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West European Studies

German society after WWI and WWII

The effects of war can be devastating on a country.  This is not only the physical damage and the life loss, but the economic ramifications as well.  After World War I, the Great Depression hit, and left its footmark on the European society.  It still remains one of the most devastating economic crisis in modern times.  The economic and societal effects lasted for years and left a devastating stamp on these countries.  This is even truer if measured in terms of manufacturing output and the rapid increase in unemployment. Each country took different steps to overcome the effects of this war.  The recovery this depression was slow, and could not be categorized as universal. Germany faced multiple wars, extreme economic hardship, yet through highly criticized methods managed to be one of the world’s strong political and economic society.

Categories
West European Studies

“The Triumph of Failure”: The Spark that kindled the flame for Irish Independence

EVENTS

At four minutes past noon on April 24th 1916- Easter Monday- the proclamation of freedom and open rebellion was read aloud by Patrick Pearse on the steps of the General Post Office in Dublin. The proclamation declared a new provisional government and called on the people of Ireland to strike now for their freedom “In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, Ireland, through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom” (1). The Irish Volunteer Army and The Irish Citizen’s Army responded to Pearse’s proclamation and attempted to hold the city of Dublin from the British forces, killing 500 British troops. However, The British overcame the rebels and put most of the insurrection’s leaders to death by firing squad. Despite this, The Easter Rebellion of 1916 has been called the “Triumph of Failure” because of how it changed public sentiment against British rule in Ireland. Pearse’s rebellion was the spark that quickly kindled the flame of independence and led to partition in the spring of 1921.

Categories
West European Studies

Analytical Breakdown of 1870-1914 European Society

The second Industrial Revolution was experienced between 1870 and 1914 and this contributed to the rise of nationalism and imperial tensions, at home and abroad respectively, due to the need of increased markets and resources. In most European regions, strong nationalistic ideologies were experienced due to the crossroads of cultural, artistic and political developments. Therefore, nationalism is the desire of people to be ruled by themselves hence the expulsion of all foreign presence (Esteves 20). Nationalism tensions brought about the rise of World War I. However, this is mirrored by continental deterioration of European power balance due to the creation of unity between German and Italy. For the European society, industrialization succeeded, but German was confronted by geographical limitations. Since imperialism was not a nineteenth century creation, it is evident that industrialization led to the governance, as a result, of technological advances of more industrialized nations of Europe over Africa, Asia and New World, which are underdeveloped regions. Imperial expansion was affected by geopolitical interests or internal political stresses, rising rivalry internationally and the spread of the industrial revolution (Esteves 32). Africa benefited from the industrial revolution because Europeans came with vaccines and machine guns.

Categories
West European Studies

Hammurabi’s Code

Laws governing private, public and political life were written up in early times by Emperor Hammurabi who is the best known and celebrated king of Mesopotamia.  His reign of the Babylonian Empire provided order in his kingdom though at the time the Code was developed the kingdom was very small.  The discovery of the Code of Hammurabi in 1902 was very important because it provided an insight into early forms of justice.  Also, it gave researchers the possibility to compare the Code with the modern legal system.  Even though the punishments were very harsh as compared to modern ones and even though the laws made distinctions between different classes, the code was very advanced and represented the basis of future systems of law.

Categories
West European Studies

The Mississippi Black Code

In the year 1865, the Mississippi Black Code got its inception having four statutes. Of the four statutes, one of the codes called for law officials to and civil officers to report semiannually about any underage freedmen, Negros who were free or any Mullatoes who were orphans at that time or under someone’s care and the person couldn’t continue to take care of the anymore. Funny enough, the children were again to be taken back to their former owners as was outlined in the Law. These “caregivers” were under both the bond and state laws. They were given the mandate of taking care of the minors. Thus this signaled slavery which was, at that time acceptable (a boy aged 21 years or a girl 18 years would qualify to be a slave as the law of time required. However, the law only allowed moderate punishment for those who made this violation.