[10]. Only 22.8% of these people are agriculturists while 68.7% are engaged in other works[11].

 

Figure 1: Distribution of Ad Dharmi population in India

 

During 1950’s Ad Dharmis began to migrate to New Zealand and England and they got employment in industry. In North America, England and United Kingdom Ad Dharmis can be now found in fairly large communities due to the migration of this ethnic group[12]. It was this migration that led to the evolution of Ad Dharmis as the most educated sect among scheduled castes in Punjab. In five decades from independence Ad Dharmis emerged as a large sizeable social group in Punjab itself. Migration of Ad Dharmis to England was so big that they were able to establish themselves in every field of economic activity in England[13]. Ad Dharmis emigration from India to England during the second half of 19th Century played a major role in their evolution as the most literate and powerful community among Scheduled caste of Punjab.

Though Ravidassias among Ad Dharmi’s follow Guru Ravidas, this is in the incorporation of elements of Hinduism. Ad Dharmis have Gurudwara in their settlements as a place to worship and as the focus of their community. Ravidassia Sant Ramanad was killed on May 2009 and this led to a huge change in the society of Ad Dharmis. Dera Sach khand on the demise of Ravidassia Sant Ramanand established Ravidassia, a new religion and from then on all Ad Dharmis have begun to follow the religion of Ravidassia[14].

A survey of missions work

 

During the partition of India and Pakistan after independence several scheduled caste people were converted to Christianity for various reasons. One of the major reasons was that they were converting to Christianity as a method to avoid forced migration. In West Punjab during 1947 there were 7.4% Sikhs, 1.5% Christians and 1.4% Schedules Castes among the total population of 15,717, 390. Most Christians among these were converts from Scheduled Cast and majority Scheduled Caste constituted Ad Dharmi’s. Hence it can be assumed that there was conversion to Christianity among Ad Dharmi’s during the time of partition as a means to escape from the forced migration[15]. It is also found that almost 20% non-Muslims of Punjab area resisted forced migration and among them 10% were the untouchables. It is mentioned by Singh (1991) that most Harijans converted to Christianity due to their fear for life[16].

Though missionary work was profound in India during and after British rule (Kaur 2008), there is no evidence that missionary works were strong among Ad Dharmi’s capable enough to convert them to Christianity. According to Babu Mangoo Ram Mugowalia who found Ad Dharam movement for empowering and emancipating untouchables Scheduled Caste of India is neither Muslim nor Christian. He is of the opinion that Ad Dharm religion is older than Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. He was also able to add Ad Dharm as a special religion in Census list.

Ad Dharmis are followers of Hinduism and it is not common among them to follow Christianity. According to reports of Joshua Project there is less than 5% Ad Dharmis professing Christianity and are Evangelicals. According to the Global Status of Evangelical Christianity (GSEC) progress of Gospel among various communities are determined according to three criteria. They are accessibility of community with the Gospel, extend to which people of the community are evangelical and activity of church during past two years. According to their report during last frontier Ad Dharmis had no access to major evangelical visual, print, audio or human resources and there were no evangelical churches and Christians. It is also reported that during the last period of the earlier frontier some resources were available to Ad Dharmis which resulted in formation of less than 2% evangelical in the community But prior to last two years it is reported that there is no activity from an evangelical church and missionaries among Ad Dharmis and hence their percentage remains unchanged as 2%. Ad Dharmis are considered as enriched population by GSEC and in the last two years there was initial church planting at a localized level among this community. Though this became widespread in due course there is no much increase of conversion among Ad Dharmis and the percentage remains at 2%. Within last one year there were some major changes and this resulted in an increase of 3% leading to 5% evangelicals among Ad Dharmis[17]. Thus Ad Dharmis are considered at least reached a population by the Gospel and even though some missionary activities were carried out in the community progress is reported as very less. They are highly oriented to caste structure and with the death of Ravidassia Sant Ramanad in 2009 all Ad Dharmis began to follow a single religion called Ravidassia[18].

Proposed strategy

 

The strategy proposed in this paper is from the perspective of a missionary organization beginning to work among Ad Dharmis. It is already noted that some amount of Ad Dharmi population has migrated to towns, cities and foreign countries and have gained blue and white collar jobs and have thus achieved better standards of living than those living in various regions of Punjab itself. So the target of the organization will be those Ad Dharmis who are still illiterate and is living in poverty in various areas of Punjab. Punjab is selected for missionary works because of the total population of 1,325,000 Ad Dharmis, 1,057,000 lives in Punjab itself. Further 1,057,000 are speaking Punjabi (Western) and 135,000 speak Punjabi (Eastern). Thus it is found that missionary works in Punjab will provide with most benefits as illiterate and poor people will easily get attracted to god and his principles. It is believed that Ad Dharmis will follow evangelical principles because during initial stage there were no people following church, but with some influence from missionaries there was an increase of number leading to 2% following the church[19].

The organization will have to provide all kinds of assistance to Ad Dharmi people. They need to provide a support structure as facility to education, medicine etc. and thus provide support to people. An organization can act as a means of mediation for Ad dharmis and also need to provide humanitarian assistance and support to them. Ad Dharmis being scheduled caste is facing several issues from society. If the organization of the church or missionary can help them to have a better standard of living it will certainly attract them to the principles of church and Bible. An organization can help Ad Dharmis in getting a better education, medical facility and other assistance necessary to lead a better life quality in society.

One method that will help to reach out Ad Dharmis is to help them hear the Gospel in both written and oral forms in the form of recordings and films. If the Gospel is provided in writing form alone it will hinder coming of the Gospel among those people who are illiterate. Though Ad Dharmis are educated to a certain extent they are not 100% literate and so there are so many people who cannot read and write. Increasing the literacy level is one of the means to spread the Gospel among them.

The focus must be on scripture that suggests that “And the gospel must first be preached to all the nations.” Mark 13: 10. It is important that those from missionary pray for the entire community, to make them capable of taking care of their family and be able to provide education for their children by sending them to school. Missionary organization can provide the facility to educate young children during day time when elders are at work, and educate elders during night after they return from work. An organization can arrange classes and prayer on a regular basis and on a weekly schedule arrange for food and get together after classes and prayer. People of Ad Dharmi community can be provided a platform to speak out their demands and missionaries can help them achieve these demands to some extent possible.

A missionary organization established among Ad Dharmis need to rely on mission by translation. They need to spread the Bible in Punjabi or any other language that Ad Dharmis use. Missionary organization can also use the principle of mission of diffusion which is another age old means used by Gospel where by Ad Dharmis are diffused from higher social class. An organization can provide an alternate path for Ad Dharmis through which they will be able to succeed in their life. Here they will not be treated as Scheduled Caste and there won’t be any discrimination in society. It is this aspect of Scheduled Caste that the Gospel can easily reach to and make use of.

Scheduled Caste, especially Ad Dharmis is always trying to establish themselves in society through Ad Dharmi movement, migrations etc. Any offer to them like this will certainly attract these people and Gospel can make use of this method among Ad Dharmis to spread their concepts and attract people. As this is a very time consuming process first priority of the organization is to be to provide support and assistance to Ad Dharmis to gain education, medicine and other basic factors in life. As proposed by Winter and Hawthorne (1999) missionary organization can provide assistance in improving the living facility among Ad Dharmis[20]. This can be done by educating them and providing them medical aid and other assistances which will be helpful for improving their quality of life. They do not believe in Christianity and considers themselves as strong followers of Hinduism which is very difficult to change easily. But it is not impossible for history has proven that Ad Dharmis can be attracted to Gospel teachings. For this missionary organization can make use of various sources of the Bible like forum of Bible agencies, Gospel Go, World Bible finder and World Christian Resource Directory.

Conclusion

 

Ad Dharmi people are a separate population group mainly found in Punjab State of India. This population group has not changed much even after so many years of independence and only those people who migrated to other places from this group were able to gain a better standard of living. It can also be found that there were very few activities from missionaries and church among this society and almost all of them are following Hinduism as their religion. These people share strong religious faith, but are highly illiterate and are living under a situation of misery. These people are considered at least reached a population with less than 5% being evangelical. With effective and active missionary activities it is possible to increase this percentage. But this will take some time for Ad Dharmis are people with strong religious beliefs. What can be done is to assist them in improving their quality of life through better education, medical facility etc., and thereby attract them to biblical thoughts. This is not an easy process and will take some time to become successful, but this is not an impossible matter also because people of Ad Dharmis are always seeking better living facilities and education, which if provided will certainly generate interest in them towards the gospel.

 

 

Notes

 

 

Censusindia. “Punjab: Data Highlights; The Scheduled Caste.” www.censusindia.gov.in. 2001. http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_punjab.pdf (accessed May 9, 2013).

 

Joshuaproject. People-in-Country Profile; Ad Dharmi of India. 2013. http://joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=16158&rog3=IN (accessed May 9, 2013).

 

Judge, Paramjit S. “Punjabis in England: The Ad Dharmi experience .” Economic and Political Weekly, 2002: 3244-3250.

 

Kaur, Ravinder. “Contributions to Indian Sociology: Narrative absence : An ‘Untouchable’ account of Partition migration.” SAGE journals, 2008: 281-306.

 

Sadangi, H. C. Emancipation Of Dalits And Freedom Struggle. Delhi: Isha Books, 2008.

 

Sharma, Neeru. “Caste in Punjab: Political Marginalization and Cultural Assertion of Scheduled Castes in Punjab.” Journal of Punjab Studies (Journal of Punjab Studies), 2012: 27-47.

 

Singh, K. S., Inder J. S. Bansal, Swaran Singh, and Anthropological Survey of India. People Of India: Punjab. Mysore: Anthropological Survey of India, 2003.

 

Singh, Kirpal. Select Documents on Partition of Punjab–1947, India and Pakistan: Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (India) and Punjab (Pakistan). Delhi: National Book Shop, 1991.

 

Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur. Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Vermont: Ashgate Publishing, Limited, 2005.

 

Winter, Ralph D., and Steven C. Hawthorne. Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: Reader. William Carey Library Pub, 1999.

 

 

[1] Judge, Paramjit S. “Punjabis in England: The Ad Dharmi experience .” Economic and Political Weekly, 2002: 3244-3250.

 

[2] Singh, K. S., Inder J. S. Bansal, Swaran Singh, and Anthropological Survey of India. People Of India: Punjab. Mysore: Anthropological Survey of India, 2003.

 

[3] Sadangi, H. C. Emancipation Of Dalits And Freedom Struggle. Delhi: Isha Books, 2008.

 

[4] Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur. Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Vermont: Ashgate Publishing, Limited, 2005.

 

[5] Judge, 1

 

[6] Joshuaproject. People-in-Country Profile; Ad Dharmi of India. 2013. http://joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=16158&rog3=IN (accessed May 9, 2013).

 

[7] Singh et al, 1.

 

[8] Singh et al, 1

 

[9] Judge, 1.

 

[10] Sharma, Neeru. “Caste in Punjab: Political Marginalization and Cultural Assertion of Scheduled Castes in Punjab.” Journal of Punjab Studies (Journal of Punjab Studies), 2012: 27-47.

 

[11] Censusindia. “Punjab: Data Highlights; The Scheduled Caste.” www.censusindia.gov.in. 2001. http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_punjab.pdf (accessed May 9, 2013).

[12] Judge,1

 

[13] Singh et al, 1.

[14] Judge, 1.

 

[15] Kaur, Ravinder. “Contributions to Indian Sociology: Narrative absence : An ‘Untouchable’ account of Partition migration.” SAGE journals, 2008: 281-306.

 

[16] Singh, Kirpal. Select Documents on Partition of Punjab–1947, India and Pakistan: Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (India) and Punjab (Pakistan). Delhi: National Book Shop, 1991.

 

[17] Joshuaproject, 2

 

[18] Singh et al, 1.

 

[19] Joshuaproject, 2

 

[20] Winter, Ralph D., and Steven C. Hawthorne. Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: Reader. William Carey Library Pub, 1999.

 

Categories
Theology

Human Ethics And Sin

Introduction

Many people believe that morality is a matter of personal opinion, unlike science, which deals with facts. There are many ethical arguments because some people hold the view that there are no moral facts because values are interpreted differently. The debate has taken two broad sides of subjectivism vs. relativism. Subjectivists believe that humans hold many different opinions, and they do so because it is impossible to prove how superior one moral view is over the others[1]. They believe this proof is not possible because there are no moral ‘facts’. This is resonant with the theory of ethical relativism, that ethical views are dependent on individual cultures. However, there is a lot of moral agreement amongst different individuals and cultures in the world. Some practices are widely accepted as ethical and moral, and others are not, regardless of the culture. Sin encompasses a wider definition, and includes all unethical and immoral thoughts and deeds. Sinning involves going against the teaching of religion and engaging in thoughts and acts that have been forbidden in the bible.

Categories
Theology

Hindu Life

Most religions offer the promise of answering some of the most fundamental questions of human existence.  In addition to addressing the question of how life and the universe came into existence many, if not all, religions offer insight into how life should be lived and what kind of behavior is ethically desirable.  In the context of Hinduism, the meaning of life is tied very deeply to both the conduct of life and with the promise of attaining a higher degree of spiritual wisdom and insight. In order to determine, for example, what should be considered the best possible outcome of a life according to Hindu belief it is necessary to apply the basic ethical and metaphysical principles of the religion to the potential goals of living.

Categories
Theology

Theology of Missions

Introduction

The concept of global mission requires a solid theological foundation so as to justify its practice. On the one hand, without such foundation, mission itself can become subject to criticism, for example, the notion that mission contradicts the very message of the Christian faith in the sense that placed outside of its theological context it may be considered as intrusive or hegemonic.

Categories
Theology

Spirit of the Rain Forest

Introduction

Each individual views the world in his or her own way and seeks opportunities to share the vision with others. Therefore, it is important to listen to this vision and to determine how it might teach others a lesson or provide them with tools to conduct their own lives in the desired manner. Mark Andrew Ritchie is no different and his book entitled Spirit of the Rainforest: A Yanomamo Shaman’s Story represents a set of individual accounts of the Yanomamo tribe of the Amazon, where violence and rampage are the norm and suffering is difficult to overcome. The protagonist of the Ritchie’s book, a chief named Jungleman, describes some of the horror and violence that exists in this society and demonstrates that that people of this tribe face critical challenges and other factors that limit their independence and freedom in different ways and limits their contributions to society as a whole. The primary issues to consider include anthropologists and the beliefs of the Yanomamo tribe against the anthropologic state and the provision of sin.

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Theology

Dorothy Day- Influences of “The Long Loneliness”

            Thesis: Kempis’ theological writing was significant in influencing Dorothy Day in her activism, writing and ideology. The Catholic Worker movement was more like a religious activism than a political motion.

            Introduction

Dorothy Day has been renowned as one of the most influential spiritual thinkers of the 20th Century. She was not only writing about Christianity, reforms and movement but actively participated in actions that – according to many authors – have led to a more humane and down-to-earth approach of religion. With regards to activism, she followed him throughout her life. The real change in her life started when she started reading the Bible and “The Imitation of “Christ”. The following essay will focus on Kempis and his book: “The Imitation of Christ” (Kempis, pub, 1940)

The book “The Long Loneliness” is a confession of Dorothy Day and an analysis of her journey towards converting into becoming a devoted Catholic from an anarchist and social activist. She describes how she moved towards the “love of God” throughout her life. It is a self-confession of her spiritual journey, recalling the most important events of her life as well as the initiative of  the Catholic Worker Movement.

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Theology

Wiesenthal’s Narrative: The Sunflower

In The Sunflower, Simon Wiesenthal (1997) presents us with a moral dilemma of almost unthinkable magnitude: as a Jewish inmate of a Nazi concentration camp, he was summoned to the bedside of a dying SS man. The SS man, Karl, confessed to heinous crimes against the Jewish people. Expressing a seemingly sincere and deep sense of remorse and guilt, Karl pleaded for Wiesenthal to forgive him. For Wiesenthal, however, this was something he did not feel that he was prepared to do. Years later, he visited Karl’s mother to give her a note from her son, but he refrained from telling her what Karl had told him.

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Theology

Dorothy Day

Dorothy Day was a committed American pacifist.  Her adult life was sacrificed to give and help others in need.  Her book “The Long Loneliness” was her autobiography which discusses her catholic social activist actions.  She was greatly influenced by books and began reading at the age of four.  Throughout her life she has read and been influences by hundreds of different books.  She loved reading about the poor and their real worth, not like the low-class that they were often treated as.  Her own personal life allowed her to experience the downside of poverty.  Her father was terminated from his job causing the family to relocate to Chicago.  During the transition he was not able to find work quickly and during that period of time Day experienced what it was like to live in poverty.  Dorothy Day was first influences as a teenager by Upton Sinclair who wrote “The Jungle”.  Sinclair worked with labors and unions and spent his whole life working and this influenced Day and her desire to work on the catholic worker moment.  Sinclair was determined to changing society, and dedicated his life to be an energetic socialist.  This was the beginning for Day and her pursuit to help others.  “The Jungle” paved the way for Day’s social activist actions and influenced her to create the catholic workers movement.

Categories
Theology

Cross-cultural Church Outreach Program to Hispanic/Asian

The pastor’s prospective outreach programme to the Hispanic and Asian communities requires a scriptural foundation, so as to remain consonant with the life and teachings of Christ. Hence, the basic orientation of the programme should be based on an understanding that it is an embodiment and practice of Christian ideals. This provides the framework in which the actions of the outreach programme are planned and enacted: hence, there is an emphasis on the love of Christ and the charitable nature and humaneness of the gospel that provides the guiding light for community work.