Three Assignments

Instruction 1:

  1. The key differences or similarities in treating HIV and the people living with it in Brazil and Greece

Brazil has done very well in treating HIV and people living with the disease. For instance, Brazil was the first developing country to create universal access to AIDS therapies (Biehl, 2007). The country used human rights activism and private partnerships to facilitate the process. As a result, patients on AIDS therapies has increased from approximately 85,000 people to 180,000 people between 1999 and 2007, respectively. Also, the AIDS mortality rate in Brazil between 1995 and 2005 from 15 men per 100,000 people to 8, whereas women mortality rates have declined from 4.5 to 4 in similar periods. Patients have positive outcomes and testimonies regarding the intervention of AIDS. For example, Rose, a victim, confessed in 2007 that she’s now a new creature, and she no longer lives in the streets. WHO reports also indicate that Brazil led in antiretroviral treatment coverage among people with advanced HIV among developing countries in 2006. However, Dona Conceicao, a health stakeholder, says that the medical services are not enough to meet the demands of the society who have also abandoned them.

Further, Biehl (2007) pharmaceuticals are available while other health infrastructures are functional in Brazil. Services like Caasah have outsourced AIDS care to grassroots to improve outcomes. Celeste, a director at Caasah, says that they have domesticated people with HIV and showed them the importance of using medication, which has improved their lives significantly. For instance, Edimilson, a survivor, says that they don’t have AIDS in Caasah but God. Soraia, also claims that her image has burnt the negatives, and despite abuse by men and being an orphan, she values her medication. In 2001, Evilasio realized that his viral load decreasing, was feeling well and working hard to accomplish his projects. Luis also indicated that he is living a normal life by doing prevention work, dating adopting AIDS orphans. He believes life has many opportunities, but he is responsible for advancing his life. As a survivor, Rose further says that Caasah saved her, and the government gave her a shack and lives a normal life. Despite her struggles with bills and raising children, she remains their parent. In essence, Brazil offers a favorable environment for treating HIV and people living with the problem.

On the other hand, Greece is a hostile country for people living with HIV. Greece government frustrates, and prosecute, and discriminates against people living with the disease. The documentary, ‘Ruins – Chronicle of an HIV witch-hunt’ is about immigrant Russian 20-year old woman prostitute who suffered under Greece security officers due to her HIV positive status (Mavroudi, 2013). With other colleagues, police arrest them at Archarnon Street doing their business in an illegal brothel. According to Kostas Farmakidis, a lawyer at the Group of lawyers for the Rights of Refugees and Migrants, women undergo forced health checks without their consent inside police stations. Their HIV positive diagnosis does not result in treatment or admission to hospitals or any medical purpose but instead as evidence for criminal prosecution. In the documentary, one prostitute narrates how police officers forced her to HIV test on her way to buy food in Athens. After the test, they told her, ‘You have the AIDS virus.’ They didn’t offer her any help after that. Another drug addict at Omonoia Square says that police officers came and lied to them that they were going for identification but instead forced them to HIV test (Mavroudi, 2013). They then informed her that she was HIV positive and took her to prison. She felt on her knees, felt like she lost the world and desperate.  The face of the Russian was exposed online and on TV. They arrested 96 women, and 29 tested positive, detained, and prosecuted those who were HIV positive. Generally, Greece as a country and its political leaders are enemies of HIV treatment and people living with the disease.

Instruction 2: Stories of illnesses

Medical Anthropology (MA) understands that mental illnesses are more complicated than the opinion of the biological illness model (Brown et al., 2017). As such, they are not more of biological or chemical disorders but connected to responses to the environment, social, and cultural relationships of people. Besides, MA claims that there are no universal categories of mental illness, but individuals can express psychological distress via physical and emotional symptoms. Also, medical anthropologists like Arthur Kleinman posit different cultures define illness differently. For instance, people suffering from depression do not describe it using sadness but boredom, discomfort, inner pressure, and signs of dizziness, pain, and fatigue.

Assignment 2

Instructions 1: Family treatment

  • Family systems theory and other concepts of family systems

Family Systems Theory (FST) is a theory by Dr. Murray Bowen suggesting that it is impossible to understand individuals in isolation from one another but as part of their family since the family is an emotional unit. Other concepts FST includes the claim that families can influence actions, thoughts, and feelings of its members, making them appear as if they are living under similar emotional skin. Besides, family members seek each other’s support, attention, and approval while also reacting to the needs, expectations, and disapproval of its members. In essence, the connectivity and reactivity of family members make them interdependent.

  • Characteristics of addictive family

Addictive families are very secretive and deny the existence of problems. They keep secrets to avoid tackling issues of drug and alcohol use among its members. Instead, they readjust to solve such issues on their own.

  • Stereotypical children’s roles in an alcoholic family

They tend to ignore the problem entirely by secluding themselves from fights, screaming, and yelling. Usually, they are ‘good’ because they spend a lot of time reading and other activities. They may also succeed in drawing people’s attention from alcoholism and avoid individual stress.

  • The family should engage in the addicts’ treatment process when they show a tendency to behave in a way as to maintain balance, stability, and structure in the face of change.
  • There are circumstances when family therapy can be contraindicated, like when treating highly anxious younger patients who have recompensed from an acute psychotic meltdown.

Instruction 2:

  • Ways in which on drugs has failed

The global prohibitions were unable to achieve its original targeted objectives and have increased extreme social and health problems. The war on drugs has not succeeded because prohibition is threatening public health and safety, undermines human rights and encourages discrimination, fuel crime, but enriches criminals. Also, it undermines security and development and fuel conflicts while also wastes billions hence undermining economies.

  • There is no way the prohibition on drugs has succeeded because the disadvantages outweigh the benefits.
  • Alternatives

The international drug control system has proposed two options, including reducing adverse health consequences of drug use and guaranteed access to essential medicine.

Guaranteed access to essential medicine is more effective because victims of drug abuse will find counter the harmful effects of drug abuse at no cost.

Assignment 3

(c) Spare the rod spoil the child

The lesson from the article is that corporal punishment, which is a combination of harsh parenting and physical discipline, can be detrimental to the mental development of children (Mendez et al., 2016). Such mental issues may relate to attention and behavioral development in the future, especially among children. As a result, parents must be cautious before they impose corporal punishment on their children since the consequences can last in their lifetime.

(d) Summary of the Video

Brain development among children experiences different transformations from zero to three years. Traditional parenting never allowed hugging, kissing children, and allowing them to sit on their parents’ laps (Parlakian & Lerner, 2019). However, things have changed since early experiences are necessary for brain development. Showing affection, comforting, and playing with children at an early age are crucial to the development of sharp, healthy brains. The first three years are uniquely critical because that’s the most sensitive period for brain development. They develop robust brain architecture and lifelong skills like problem-solving, communication, self-control, and relationship building. At the same, new brain connections from at 700 per second in response to a baby’s experiences in the world, allowing the child to grow according to family, community, and culture. Favorable early experience plant seeds of love, safety, and security. Maltreatment, however, aligns a child’s brain to sense danger and respond to threats hence anxiety, fear, and insecurity. Therefore, parents should ensure that their children experience favorable early experiences for the best brain development.

(c)  Summary of lessons on how to write using APA format

  • Presence of a header at the top-left corner throughout the paper.
  • There is a title page before the beginning of the main body.
  • There are page numbers at the top-right corner of every page of the paper.
  • Author names start with the surname and initials of the first name.
  • References are centered on the last page of the paper.
  • The individual references have hanging indents below the first line. All the paragraphs must have indents at their beginnings.
  • The names of the journals are in italics.
  • There are different styles of referencing books, journals, magazines, videos, pictures, and websites, among others.
  • APA style usually use double space in its writings

How environmental hazards affect children’s health

Inadequate sanitation, polluted air, contaminated water, disease vectors, toxic hazards, ultraviolet radiation are the key environmental risks for children. They lead to either childhood death, diseases, disability, diarrhoeal diseases, food poisoning, physical injuries, or acute respiratory diseases.


Biehl, J. (2007). Will to Live: AIDS Therapies and Politics of Survival. Photo Essay, 1-20.

Brown, N., Gonzalez, L., & McIlwraith. (2017). Perspectives: An Open Invitation to Cultural Anthropology. Virginia: American Anthropological Association.

Mavroudi, Z. (Director). (2013). Ruins – Chronicle of an HIV Witch-hunt [Motion Picture].

Mendez, M., Durtschi, J., Neppl, K., & Stith, M. (2016). Corporal punishment and externalizing behaviors in toddlers: The moderating role of positive and harsh parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 30(8), 887-895.

Parlakian, R., & Lerner, C. (Directors). (2019). Zero to Three: Brain Development [Motion Picture].



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